Atlas of Clinical Imaging and Anatomy of the Equine Head - Larry Kimberlin - ebook

Atlas of Clinical Imaging and Anatomy of the Equine Head ebook

Larry Kimberlin

0,0
549,99 zł

Opis

Atlas of Clinical Imaging and Anatomy of the Equine Head presents a clear and complete view of the complex anatomy of the equine head using cross-sectional imaging. * Provides a comprehensive comparative atlas to structures of the equine head * Pairs gross anatomy with radiographs, CT, and MRI images * Presents an image-based reference for understanding anatomy and pathology * Covers radiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging

Ebooka przeczytasz w aplikacjach Legimi na:

Androidzie
iOS
czytnikach certyfikowanych
przez Legimi
Windows
10
Windows
Phone

Liczba stron: 134




Table of Contents

Cover

Title Page

Introduction: General Presentation of Atlas

CHAPTER 1: Overview of CT and MRI of the Equine Head

Indications for performing CT versus MRI

Notes

References

CHAPTER 2: Clinical and Surgical Anatomy of the Equine Head: Transverse Sections

CHAPTER 3: Clinical and Surgical Anatomy of the Equine Head: Sagittal Sections

Brain sagittal close-up

CHAPTER 4: Clinical and Surgical Anatomy of the Equine Head: Dorsal Sections

Glossary

Directional terms

Anatomical and imaging terms

References

Articles

Books

Index

End User License Agreement

List of Illustrations

Chapter 01

Figure 1 A lateral (a) and dorsoventral radiograph (b) of the head from an older adult equine cadaver that was used in the making of this book. Two radiographs are spliced together to create each image of the whole head. These radiographs demonstrate the excellent contrast between the air‐filled nasal passages, paranasal sinuses and guttural pouches, and the mineral opaque bones and teeth. The soft tissues are difficult to differentiate unless they are surrounded by gas or bone.

Figure 2 CT scan of an adult horse that presented with a facial deformity from an unknown trauma and signs of sinusitis. The patient was imaged in dorsal recumbency for the CT scan. (a,b) Transverse images at the level of the fracture in a bone filter and window (a) and a soft tissue filter and window (b), demonstrating thickened and irregular margins of the frontal, nasal, and lacrimal bones. Fluid is also noted in the conchofrontal sinus and caudally displaced ventral conchal sinus. The lining of the sinuses is thickened, consistent with sinusitis. (c,d) “Three‐dimensional” reconstructions of the CT dataset with a dorsal view (c) and left dorsolateral view (d) of the skull. These images help to get an overall look at the bones of the skull and to determine that this deformity was likely caused by a concussive trauma to a sharp linear object, such as the corner of a beam or post. The displacement of the ventral conchal sinus and concha caused by the trauma caused narrowing of the conchomaxillary opening that impeded drainage, resulting in the sinusitis.

Figure 3 Transverse (a) and sagittal (b) reconstructions of a CT scan of an adult horse that presented with a history of seizures. The WW is 83 and WL is 27. Within each lateral ventricle is an ovoid, faintly mineral‐dense structure arising from the choroid plexus. There is also fluid distension of the lateral ventricles, consistent with an obstruction to CSF outflow. These mineralized structures are consistent with cholesterinic granulomas causing an obstructive hydrocephalus.

Figure 4 MRI images of a young horse. (a–c) Transverse MR images of the rostral third of the cerebrum at the level of the lateral ventricles. (a) T2‐weighted sequence. (b) FLAIR sequence. (c) T1‐weighted sequence plus contrast administration (gadolinium) and fat saturation. Note the fluid suppression of the CSF on the FLAIR sequence (b) in the lateral ventricles when compared to (a). (d) Sagittal plane, T2‐weighted sequence of the brain on midline. In (c), there is contrast enhancement of the choroid plexus in the lateral ventricles, and the blood vessels ventral to the brain.

Figure 5 (a) An adult horse is raised onto the MRI table with hobbles placed around the feet and a ceiling hoist. The table is then rolled into the MRI suite, the wheels locked, and the patient moved forward into the magnet by sliding it across the padded table (b,c). (b) View from the MRI control room of the horse in the magnet. (c) Side view from the entry door of the horse in the magnet.

Figure 6 An adult horse has been hoisted onto the large animal CT table and positioned in dorsal recumbency. (a) Back view of the horse. (b) Back and side view of the horse. (c) Side view of the horse. (d) Front view of the scanner with the horse intubated and connected to the anesthetic equipment.

Guide

Cover

Table of Contents

Begin Reading

Pages

ii

iii

iv

vi

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

35

36

37

38

39

40

41

42

43

44

45

46

47

48

49

50

51

52

53

54

55

56

57

58

59

60

61

62

63

64

65

66

67

68

69

70

71

72

73

74

75

76

77

78

79

80

81

82

83

85

86

87

88

89

90

91

92

93

94

95

96

97

98

102

103

104

105

106

107

108

109

110

111

112

113

115

116

117

118

119

120

121

122

123

124

125

126

127

128

129

130

131

132

133

134

135

136

137

138

139

140

141

143

144

145

147

148

149

150

151

152

153

154

 

 

 

 

To my wonderful wife and family – who make everything I do possible, fun and worthwhile – Jan, Buddy, Katie, Jana, Eli.

Larry Kimberlin

To my amazing, strong, and beautiful wife, Emily. A lover of all creatures great and small.

Alex zur Linden

To my late husband, Dub, and my children Brett and Cathy – your support has been instrumental in anything I have accomplished.

Lynn Ruoff

Atlas of Clinical Imaging and Anatomy of the Equine Head

Larry Kimberlin, DVM, FAVD, CVPP

Alex zur Linden, DVM, DACVR

Lynn Ruoff, DVM

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

This edition first published 2017 © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Editorial Offices 1606 Golden Aspen Drive, Suites 103 and 104, Ames, Iowa 50010, USAThe Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex, PO19 8SQ, UK9600 Garsington Road, Oxford, OX4 2DQ, UK

For details of our global editorial offices, for customer services and for information about how to apply for permission to reuse the copyright material in this book please see our website at www.wiley.com/wiley‐blackwell.

Authorization to photocopy items for internal or personal use, or the internal or personal use of specific clients, is granted by Blackwell Publishing, provided that the base fee is paid directly to the Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923. For those organizations that have been granted a photocopy license by CCC, a separate system of payments has been arranged. The fee codes for users of the Transactional Reporting Service are ISBN‐13: 9781118988978/2016

Designations used by companies to distinguish their products are often claimed as trademarks. All brand names and product names used in this book are trade names, service marks, trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective owners. The publisher is not associated with any product or vendor mentioned in this book.

The contents of this work are intended to further general scientific research, understanding, and discussion only and are not intended and should not be relied upon as recommending or promoting a specific method, diagnosis, or treatment by health science practitioners for any particular patient. The publisher and the author make no representations or warranties with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents of this work and specifically disclaim all warranties, including without limitation any implied warranties of fitness for a particular purpose. In view of ongoing research, equipment modifications, changes in governmental regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to the use of medicines, equipment, and devices, the reader is urged to review and evaluate the information provided in the package insert or instructions for each medicine, equipment, or device for, among other things, any changes in the instructions or indication of usage and for added warnings and precautions. Readers should consult with a specialist where appropriate. The fact that an organization or Website is referred to in this work as a citation and/or a potential source of further information does not mean that the author or the publisher endorses the information the organization or Website may provide or recommendations it may make. Further, readers should be aware that Internet Websites listed in this work may have changed or disappeared between when this work was written and when it is read. No warranty may be created or extended by any promotional statements for this work. Neither the publisher nor the author shall be liable for any damages arising herefrom.

Library of Congress Cataloging‐in‐Publication Data

Names: Kimberlin, Larry, 1956– author. | Zur Linden, Alex, 1979– author. | Ruoff, Lynn, 1951– author.Title: Atlas of clinical imaging and anatomy of the equine head / Larry Kimberlin, Alex zur Linden, Lynn Ruoff.Description: Ames, Iowa : John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2017. | Includes bibliographical references and index.Identifiers: LCCN 2016023788 (print) | LCCN 2016030763 (ebook) | ISBN 9781118988978 (cloth) | ISBN 9781118988985 (pdf) | ISBN 9781118988992 (epub)Subjects: LCSH: Horses–Anatomy–Atlases. | Head–Anatomy–Atlases. | Head–Imaging–Atlases. | MESH: Horses–anatomy & histology | Head–anatomy & histology | Diagnostic Imaging–veterinary | Anatomy, Veterinary | AtlasesClassification: LCC SF765 .K56 2017 (print) | LCC SF765 (ebook) | NLM SF 765 | DDC 636.1/0891–dc23LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2016023788

A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.

Wiley also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats. Some content that appears in print may not be available in electronic books.

Introduction: General Presentation of Atlas

The equine head is a clinically important part of the equine patient. It provides residence to the most important structure of any patient – the brain. The brain is the control center for all activities of its host. The head also contains the primary structural components of four of the five senses (sight, hearing, taste, smell, and touch).

Major components of all the major body systems are present here as well:

the brain and cranial nerves

the entry point of food for the digestive system

the entry point of air for the respiratory system

the activating and stimulating precursors of the endocrine system

the vascular system is well represented, as well as the integumentary system.

As such, the head has long been clinically and surgically important for the equine practitioner. Radiography has been the gold standard for diagnosing and treating pathologic conditions related to the head. Two‐dimensional plain film radiographs have been instrumental in the clinician’s armamentarium, but technologic advances in cross‐sectional imaging have now become the gold standard for diagnosis and treatment planning of trauma, neurologic, dental, and sinus/airway disease. Improvements in technology and decreased costs have made cross‐sectional imaging more accessible to the practitioner. It is the authors’ opinion that in the near future, cross‐sectional imaging will become standard of care for diagnosis of many equine diseases.

It was with this thought in mind that the idea for this atlas was born. Until now, there has been no comprehensive comparative atlas for structures of the head. The three‐plane cross‐sectional composition of the cadaver pictures allows the student and clinician to view structures of the head that may not be readily visible by dissection alone. The multiplanar preparation allows direct comparison of the structures with the corresponding imaging modalities of CT and MRI scanning.

The authors have attempted to identify the clinically important structures of the head to use as a reference for understanding anatomy and pathology, and as a surgical reference. The anatomy has been labeled with the help of anatomical atlases and peer‐reviewed scientific journals. Each structure is identified in the cadaver and each imaging modality (if visible) for comparison. A legend is included for each image that identifies the location and direction of the slice. An index key for each structure is present on each image with further designation of the body system.

1. Bones of the head

2. Oral and dental structures

3. Nasal and sinus structures

4. Larynx, pharynx, and guttural pouches

5. Ophthalmic structures

6. Auricular structures

7. Brain and nervous system

8. Vascular anatomy

9. Muscles

10. Glandular structures – lymph and salivary

It is the authors’ sincere hope that this atlas will aid students and clinicians as a study and clinical guide to better understand the anatomy of the equine head, as part of our mission to help our patients and their owners by treatment of pathologic processes encountered in daily practice.

Larry Kimberlin DVM, FAVD, CVPPAlex zur Linden DVM, DACVRLynn Ruoff DVM

CHAPTER 1Overview of CT and MRI of the Equine Head

The diagnosis of conditions affecting the equine head is challenging for the veterinary practitioner due to its large size, complex anatomy, and the multitude of different tissues present and thus the large number of potential disease processes. Disease processes of the teeth include caries, periodontal disease, tooth root abscess, tooth fracture, dentigerous cysts, and malocclusion to name a few [1]. The tongue can be affected by trauma, infection, or neoplasia. The nasal passages and paranasal sinuses are important parts of the equine head that can be the site of sinusitis, ethmoid hematomas, cysts, or neoplasia. The diverticulum of the auditory tube (guttural pouch) can develop fungal granulomas, empyema, blood clots, or tympany. Laryngeal hemiplegia, dorsal displacement of the soft palate, epiglottic entrapment, rostral displacement of the palatopharyngeal arches, arytenoid chondritis, and pharyngeal narrowing can affect the pharyngeal region [2]. Other tissues in the head such as the lymph nodes and salivary glands can be affected by infectious or non‐infectious inflammation, or neoplasia. The brain can be affected by trauma, bleeding, infarction, neoplasms, cholesterinic granulomas, ventriculomegaly (hydrocephalus), and infection (meningitis or meningoencephalitis). Trauma to the head can result in fractures of the calvarium, mandible, temporomandibular joint, basisphenoid bone, and nuchal crest of the occipital bone. Although uncommon in horses, neoplasia that can be found in the head includes melanoma, adenocarcinoma or rhabdomyosarcoma of the tongue, lacrimal gland adenocarcinoma and ophthalmic tumors associated with the eye, and multicentric lymphoma affecting the lymph nodes in the head [2]. The hyoid bones can be affected by fractures or temporohyoid osteoarthropathy. The eyes and ears are also prone to a variety of pathological conditions. Many of these conditions can be diagnosed on physical examination; however, many require further diagnostics.

Diagnostic imaging of the equine head is most commonly done via radiography (Figure 1) or endoscopy. Routine radiographic examination can include orthogonal projections of the area of interest, oblique projections of the dental arcades or temporomandibular joints and intraoral projections for the rostral mandible/maxilla. Due to the size of the adult head and the limited size of the X‐ray cassette or imaging plate, multiple radiographs are needed to image the entire head, although this is not routinely performed in clinical practice. Radiographs offer superior spatial resolution compared to more advanced imaging options; however, due to the superimposition of anatomy, lesion localization can be quite challenging using radiography. The anatomy of the head is complex and radiographs do not provide adequate contrast of the soft tissues of the head. Radiographic anatomy has been thoroughly described elsewhere and is outside the scope of this book.

Figure 1