Global eBook 2016 - Rüdiger Wischenbart - ebook

Global eBook 2016 ebook

Rüdiger Wischenbart

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The 2016 edition of the Global eBook report, with more than 50 data driven original charts and tables, is the international industry reference on the evolution of ebook markets focuses on relevant key angles for an understanding of the current transformation of book publishing in a global perspective: Market close ups (print and digital) for the US, UK, Europe (notably France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands Spain, Sweden, and a detailed overview on Central and Eastern Europe), Plus analysis of selected emerging markets, notably Brazil, China, India and Russia; Summaries of key debates and driving forces (global players such as Amazon, statistical close ups on pricing, performance by genre, piracy, patterns of consumer habits, DRM, self publishing, et al.) We provide an overview of trends and developments, based on a unique set of data from a wide array of the best available sources, backed up by a thorough analysis of overall book publishing in the diverse international contexts. The 2016 edition of the Global eBook report particularly emphasizes how digital developments are embedded in the overall evolution of publishing markets, by providing context data as well as historical statistics to spot trends and developments over the past 3 to 7 years. Main driving forces and policy as well as legal debates shaping the current transformation of the international book business are identified and looked at in country and market comparisons.

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Global eBook 2016
A report on market trends and developments
Written by Rüdiger Wischenbart, together with Carlo Carrenho (Brazil), Dayou Chen (China), Javier Celaya (Spain), Yanhong Kong (China), Miha Kovac (Central and East Europe), and Vinutha Mallya (India). Additional research by Julia Coufal and Jennifer Krenn.
Sponsors
Media Partners
Bogmarkedet (Denmark), Book Dao (China), BookExpo America (USA), Book Industry Magazine (Russia), buchreport (Germany), Dosdoce.com (Spain), Frankfurt Book Fair (Germany), Informazioni Editoriali (Italy), Livres Hebdo (France), London Book Fair (UK), Svensk Bokhandel (Sweden), Publish News (Brazil), Publishers Weekly (USA), The Bookseller (UK), Publishing Perspectives (USA)

Global eBook 2016

A report on market trends and developments

Written by Rüdiger Wischenbart, together with Carlo Carrenho (Brazil), Dayou Chen (China), Javier Celaya (Spain), Yanhong Kong (China), Miha Kovac (Central and East Europe), and Vinutha Mallya (India). Additional research by Julia Coufal and Jennifer Krenn.

Published by Rüdiger Wischenbart Content and Consulting

ISBN: 978-3-903074-06-4

© Rüdiger Wischenbart Content and Consulting. © All Rights Reserved

Cover design by Bladebit, Vienna

This book was created with Booktype. For more information, please visit: www.booktype.pro

Global eBook 2016

Title

Impressum

Executive summary

Publishing in global context

Key trends across selected markets

Contributed article Klopotek

English language ebook markets

United States

United Kingdom

Europe

Germany

Austria

Contributed article Tolino

France

Spain

Italy

The Netherlands

Scandinavia

Central and Eastern Europe

Emerging markets

Brazil

Is the book industry entering into a new exploitation chain? Contributed article by Bookwire

China

India

Russia

Key drivers and debates

The expansion of global and regional platforms: Amazon, Apple, Kobo and Tolino

Measuring ebook markets in Europe: Data snapshots, case studies and trending charts

The cost of ebooks, and the re-framing of book markets: Legal battles in the US; contradictory pricing strategies in Europe

Piracy: Nuisance, threat or opportunity?

Self-publishing

Subscription platforms

How digitalization created a licensing opportunity. Contributed article by Copyright Clearance Center

DRM: Protected vs. free

Outlook and projections

eBook Yellow Pages

Ebook publishers

Aggregators, distributors and other service providers

Educational organisations

Online reading platforms

Advertising in the eBook Yellow Pages

Appendix

Guide

Cover

toc

Executive summary

Main topics and structure of the Global eBook report (2016)

This report provides an overview of internationally evolving ebook markets, with a unique set of data from a wide array of the best available sources, a thorough analysis and a synopsis of key global developments, and a broad set of detailed references to both global and local actors, forming a resource for anyone interested in the globalization of digital (book) content production and dissemination.

The 2016 edition of the Global eBook report portrays international consumer book publishing at a critical moment. Over the past few years, a traditionally conservative industry, occupying a core position in the creative sector of today's knowledge societies, had to confront mostly declining physical sales, while the emerging digital business had caught on with force only in the English language markets, notably in the United States and in the United Kingdom, and even here was only occasionally able to compensate for the loss in print books. Since 2013, digital has shown hardly any further expansion, at least for the traditional publishing sector.

Some indicators however point to a parallel shift towards global players, primarily Amazon, and to non-traditionally (independently or self-) published authors. 

In most of continental Europe, ebooks have stalled even earlier, while the slide in physical sales was even more radical, particularly driven by the fallout of the economic crisis of 2008. Particularly markets like Spain or Italy have been hit hardest.  

2015, remarkably, has seen a process of stabilization in many markets, with independent publishers and retailers gaining ground again. Also ebooks, while often stagnant overall, have been able to occupy significant niches.

In most of the emerging economies, such as China, Brazil, India, or Russia, the broadly admired surge of book markets has slowed down (in China, for instance), or become flat (in Brazil), or even has been reversed for several years (in Russia).

Altogether, what we currently see is most probably the "end of the digital beginning", and the beginning transition into the next, perhaps even more challenging phase, where writing, publishing and reading morph into fluid settings, where any content, in any format, is available for almost any user - yet without much stability both with regard to who is offering what, as well as how that offer is taken in by the many fickle audiences around the world.

For the 2016 edition of the Global eBook report, the challenge was to subsequently broaden our perspective, by looking at both physical and digital developments, and so with more context than in previous years, with over 50 charts and tables summarizing and visualizing complex market developments.

We chose to extend our data driven analysis in several directions:

Portray current market developments on the backdrop of at least 4 to 6 years of history;

Look at both print and digital in direct comparisons; 

Widen significantly the scope, and angles, of our data analysis, notably with the help of partners from distributors and various industry observers, to gain much more specific insights into several market segments; 

Include a broader analysis of piracy offerings, as they allow again a broader understanding of users's digital preferences and habits; and finally,

Update all the bits and pieces on market comparisons, global players, and key debates, which we had incorporated already in past years.

The findings of the Global eBook report allow us to assess, on the one hand, how the main drivers of digital change in the publishing industry impact on international markets in similar ways, as self-publishing, reading platforms and distribution infrastructures become available, and as publishers in all markets have become under enormous pressure of consolidation to ever larger entities. Remarkably, this opens at the same time new opportunities for both new entrants, and smaller, independent players as well. "Ebooks" are not one thing, or format, or concept - but rather a shortcut for a wide array of options to do things differently.

The Global eBook report 2016 consists of 4 main sections

Publishing - print and digital - in the global context:

Book publishing by key statistics in comparison to other media industries (e.g. music, filmed entertainment, games);  

An overview of the largest book publishing markets, plus an analysis by sector (trade, educational and STM);

Comparative chapters on digital developments at the largest corporations and on the recent consolidation in the publishing industry

Market close ups, detailing key figures and key developments:

English language markets (US, UK);

Selected European markets, notably Germany, Austria, France, (Wallonian) Belgium, Spain, Italy, the Netherlands, Sweden, Denmark, and an overview on Central and Eastern Europe;

Emerging markets, notably Brazil, China, India, and Russia;

Thematic chapters on key drivers and debates shaping the ebook markets:

The expansion of global platforms, notably detailing developments at Amazon, Apple, Rakuten Kobo, as well as a summary of Germany's Tolino reaching out into other European markets;

A significantly expanded chapter, drawing on new data sources, to shed some light on ebook developments by subsectors, by pricing segments and pricing strategies, and by comparing all this across selected European markets;

A comparison of piracy platforms in Germany, France, Spain, Italy and Poland, to better understand users' preferences and changing consumption habits; 

Summaries of further important debates (on self-publishing, subscription platforms, DRM, and on regulation).

Global eBook Yellow Pages:

A listing of over 350 companies dedicated to ebooks, consisting of publishers, service organisations, distributors and aggregators, with short company descriptions and links.

Extensive references to key industry sources provide direct access and links for further reading.

We strongly encourage critical feedback and -even more enthusiastically- the input of information and data to improve the foundations of this analysis.

About the Global eBook report

The Global eBook report has been initiated in fall 2011 by the Tools of Change conferences and O'Reilly Media, and has been updated on a regular basis.

Since fall 2013, the report is published by Rüdiger Wischenbart Content and Consulting (RWCC), who had developed the format and authored the reports from the beginning. 

Enable the Global eBook report to expand: Become a sponsor.

To support the Global eBook report, we offer several - highly customizable - sponsorship opportunities.

Applause to our current sponsors, Bookwire, Copyright Clearance Center,Klopotek, Publishers' Forum and Tolino!

Our work has been supported also by generously allowing us to use the advanced web analytic tools of SimilarWeb, and to produce the report with BookType.

We are furthermore grateful to our media partners for helping us to disseminate this report!

If interested in becoming a sponsor, or to advertise in the Ebook Yellow Pages, please let us know by sending an email to ebookYP (at) wischenbart.com, or use the contact form at www.global-ebook.com.

Publishing - print and digital - in a global context

"It’s the pace of change that caught our eye this year" We are social, 2016

A truly global overview and comparison of book publishing and other content and media industry confronts multiple obstacles, from lacking definitions of what is what, blurring distinctions between content generation and content distribution, borderlines between formats and channels, new giant actors re-defining entire industries, new platforms to access this diverse content (think 'mobile'). Consequently changing habits of billions of people, who may be affluent citizens of middle class neighborhoods, in urban agglomerations anywhere on the planet, or destitute populations who, nevertheless, through a connection of their mobile phones, have started to grasp possibilities, and techniques to access content - as information, knowledge, education or entertainment, anywhere in the world, any time.

According to data compiled by the information and consultancy agency 'We are social', almost half of the world population (to be exact 46%, or 3.42 billion people) have access to the Internet today. Social media are used by some 2.31 billion people (equaling a global penetration of 31%), with 3.79 billion (or 51%) gaining access through a mobile device. In Nigeria, 82% of all web traffic is mobile, in India 66%, in Spain 32% - as compared to 28% in the UK, 27% in the US and 22% in Germany. Overall and worldwide, one third of all web traffic was mobile in 2015 (up from 17% in 2013, and 0.7% in 2009).

These, and many more similar numbers highlight one simple story: What is going on today, is not controlled, and (exclusively) shaped anymore by those old stakeholders and gatekeepers that have been used to define content, media, or format. The publishers, media moguls, or old school network captains navigate in a sea that is not theirs alone anymore. Not at all.  

This must be clearly stated if, nevertheless, for the purpose of this report, we focus on books, publishing and reading, as if that rift had not really occurred already, and as if, to a degree at least, books were still that singular container and format that it had become over the past two and a half centuries.

Looking specifically at this one industry here, and how it is transformed by digital and global, and by new ecosystems claiming to pretty much replace that old industry altogether, is justified and reasonable, in our understanding, for two modest reasons: 

Book writing, publishing, and reading turns out to be stubborn if not resisting to change at all, so at least insisting on having its own ways of transforming; and

A close look at this one sector perhaps allows to identify some valid insights, as a case study, into the confusingly complex transformation of what happens more broadly between creators and their audiences, and the facilitating industries between them, today. 

Book publishing in the context of other content industries

Book-publishing accounts for worldwide revenues of ca. €114 billion, according to an estimate which we conducted for the International Publishers' Association in 2013, based on numbers for 2012  (equaling $150 billion at the exchange rate between the euro and the dollar at that time). This value includes trade and educational publishing as well as professional or scientific publications, and is roughly consistent with other estimates, e.g. from PriceWaterhouseCoopers, of slightly $100bn, yet with a much more narrow definition of publishing, with only trade and educational book-publishing included.

The recent decline in book markets in North America and Europe coincided with growth in emerging countries (notably China and India), so that the total global book market has remained flat at those levels. With the recent slump in emerging economies, this may now change.

Book-publishing occupies a central role in today's global knowledge society, encompassing books as a format relevant for education, scientific research as well as entertainment and leisure reading, and hence it comes as hardly a surprise that the overall size of it surpasses most other content media,in particular music, games, or even filmed entertainment. Only the worldwide TV market is significantly larger than books.

A comparison of selected content media industries. (Mostly data for 2013. Various sources, with mostly from sector trade organizations, compiled for this report)

However, in the digital transformation, the various segments of the content and media industries evolve very differently. The McKinsey Global Media Report is tracking for some years now how the various sectors in media and content evolve, and compare.

Performance of selected content and media industries. Chart generated for this report from numbers in the McKinsey Global Media Report 2015. 

Quite drastically, the compound annual growth summary (CAGR), by sector, for 5 years, 2009 to 2014, makes it clear that those industries expand, which have found ways to get their content to their audiences successfully through those digital pipes, while the primarily paper based, physically delivering industries are losing ground. Book publishing, with general consumer sector and educational sector even represented as two separate entities, are currently in the middle, sitting right on the borderline that sets those two distinct territories apart.

The global book business

Book markets around the world are shaped by a number of factors, from population size to economic development.  

The following list and chart, with a wide selection from the largest book markets, introduces just a few of the very basic parameters which however are key to defining a context for the business, and the culture of books, namely the total value of a country's book market at retail, or consumer prices. First we look at the market size, by comparison to the GDP per capita at purchasing power parity, and an indicator for a country's economic strength.

Key numbers for the book business for selected publishing, with most recent numbers available.

Rank by Market Size

Country

Market Value (million)

Year

GDPpC(PPP)

1

United States

€32,105

2014 (est.)

$53,143 

2

China

€18,183 

2014

$7,590

3

Germany

€9,322

2014

$47,822

4

Japan

€5,409

2013

$36,315 

5

United Kingdom

€4,227

2014

$46,332

6

France

€3,900

2014

$42,733

7

Italy

€2,894

2014

$34,909

8

Korea

€2,974 

2012

$27,971

9

Spain

€2,738 

2014

$29,767

10

Brazil

€2,281 

2014

$11,384

12

Turkey

€1,729

2013

$10,515

13

India

€1,794

2013

$1,582

14

Russia

€1,582

2013

$12,736

15

Netherlands

€1,319

2013

$52,172

17

Poland

€1,025

2013

$14,343

18

Mexico

€848

2012

$10,326

21

Sweden

€665

2014

$58,939

22

Austria

€761

2013

$51,191

23

Norway

€607

2014

$97,307

26

Argentina

€517

2014

$12,510

27

South Africa

€464

2010

$6,483

28

Czech Republic

 €2,014

2014

$19,530

31

Denmark

$60,000

36

Hungary

€140

2014

$24,029

38

Slovenia

€100

2013

$23,999

To contrast the economic perspective, we add a second angle, highlighting the scope of production, as seen by the number of new titles and re-editions released in a country in one year per 1 million inhabitants. This parameter illustrates not necessarily the importance attributed to books and reading, but emphasizes a mix of drivers, from the capacity to export titles beyond a country's borders (in the case of UK or Spain), but also possible public funding for book-publishing (e.g. to foster a national identity through books and literature, as in examples like Georgia, Slovenia or Norway). Also, very populous countries with only emerging economies are discriminated in an informative way against those small nations who often show a particular fondness for their creative production.

Comparing production of new titles and re-editions per 1 million inhabitants of selected large book markets. Mostly 2014 data. Various sources (mostly national trade organizations). 

The global book business is strongly concentrated among a very few markets, with the six largest countries accounting for 58% of worldwide revenues. (The United Kingdom is placed in this list ahead of France, despite of its domestic market being smaller. However, we argue that the British publishers' massive exports of their publications around the world, worth £1,445 million in 2014, should be taken into account in the ranking.) 

The 6 largest book markets worldwide

Market value (million, 2014)

Change against prev. year,

in % in local currency

United States

€32,105 m

 4%

China

€15,342 m

 6%

Germany

€9,322 m

 -2%

Japan (2013)

€5,409 m

-2%

United Kingdom

(UK domestic, excl. 1,445 m GBP exports)

€4,227 m

 -2%

France

€3,900 m

 -1.3%

Rest of the world (est.)

€48,037 m

World

€114,000 m

Overall, book-publishing, in a global perspective, for a long time had been governed by an exclusive club of relatively affluent countries in North America and Western Europe, plus in Asia by Japan and Korea. Many regions in the developing parts of the planet had a - limited - relevance just as export destinations for those leading publishing companies in the United Kingdom, the United States, and in Spain (for Hispanic Latin America) and France (for the Maghreb countries of North Africa)

Most recently though, several new book countries of both sensible market size and growth, and also with ambitious domestic companies aiming at assuming a role as relevant actors have emerged. This is the case of Brazil, China, India, and to a still lesser degree Turkey, Russia (which however is now hit by a downward spiral of its overall economy), and a few others.

The economic rationale of this process is simple, as emerging economies almost automatically produce urban middle class populations aiming at providing better and more state of the art education for them and their children, while at the same time craving for reading as entertainment - which both often come in the format of books.

So at once, global book-publishing can be portrayed as it mirrors a new club of emerging book countries, next to the old, post colonial and post World War II universe run from a few long established headquarters in London, New York, Paris, Barcelona and Munich.

The disintegration of the universe of books and publishing

A similar pattern is to be found by looking at the internationally active publishing companies. At the very top, a high, and ever growing degree of consolidation among the biggest actors is at once confronted by new contenders from emerging economies in the global market place.

On the one hand, consolidation and restructuring over the past decade has resulted in the formation of a number of huge corporations that operate on a global scale, which aim at dominating their respective sectors as paramount market leaders.

The Global Ranking of the Publishing Industry in its edition of 2014 shows, that the combined revenues of the 10 largest groups easily surpass, with 57%, those of the 40 following publishing entities. But in the ranks, new companies, notably from China, Brazil and Russia, have been seen to gain influence as major domestic actors in their respective home markets, while some, above all from China, are now reaching out to find a new role in the international arena.

But yet another split has become visible, bringing apart what for long has been considered as one largely integrated universe of books and reading, learning, knowledge and cultured pleasure. This is replaced on various levels by distinct sectors, defined by separate companies, driven by different business models, catering each to distinct audiences, and showing more and more clearly diverging economic performances.

Evolution of main sectors in the Global Ranking of the Publishing Industry, among the 10 largest publishing groups, in %. (Source: Global Ranking of the Publishing Industry)

Among the 10 largest publishing groups worldwide, and in the publishing business as a whole, three distinct sectors have taken shape, namely professional or STM (scientific, medical and technical) publishers, educational publishers, and trade, or consumer publishing, with the first, STM being the strongest, and the third, trade, showing a by now continuous downward development in terms of sales.

In the 2015 edition of that ranking, two companies from China were represented for the fist time among the top 10, Phoenix, and China South, with the former focusing on trade, and the latter with a significant stake in education.

These shifts, regarding both the distribution by geography and by sector, will accelerate in the near future even further, as new entrants like Amazon or Apple have identified notably the sector of (digital) educational publishing as attractive targets, competing now directly with the traditional publishers in that domain, too. 

See The Global Ranking of the Publishing Industry 2014, initiated by Livres Hebdo, co-published by The Bookseller, buchreport, PublishNews Brazil and Publishers Weekly, and researched by Rüdiger Wischenbart Content and Consulting. For a summary, see www.wischenbart.com/publishing.

What sets "ebooks" apart from printed books

Ebooks, as we came to to know them in recent years in a growing number of markets, are basically digital versions of books as defined by UNESCO in 1964.

A book is a non-periodical printed publication of at least 49 pages, exclusive of the cover pages, published in the country and made available to the public.

Ebooks, as electronic books, have been around for some time, yet have become more popular only when Amazon had launched its Kindle e-reading device in 2007, after convincing major US publishers to make a relevant number of their new fiction titles available in digital format through the Amazon platform. 

From this head-on start, ebooks have been popularized principally in three competing digital formats (Mobi for the Kindle, ePub as an open standard format, and PDF for conversions of all sorts of documents), to be read on either dedicated ebook reading devices (such as the Kindle, or similar devices from Sony, Barnes & Noble's Nook, Kobo, Tolino, or others), or from 2010 on increasingly on multi-functional tablet devices.

This evolution has not been the same in all regions. In China for instance, digital reading and writing started through hugely popular online platforms, like pioneering Qidian, which in fact was created in 2003 as a form of self-publishing community, before the term and the approach became mainstream in the West.

Digital reading has moved by now largely to mobile devices, especially smartphones, in all of Asia, and increasingly in most countries outside the Americas and Europe.

Recent studies show that even in Germany, where dedicated e-reading devices have a remarkable following among digital readers, smartphones have found their place as reading devices, too. (See a study by Bitkom, e-book.news, 1 Apr 2015) 

The scope of the digital transformation, and its impact on the very fundamentals of books, as a format, and reading as a practice, become perceptible only now. Particularly the shift to mobile, with the smartphone serving as today's iconic device, might have the power to ripping off the cover from UNESCO's definition of what a book is, and to instead create new realms for content, and media, in which distinct separations by format become ever less relevant. (R. Wischenbart: Ripping off the cover. Has digitization changed what's really in the book? In Logos 19/4, 2009.)

Or, as The Economist has written about the smartphone as "the defining technology of the age": "Like the book, the clock and the internal combustion engine before it, the smartphone is changing the way people relate to each other and the world around them." And this change would obviously include the way books are conceived, and how reading these books is practiced. (The Truly Personal Computer. The Economist, 28 Feb 2015)

The ebook, as perceived and analyzed in this report, must be understood as both a current, expanding format and market segment in international digital publishing, yet also beyond this, as a concept that potentially goes far beyond the book as defined by UNESCO, and as the product commonly manufactured, traded and consumed over the past two and a half centuries.

Key trends across selected international markets

A clear overall pattern is governing most publishing markets in North America and Europe: For several years, the market for print books, especially bookstore sales, have been declining - slowly in some markets, sharply in others -, while ebooks rose, yet at a very different pace by country. Recently, notably in the English language, the increase of digital market share has stalled, or even occasionally declined, while print seemed to rebound. What we see most importantly are significant patterns, and variations in different markets and territories, seemingly due to a complex mix of economic, cultural, and structural factors. In the following, we will attempt to provide an overview of these developments, and the shaping forces behind, for a broad selection of markets, in the Americas, Europe and Asia, with detailed breakdowns, and case studies, based on the data which we could collect from a large variety of sources.

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