Discours de la méthode - René Descartes - ebook
Kategoria: Nauka i nowe technologie Język: francuski Rok wydania: 1637

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René Descartes

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Le Discours de la méthode, publié en 1637, est le premier texte philosophique écrit par René Descartes et le premier ouvrage qui traite du sujet en langue française (par opposition a la tradition scientifique de l'époque de rédiger en latin).

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A Propos
Partie 1

A Propos Descartes:

René Descartes (March 31, 1596 – February 11, 1650), also known as Renatus Cartesius (latinized form), was a highly influential French philosopher, mathematician, scientist, and writer. Dubbed the "Founder of Modern Philosophy", and the "Father of Modern Mathematics", much of subsequent western philosophy is a reaction to his writings, which have been closely studied from his time down to the present day. His influence in mathematics is also apparent, the Cartesian coordinate system being used in plane geometry and algebra being named after him, and he was one of the key figures in the Scientific Revolution. Descartes frequently contrasted his views with those of his predecessors. In the opening section of the Passions of the Soul, a treatise on the Early Modern version of what are now commonly called emotions, he goes so far as to assert that he will write on his topic "as if no one had written on these matters before". Nevertheless many elements of his philosophy have precedents in late Aristotelianism, the revived Stoicism of the 16th century, or in earlier philosophers like St. Augustine. In his natural philosophy, he differs from the Schools on two major points: first, he rejects the analysis of corporeal substance into matter and form; second, he rejects any appeal to ends—divine or natural—in explaining natural phenomena. In his theology, he insists on the absolute freedom of God’s act of creation. Descartes was a major figure in 17th century continental rationalism, later advocated by Baruch Spinoza and Gottfried Leibniz, and opposed by the empiricist school of thought consisting of Hobbes, Locke, Berkeley, and Hume. Leibniz, Spinoza and Descartes were all versed in mathematics as well as philosophy, and Descartes and Leibniz contributed greatly to science as well. As the inventor of the Cartesian coordinate system, Descartes founded analytic geometry, that bridge between algebra and geometry crucial to the invention of calculus and analysis. Descartes's reflections on mind and mechanism began the strain of western thought that much later, impelled by the invention of the electronic computer and by the possibility of machine intelligence, blossomed into, e.g., the Turing test. His most famous statement is: Cogito ergo sum (French: Je pense, donc je suis; English: I think, therefore I am), found in §7 of part I of Principles of Philosophy (Latin) and in part IV of Discourse on the Method (French). Source: Wikipedia

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Si ce discours semble trop long pour etre tout lu en une fois, on le pourra distinguer en six parties. Et, en la premiere, on trouvera diverses considérations touchant les sciences. En la seconde, les principales regles de la méthode que l'auteur a cherchée. En la 3, quelques-unes de celles de la morale qu'il a tirée de cette méthode. En la 4, les raisons par lesquelles il prouve l'existence de Dieu et de l'âme humaine, qui sont les fondements de sa métaphysique. En la 5, l'ordre des questions de physique qu'il a cherchées, et particulierement l'explication du mouvement du cour et de quelques autres difficultés qui appartiennent a la médecine, puis aussi la différence qui est entre notre âme et celle des betes. Et en la derniere, quelles choses il croit etre requises pour aller plus avant en la recherche de la nature qu'il n'a été, et quelles raisons l'ont fait écrire.