Sea Warfare - Rudyard Kipling - ebook

Sea Warfare ebook

Rudyard Kipling

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Opis

Rudyard Kipling, acting as a kind of proto-rooted journalist, spoke about aspects of the Royal Navy in World War I that usually do not receive so much attention. In sections on minesweepers, a merchant marine, submariners, and destroyers, he gave a brief account of the important backstage work they did. Through an interview and a summary of the combat reports, he presented an idea of the „culture” in which they operate.

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Liczba stron: 164

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Contents

THE FRINGES OF THE FLEET

(1915)

THE AUXILIARIES

I

The Oldest Navy

The Ships and the Men

Hunters and Fishers

THE AUXILIARIES

II

"A Common Sweeper"

A Block in the Traffic

The Night Patrol

SUBMARINES

I

Labour and Refreshment

Underwater Works

Four Nightmares

SUBMARINES

II

The Practice of the Art

The Man and the Work

Expert Opinions

PATROLS

I

A Little Theory

Death and the Destroyer

The Admirable Commander

Wasted Material

PATROLS

II

The Nature of the Beast

"Service as Requisite"

Racial Untruths

TALES OF “THE TRADE”

(1916)

"THE TRADE"

I

SOME WORK IN THE BALTIC

Submarine and Ice-breaker

"As Requisite"

Defeated by Darkness

II

BUSINESS IN THE SEA OF MARMARA

"Six Hours of Blind Death"

Annoying Patrol Ships

Mr. Silas Q. Swing

The Preening Perch

III

RAVAGES AND REPAIRS

A Brawl at a Pier

Strange Messmates

Refitting under Difficulties

Trouble with a Gun

DESTROYERS AT JUTLAND

(1916)

I

STORIES OF THE BATTLE

CRIPPLE AND PARALYTIC

Night and Morning

Three Destroyers

Luck

Towing under Difficulties

Useful Employment

II

THE NIGHT HUNT

RAMMING AN ENEMY CRUISER

A Fugitive on Fire

The Confidential Books

The Art of Improvising

Asking for Trouble

III

THE MEANING OF "JOSS"

A YOUNG OFFICER'S LETTER

Saved by a Smoke Screen

Concerning Joss

An Affair in the North Sea

A "Child's" Letter

What the Big Ships Stand

IV

THE MINDS OF MEN

HOW IT IS DONE

Ship Dogs

The Fight

The Silent Navy

THE NEUTRAL

THE FRINGES OF THE FLEET

(1915)

In Lowestoft a boat was laid, Mark well what I do say! And she was built for the herring trade, But she has gone a-rovin’, a-rovin’, a-rovin’, The Lord knows where!

They gave her Government coal to burn, And a Q.F. gun at bow and stern, And sent her out a-rovin’, etc.

Her skipper was mate of a bucko ship Which always killed one man per trip, So he is used to rovin’, etc.

Her mate was skipper of a chapel in Wales, And so he fights in topper and tails– Religi-ous tho’ rovin’, etc.

Her engineer is fifty-eight, So he’s prepared to meet his fate, Which ain’t unlikely rovin’, etc.

Her leading-stoker’s seventeen, So he don’t know what the Judgments mean, Unless he cops ’em rovin’, etc.

Her cook was chef in the Lost Dogs’ Home, Mark well what I do say! And I’m sorry for Fritz when they all come A-rovin’, a-rovin’, a-roarin’ and a-rovin’, Round the North Sea rovin’, The Lord knows where!

THE AUXILIARIES

I

The Navy is very old and very wise. Much of her wisdom is on record and available for reference; but more of it works in the unconscious blood of those who serve her. She has a thousand years of experience, and can find precedent or parallel for any situation that the force of the weather or the malice of the King’s enemies may bring about.

The main principles of sea-warfare hold good throughout all ages, and, so far as the Navy has been allowed to put out her strength, these principles have been applied over all the seas of the world. For matters of detail the Navy, to whom all days are alike, has simply returned to the practice and resurrected the spirit of old days.

In the late French wars, a merchant sailing out of a Channel port might in a few hours find himself laid by the heels and under way for a French prison. His Majesty’s ships of the Line, and even the big frigates, took little part in policing the waters for him, unless he were in convoy. The sloops, cutters, gun-brigs, and local craft of all kinds were supposed to look after that, while the Line was busy elsewhere. So the merchants passed resolutions against the inadequate protection afforded to the trade, and the narrow seas were full of single-ship actions; mail-packets, West Country brigs, and fat East Indiamen fighting, for their own hulls and cargo, anything that the watchful French ports sent against them; the sloops and cutters bearing a hand if they happened to be within reach.

The Oldest Navy

It was a brutal age, ministered to by hard-fisted men, and we had put it a hundred decent years behind us when–it all comes back again! To-day there are no prisons for the crews of merchantmen, but they can go to the bottom by mine and torpedo even more quickly than their ancestors were run into Le Havre. The submarine takes the place of the privateer; the Line, as in the old wars, is occupied, bombarding and blockading, elsewhere, but the sea-borne traffic must continue, and that is being looked after by the lineal descendants of the crews of the long extinct cutters and sloops and gun-brigs. The hour struck, and they reappeared, to the tune of fifty thousand odd men in more than two thousand ships, of which I have seen a few hundred. Words of command may have changed a little, the tools are certainly more complex, but the spirit of the new crews who come to the old job is utterly unchanged. It is the same fierce, hard-living, heavy-handed, very cunning service out of which the Navy as we know it to-day was born. It is called indifferently the Trawler and Auxiliary Fleet. It is chiefly composed of fishermen, but it takes in every one who may have maritime tastes–from retired admirals to the sons of the sea-cook. It exists for the benefit of the traffic and the annoyance of the enemy. Its doings are recorded by flags stuck into charts; its casualties are buried in obscure corners of the newspapers. The Grand Fleet knows it slightly; the restless light cruisers who chaperon it from the background are more intimate; the destroyers working off unlighted coasts over unmarked shoals come, as you might say, in direct contact with it; the submarine alternately praises and–since one periscope is very like another–curses its activities; but the steady procession of traffic in home waters, liner and tramp, six every sixty minutes, blesses it altogether.

Since this most Christian war includes laying mines in the fairways of traffic, and since these mines may be laid at any time by German submarines especially built for the work, or by neutral ships, all fairways must be swept continuously day and night. When a nest of mines is reported, traffic must be hung up or deviated till it is cleared out. When traffic comes up Channel it must be examined for contraband and other things; and the examining tugs lie out in a blaze of lights to remind ships of this. Months ago, when the war was young, the tugs did not know what to look for specially. Now they do. All this mine-searching and reporting and sweeping, plus the direction and examination of the traffic, plus the laying of our own ever-shifting mine-fields, is part of the Trawler Fleet’s work, because the Navy-as-we-knew-it is busy elsewhere. And there is always the enemy submarine with a price on her head, whom the Trawler Fleet hunts and traps with zeal and joy. Add to this, that there are boats, fishing for real fish, to be protected in their work at sea or chased off dangerous areas whither, because they are strictly forbidden to go, they naturally repair, and you will begin to get some idea of what the Trawler and Auxiliary Fleet does.

The Ships and the Men

Now, imagine the acreage of several dock-basins crammed, gunwale to gunwale, with brown and umber and ochre and rust-red steam-trawlers, tugs, harbour-boats, and yachts once clean and respectable, now dirty and happy. Throw in fish-steamers, surprise-packets of unknown lines and indescribable junks, sampans, lorchas, catamarans, and General Service stink-pontoons filled with indescribable apparatus, manned by men no dozen of whom seem to talk the same dialect or wear the same clothes. The mustard-coloured jersey who is cleaning a six-pounder on a Hull boat clips his words between his teeth and would be happier in Gaelic. The whitish singlet and grey trousers held up by what is obviously his soldier brother’s spare regimental belt is pure Lowestoft. The complete blue-serge-and-soot suit passing a wire down a hatch is Glasgow as far as you can hear him, which is a fair distance, because he wants something done to the other end of the wire, and the flat-faced boy who should be attending to it hails from the remoter Hebrides, and is looking at a girl on the dock-edge. The bow-legged man in the ulster and green-worsted comforter is a warm Grimsby skipper, worth several thousands. He and his crew, who are mostly his own relations, keep themselves to themselves, and save their money. The pirate with the red beard, barking over the rail at a friend with gold earrings, comes from Skye. The friend is West Country. The noticeably insignificant man with the soft and deprecating eye is skipper and part-owner of the big slashing Iceland trawler on which he droops like a flower. She is built to almost Western Ocean lines, carries a little boat-deck aft with tremendous stanchions, has a nose cocked high against ice and sweeping seas, and resembles a hawk-moth at rest. The small, sniffing man is reported to be a “holy terror at sea.”

Hunters and Fishers

The child in the Pullman-car uniform just going ashore is a wireless operator, aged nineteen. He is attached to a flagship at least 120 feet long, under an admiral aged twenty-five, who was, till the other day, third mate of a North Atlantic tramp, but who now leads a squadron of six trawlers to hunt submarines. The principle is simple enough. Its application depends on circumstances and surroundings. One class of German submarines meant for murder off the coasts may use a winding and rabbit-like track between shoals where the choice of water is limited. Their career is rarely long, but, while it lasts, moderately exciting. Others, told off for deep-sea assassinations, are attended to quite quietly and without any excitement at all. Others, again, work the inside of the North Sea, making no distinction between neutrals and Allied ships. These carry guns, and since their work keeps them a good deal on the surface, the Trawler Fleet, as we know, engages them there–the submarine firing, sinking, and rising again in unexpected quarters; the trawler firing, dodging, and trying to ram. The trawlers are strongly built, and can stand a great deal of punishment. Yet again, other German submarines hang about the skirts of fishing-fleets and fire into the brown of them. When the war was young this gave splendidly “frightful” results, but for some reason or other the game is not as popular as it used to be.

Lastly, there are German submarines who perish by ways so curious and inexplicable that one could almost credit the whispered idea (it must come from the Scotch skippers) that the ghosts of the women they drowned pilot them to destruction. But what form these shadows take–whether of “The Lusitania Ladies,” or humbler stewardesses and hospital nurses–and what lights or sounds the thing fancies it sees or hears before it is blotted out, no man will ever know. The main fact is that the work is being done. Whether it was necessary or politic to re-awaken by violence every sporting instinct of a sea-going people is a question which the enemy may have to consider later on.

Dawn off the Foreland–the young flood making Jumbled and short and steep– Black in the hollows and bright where it’s breaking– Awkward water to sweep. “Mines reported in the fairway, “Warn all traffic and detain. “‘Sent up Unity, Claribel, Assyrian, Stormcock, and Golden Gain.”

Noon off the Foreland–the first ebb making Lumpy and strong in the bight. Boom after boom, and the golf-hut shaking And the jackdaws wild with fright! “Mines located in the fairway, “Boats now working up the chain, “Sweepers–Unity, Claribel, Assyrian, Stormcock and Golden Gain.”

Dusk off the Foreland–the last light going And the traffic crowding through, And five damned trawlers with their syreens blowing Heading the whole review! “Sweep completed in the fairway. “No more mines remain. “‘Sent back Unity, Claribel, Assyrian, Stormcock, and Golden Gain.”

THE AUXILIARIES

II

The Trawlers seem to look on mines as more or less fairplay. But with the torpedo it is otherwise. A Yarmouth man lay on his hatch, his gear neatly stowed away below, and told me that another Yarmouth boat had “gone up,” with all hands except one. “‘Twas a submarine. Not a mine,” said he. “They never gave our boys no chance. Na! She was a Yarmouth boat–we knew ’em all. They never gave the boys no chance.” He was a submarine hunter, and he illustrated by means of matches placed at various angles how the blindfold business is conducted. “And then,” he ended, “there’s always what he’ll do. You’ve got to think that out for yourself–while you’re working above him–same as if ’twas fish.” I should not care to be hunted for the life in shallow waters by a man who knows every bank and pothole of them, even if I had not killed his friends the week before. Being nearly all fishermen they discuss their work in terms of fish, and put in their leisure fishing overside, when they sometimes pull up ghastly souvenirs. But they all want guns. Those who have three-pounders clamour for sixes; sixes for twelves; and the twelve-pound aristocracy dream of four-inchers on anti-aircraft mountings for the benefit of roving Zeppelins. They will all get them in time, and I fancy it will be long ere they give them up. One West Country mate announced that “a gun is a handy thing to have aboard–always.” “But in peacetime?” I said. “Wouldn’t it be in the way?”

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