Esther - Jean-Daniel Macchi - ebook

Esther ebook

Jean-Daniel Macchi

0,0

Opis

The Book of Esther is one of the five Megillot. It tells the story of a Jewish girl in Persia, who becomes queen and saves her people from a genocide. The story of Esther forms the core of the Jewish festival of Purim. The commentary presents a literary analysis of the text, taking into account the inclusion and arrangement of different pericopes, and an analysis of the narration. Likewise, it will discuss the style, the syntax, and the vocabulary. The examination of the intellectual context of the book, biblical and extrabiblical textual traditions on which the book is based and with which it is in intertextual dialogue, leads to a discussion of the redactional process and the historical and social contexts in which the authors and redactors worked.

Ebooka przeczytasz w aplikacjach Legimi na:

Androidzie
iOS
czytnikach certyfikowanych
przez Legimi
Windows
10
Windows
Phone

Liczba stron: 1007

Odsłuch ebooka (TTS) dostepny w abonamencie „ebooki+audiobooki bez limitu” w aplikacjach Legimi na:

Androidzie
iOS



International Exegetical Commentary on the Old Testament (IECOT)

Edited by:

Walter Dietrich, David M. Carr, Adele Berlin, Erhard Blum, Irmtraud Fischer, Shimon Gesundheit, Walter Groß, Gary Knoppers, Bernard M. Levinson, Ed Noort, Helmut Utzschneider and Beate Ego (Apocrypha/Deuterocanonical books)

Cover:Top: Panel from a four-part relief on the “Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III” (859–824 BCE) depicting the Israelite king Jehu (845–817 BCE; 2 Kings 9f) paying obeisance to the Assyrian “King of Kings.” The vassal has thrown himself to the ground in front of his overlord. Royal servants are standing behind the Assyrian king whereas Assyrian officers are standing behind Jehu. The remaining picture panels portray thirteen Israelite tribute bearers carrying heavy and precious gifts.Photo © Z.Radovan/BibleLandPictures.com

Bottom left: One of ten reliefs on the bronze doors that constitute the eastern portal (the so-called “Gates of Paradise”) of the Baptistery of St. John of Florence, created 1424–1452 by Lorenzo Ghiberti (c. 1378–1455). Detail from the picture “Adam and Eve”; in the center is the creation of Eve: “And the rib that the Lord God had taken from the man he made into a woman and brought her to the man.” (Gen 2:22)Photograph by George Reader

Bottom right: Detail of the Menorah in front of the Knesset in Jerusalem, created by Benno Elkan (1877–1960): Ezra reads the Law of Moses to the assembled nation (Neh 8). The bronze Menorah was created in London in 1956 and in the same year was given by the British as a gift to the State of Israel. A total of 29 reliefs portray scenes from the Hebrew bible and the history of the Jewish people.

Jean-Daniel Macchi

Esther

Verlag W. Kohlhammer

Translated from French by Carmen Palmer.

1. Edition 2018

All rights reserved

© W. Kohlhammer GmbH, Stuttgart

Production: W. Kohlhammer GmbH, Stuttgart

Print:

ISBN 978-3-17-020753-0

E-Book-Formats:

pdf: ISBN 978-3-17-031027-8

epub: ISBN 978-3-17-031028-5

mobi: ISBN 978-3-17-031029-2

W. Kohlhammer bears no responsibility fort he accuracy, legality or content of any external website that is linked or cited, or for that of subsequent links.

The Book of Esther is one of the five Megillot. It tells the story of a Jewish girl in Persia, who becomes queen and saves her people from a genocide. The story of Esther forms the core of the Jewish festival of Purim. The commentary presents a literary analysis of the text, taking into account the inclusion and arrangement of different pericopes, and an analysis of the narration. Likewise, it will discuss the style, the syntax, and the vocabulary. The examination of the intellectual context of the book, biblical and extrabiblical textual traditions on which the book is based and with which it is in intertextual dialogue, leads to a discussion of the redactional process and the historical and social contexts in which the authors and redactors worked.

Prof. Dr. Jean-Daniel Macchi teaches Old Testament at the Faculty of Theology at the University of Geneva.

Content

Editors’ Foreword

Author’s Preface

Introduction

A.  Textual Forms and Editorial Stages

1.  Accounting for the Textual Diversity of Esther in this Commentary

2.  The Textual Witnesses

2.1.  The Hebrew Masoretic Text (MT)

2.2.  Esther at Qumran?

2.3.  The Majority Greek Text of the LXX

2.4.  The Minority Greek Text, the Alpha Text (AT)

2.5.  Flavius Josephus

2.6.  The Old Latin (OL)

2.7.  The Vulgate

2.8.  Other Ancient Versions

3.  The Work’s Editorial Process

3.1.  The Alpha Text (AT), a Late Revision Dependant upon the LXX and/or the MT

3.2.  The Alpha Text Reflects a Pre-Masoretic Hebrew Proto-Esther

3.3.  Narrative Source Divisions

3.4.  The Additions in the LXX and the AT

3.5.  The Place of the Old Latin

4.  Synthesis and the Proposal Defended in the Present Commentary

4.1.  From Proto-Esther to the Masoretic Text

4.2.  Emergence of the Two Primary Greek Witnesses (AT and LXX) and the Other Textual Witnesses of Esther

B.  Historical and Intellectual Context of the Book’s Production

1.  The Persian Era: The Setting of the Action

2.  The Hellenistic Era: The Context of the Work’s Production

2.1.  Fictive Character of the Narrative

2.2.  Different Textual Forms

2.3.  Linguistic Arguments

2.4.  Knowledge of Biblical Texts

2.5.  Esther and Hellenistic Literature about Persia

2.6.  Esther and Maccabean Conflicts

2.7.  The Context of Proto-Esther’s Production

2.8.  The Context of Production of the Proto-Masoretic Edition of Esther

2.9.  The Contexts of Production of the Additions and Other Textual Forms of the Work

3.  Purim’s Mysterious Origin

C.  Literary and Thematic Characteristics Developed in Esther’s Masoretic Form

1.  Organization of the Work

2.  Novel-Like Characteristics

3.  Language and Style

4.  Allusions and References to Other Biblical Texts

4.1.  Esther, Mordecai, and the Kings of Israel

4.2.  The Joseph Story and the Book of Esther

4.3.  Esther and Moses

4.4.  Daniel

4.5.  The Book of Esther and the Books of Maccabees and Judith

4.6.  Conclusions

5.  Themes

5.1.  View of the Empire and Relationship with It

5.2.  Facing a Foreign Empire as a Jew

5.3.  God’s Presence and Absence in the MT

D.  Literary and Thematic Characteristics of Other Textual Forms of Esther

1.  Proto-Esther: Structure and Themes

2.  The Greek Versions: Structure and Themes

E.  Perspectives on Space and Time

1.  Spatial Organization of the Palace

Schema of Palace Organization

2.  The Chronological System in the Book of Esther

2.1.  The Chronological System of the Masoretic Text

2.2.  The Chronological System in the LXX

2.3.  Diachronic Implications

F.  Canonization, Use, and Reception of the Work

1.  An Anthoritative Book

1.1.  Canonicity in Judaism

1.2.  Canonicity in Christianity

2.  A Book for the Festival of Purim

3.  An Inspiring Book (Esther’s Reception)

3.1.  Esther in Judaism

3.2.  Esther in Christianity

G.  How to Use This Commentary on Esther’s Masoretic Form

Chapter 1. The Fall of Queen Vashti

Introduction

The Banquets of the Persian King (1:1-9)

Notes on Text and Translation

Synchronic Analysis

Vashti’s Refusal (1:10-12)

Notes on Text and Translation

Synchronic Analysis

The Consequences of Vashti’s Refusal (1:13-22)

Notes on Text and Translation

Synchronic Analysis

Diachronic Analysis

Proto-Esther

Proto-Masoretic Editing and the Emergence of the MT

The Greek Translations and the Late Modifications of the MT

Synthesis

Chapter 2. Esther’s Accession and Royal Installation

Introduction

Esther 2:1-18. Appointment of a New Queen

Notes on Text and Translation

Synchronic Analysis

Esther 2:19-23. Events at the Court

Translation

Notes on Text and Translation

Synchronic Analysis

Diachronic Analysis

Proto-Esther

Proto-Masoretic Editing and the Emergence of the MT

The Greek Translations and the Late Modifications of the MT

Synthesis

Chapter 3. Haman’s Plot

Notes on Text and Translation

Synchronic Analysis

Diachronic Analysis

Proto-Esther

Proto-Masoretic Editing and the Emergence of the MT

The Greek Translations and the Late Modifications of the MT

Synthesis

Chapter 4. Mordecai Solicits Esther’s Help

Notes on Text and Translation

Synchronic Analysis

Diachronic Analysis

Proto-Esther

Proto-Masoretic Editing and the Emergence of the MT

The Greek Translations and the Late Modifications of the MT

Synthesis

Chapter 5. Haman’s Honors

Introduction

Esther’s First Banquet (5:1-8)

Notes on Text and Translation

Synchronic Analysis

Reasons for the Double Invitation to the Banquet

Haman at Home with His Friends (5:9-14)

Notes on Text and Translation

Synchronic Analysis

Diachronic Analysis

Proto-Esther

Proto-Masoretic Editing and the Emergence of the MT

The Greek Translations and the Late Modifications of the MT

Synthesis

Chapter 6. Mordecai’s Honors

Introduction

Haman Honors Mordecai (6:1-11)

Notes on Text and Translation

Synchronic Analysis

Haman Returns Home (6:12-14)

Notes on Text and Translation

Synchronic Analysis

Diachronic Analysis

Proto-Esther

Proto-Masoretic Editing and the Emergence of the MT

The Greek Translations and the Late Modifications of the MT

Synthesis

Chapter 7. The Death of Haman

Notes on Text and Translation

Synchronic Analysis

Diachronic Analysis

Proto-Esther

Proto-Masoretic Editing and the Emergence of the MT

The Greek Translations and the Late Modifications of the MT

Synthesis

Chapters 8–10. Triumph, Massacre, and Festivities

Introduction

A Plot Difficult to Unravel (8:1-17)

Notes on Text and Translation

Synchronic Analysis

The War (9:1-19)

Notes on Text and Translation

Synchronic Analysis

The Letters Instituting the Festivals (9:20-32)

Notes on Text and Translation

Synchronic Analysis

The King, Mordecai, the Jews, and the Empire (10:1-3)

Notes on Text and Translation

Synchronic Analysis

Diachronic Analysis. Chapters 8-10

Proto-Esther

The Original Conclusion of Proto-Esther and Late Sections of the AT

Proto-Masoretic Editing and the Emergence of the MT

Proto-Masoretic Themes and Formulations

Proto-Masoretic Editing of Chapter 8

Proto-Masoretic Editing of 9:1-19

Proto-Masoretic Editing of 9:20-28

Editorial Process and Textual History of 9:29-32

Proto-Masoretic Editing of 10:1-3

The Greek Translations and the Late Modifications of the MT

Corrections to the MT Subsequent to the Translation of the LXX

The Outcome of the Greek Translations

Synthesis

The Additions

Addition A,1-11. Mordecai’s Dream

Addition A,12-17. The Eunuchs’ First Plot

Addition B,1-7. The Edict of Annihilation

Addition C,1-30. Mordecai’s and Esther’s Prayers

Addition D,1-16. Esther’s Arrival before the King

Addition E,1-24. The Counter-Edict

Addition F,1-10. Interpretation of Mordecai’s Dream

Addition F,11. The Colophon

Bibliography

Esther Texts. Editions and Translations

Hebrew

Greek (LXX and AT)

Old Latin (OL)

Vulgate (Vulg.)

Peshitta (Pesh. or Syr.)

Patristic Literature

Bible Translations

Mesopotamian and Persian Literature

Ancient Aramaic and Hebrew Sources

Elephantine

Megillat Ta’anit

Targum Esther I and Targum Esther II (Tg. Esth. I and Tg. Esth. II)

Midrash Rabbah (Mid. Rabbah) and Other Midrashic Texts

Talmud (Babylonian (b.) and Jerusalem (y.))

Greek and Roman Literature

Encyclopedias, Dictionaries, Grammars

Commentaries on the Book of Esther

Articles and Monographs

Indexes

Index of Hebrew Words

Index of Key Words

Index of Biblical Citations

Index of Other Ancient Literature

Plan of volumes

Editors’ Foreword

The International Exegetical Commentary on the Old Testament (IECOT) offers a multi-perspectival interpretation of the books of the Old Testament to a broad, international audience of scholars, laypeople and pastors. Biblical commentaries too often reflect the fragmented character of contemporary biblical scholarship, where different geographical or methodological sub-groups of scholars pursue specific methodologies and/or theories with little engagement of alternative approaches. This series, published in English and German editions, brings together editors and authors from North America, Europe, and Israel with multiple exegetical perspectives.

From the outset the goal has been to publish a series that was “international, ecumenical and contemporary.” The international character is reflected in the composition of an editorial board with members from six countries and commentators representing a yet broader diversity of scholarly contexts.

The ecumenical dimension is reflected in at least two ways. First, both the editorial board and the list of authors includes scholars with a variety of religious perspectives, both Christian and Jewish. Second, the commentary series not only includes volumes on books in the Jewish Tanach/Protestant Old Testament, but also other books recognized as canonical parts of the Old Testament by diverse Christian confessions (thus including the Deuterocanonical Old Testament books).

When it comes to “contemporary,” one central distinguishing feature of this series is its attempt to bring together two broad families of perspectives in analysis of biblical books, perspectives often described as “synchronic” and “diachronic” and all too often understood as incompatible with each other. Historically, diachronic studies arose in Europe, while some of the better known early synchronic studies originated in North America and Israel. Nevertheless, historical studies have continued to be pursued around the world, and focused synchronic work has been done in an ever greater variety of settings. Building on these developments, we aim in this series to bring synchronic and diachronic methods into closer alignment, allowing these approaches to work in a complementary and mutually-informative rather than antagonistic manner.

Since these terms are used in varying ways within biblical studies, it makes sense to specify how they are understood in this series. Within IECOT we understand “synchronic” to embrace a variety of types of study of a biblical text in one given stage of its development, particularly its final stage(s) of development in existing manuscripts. “Synchronic” studies embrace non-historical narratological, reader-response and other approaches along with historically-informed exegesis of a particular stage of a biblical text. In contrast, we understand “diachronic” to embrace the full variety of modes of study of a biblical text over time.

This diachronic analysis may include use of manuscript evidence (where available) to identify documented pre-stages of a biblical text, judicious use of clues within the biblical text to reconstruct its formation over time, and also an examination of the ways in which a biblical text may be in dialogue with earlier biblical (and non-biblical) motifs, traditions, themes, etc. In other words, diachronic study focuses on what might be termed a “depth dimension” of a given text – how a text (and its parts) has journeyed over time up to its present form, making the text part of a broader history of traditions, motifs and/or prior compositions. Synchronic analysis focuses on a particular moment (or moments) of that journey, with a particular focus on the final, canonized form (or forms) of the text. Together they represent, in our view, complementary ways of building a textual interpretation.

Of course, each biblical book is different, and each author or team of authors has different ideas of how to incorporate these perspectives into the commentary. The authors will present their ideas in the introduction to each volume. In addition, each author or team of authors will highlight specific contemporary methodological and hermeneutical perspectives – e.g. gender-critical, liberation-theological, reception-historical, social-historical – appropriate to their own strengths and to the biblical book being interpreted. The result, we hope and expect, will be a series of volumes that display a range of ways that various methodologies and discourses can be integrated into the interpretation of the diverse books of the Old Testament.

Fall 2012 The Editors

Author’s Preface

In my first article on the topic of this commentary, I compared the chapter 4 of Esther’s Masoretic text with the Greek Alpha text. I already argued that MT resultes from a major rewriting of a shorter Hebrew text similar to AT. One year later, following observations made by other scholars, I argued that the way in which the book of Esther describes the Persian empire is very similar to the one we found in Greek authors like Herodotus or Ctesias1. These basic arguments laid the foundations on which this commentary has been built during more than 10 years of research.

When Adele Berlin, the editor of this commentary, asked me to write the commentary on Esther for the new IECOT series I was really proud to receive such an offer from the author of one of the best commentaries on Esther2. However I had already started to write, in French, a commentary for the CAT series of Labor et Fides3. We decided to adapt the CAT commentary to the IECOT series and to translate it.

I would like to address a warm thank you to Adele Berlin for the long editorial work she did. She helped me very much to adapt the commentary. Carmen Palmer did high level work as the English translator. Furthermore, I would like to thank others. My colleagues and my students of the Faculty of Theology of the University of Geneva, my colleagues from the Institut des sciences bibliques of the University of Lausanne. They all gave me many opportunities to have many interesting discussions on Esther. My assistants Georgette Gribi, Claire Sybille Andrey, Chen Bergot and Axel Bühler helped during the writing of the commentary.

Finally, I thank my wife Claire and my two children Matthieu and Jérémie for their constant support and affection.

Jean-Daniel Macchi

Geneva

January, 2018