A Complete Grammar of Esperanto - Ivy Kellerman - ebook
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Opis ebooka A Complete Grammar of Esperanto - Ivy Kellerman

This is a complete guide to learning Esperanto, a language which was invented by L.L. Zamenhof and first made public in 1887. Zamenhof's goal was to create an easy and flexible language that would serve as a universal second language to foster peace and international understanding. The number of Esperanto speakers is estimated to be between 100,000 and 2 million.

Opinie o ebooku A Complete Grammar of Esperanto - Ivy Kellerman

Fragment ebooka A Complete Grammar of Esperanto - Ivy Kellerman

About
Preface
Lesson Contents
Lesson 1
Lesson 2
Lesson 3
Lesson 4
Lesson 5
Lesson 6
Lesson 7
About Kellerman:

Ivy Kellerman (Reed) was an American author in the international language Esperanto. She was an accomplished linguist with four academic degrees for work in Latin, Greek, Sanskrit, and Persian and half a dozen modern languages.

Copyright: This work was published before 1923 and is in the public domain in the USA only.
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Preface

This volume has been prepared to meet a twofold need. An adequate presentation of the International Language has become an imperative necessity. Such presentation, including full and accurate grammatical explanations, suitably graded reading lessons, and similarly graded material for translation from English, has not heretofore been accessible within the compass of a single volume, or in fact within the compass of any two or three volumes.

The combination of grammar and reader here offered is therefore unique. It is to furnish not merely an introduction to Esperanto, or a superficial acquaintance with it, but a genuine understanding of the language and mastery of its use without recourse to additional textbooks, readers, etc. In other words, this one volume affords as complete a knowledge of Esperanto as several years' study of a grammar and various readers will accomplish for any national language. Inflection, word-formation and syntax are presented clearly and concisely, yet with a degree of completeness and in a systematic order that constitute a new feature. Other points worthy of note are the following:

The reasons for syntactical usages are given, instead of mere statements that such usages exist. For example, clauses of purpose and of result are really explained, instead of being dismissed with the unsatisfactory remark that "the imperative follows por ke," or the "use of tiel …  ke and tia …  ke must be distinguished from that of tiel …  kiel and tia …  kia," etc., with but little intimation of when and why por ke, tiel …  ke and tia …  ke are likely to occur.

Affixes are not mentioned until some familiarity with the general character of the language is assured, as well as the possession of a fair vocabulary. They are introduced gradually, with adequate explanation and illustration. Of importance in connection with word-formation is an element distinctly new—the explanation and classification of compound words. Such words, like affixes, are withheld until the use of simple words is familiar.

Another new feature is the gradual introduction of correlative words in their logical order, and in their proper grammatical categories, before they are called "correlatives," or tabulated. The tabulation finally presented is a real classification, with regard to the meaning and grammatical character of the words, not merely an arbitrary alphabetical arrangement. The use of primary adverbs precedes the explanation of adverb derivation; prepositions, especially de, da, je, etc., receive careful attention, also the verb system, and the differentiation of words whose English equivalents are ambiguous.

A general characteristic of obvious advantage is that almost without exception new forms and constructions are illustrated by means of words or roots already familiar. Likewise, the new words or roots of each lesson recur at least once in the next lesson, and usually in some lesson thereafter as well. Each reading exercise gives not only a thorough application of the grammatical principles of the lesson, but a review of those in the preceding lesson, and no use is made of words or constructions not yet explained. The comparative ease of the language, and the lack of necessity for reciting paradigms, permit the reading exercises to be long enough for the student to feel that he has really mastered something. These exercises are further unique, in that each after the fifth is a coherent narrative, and nearly every one is a story of genuine interest in itself. These stories, if bound separately, would alone constitute a reader equivalent to those used in first and second year work in national languages. (For list of titles, see Table of Contents.)

The second element of the twofold need which this volume meets is the necessity for a presentation of Esperanto, not as a thing apart, but in that form which will make it most serviceable as an introduction to national tongues. A stepping-stone to both ancient and modern languages, Esperanto may render invaluable aid, and pave the way for surmounting the many difficulties confronting both student and teacher. Through Esperanto, the labor in the acquirement of these languages may be reduced in the same proportion in which the pleasure and thoroughness of such acquirement are increased. For this reason, the grammatical constructions of Esperanto are here explained as consistently as possible in accordance with the usage of national languages, especially those in the school curriculum, and precise names are assigned to them. Such matters as contrary to fact conditions, indirect quotations, clauses of purpose and of result, accusatives of time and measure, expressions of separation, reference, etc., thus become familiar to the student, long before he meets them in the more difficult garb of a national tongue, whose exceptions seem to outnumber its rules, and whose idioms prove more puzzling than its exceptions, unless approached by the smooth and gradual ascent of the International Language, Esperanto.


Ivy Kellerman.
Washington, D. C.,
August 3, 1910.


Lesson Contents

1. Alphabet.—Vowels.—Consonants.—Names of the Letters.—Diphthongs.—Combinations of Consonants.—Syllables.—Accent.

2. Nouns.—The Article.—Adjectives.—Attributive Adjectives.—Present Tense of the Verb

3. The Plural Number.—Predicate Adjective and Noun

4. Transitive Verbs.—The Accusative Case.—The Conjunction Kaj.—The Negative Ne.

5. The Complementary Infinitive.—Interrogation.—The Conjunction Nek.

6. Personal Pronouns.—Agreement with Pronouns.—Conjugation of the Verb.

7. The Past Tense.—Prepositions.—Accusative Case of Personal Pronouns.

8. Reflexive Pronouns.—Reflexive Verbs.

9. Limitation of the Third Personal Pronoun.—Possessive Adjectives.—Pronominal Use of Possessive Adjectives.—La Kato kaj la Pasero.

10. The Accusative of Direction.—The Article for the Possessive Adjective.—Apposition.—La Arabo kaj la Kamelo.

11. Possessive Case of Nouns.—Impersonal Verbs.—Verbs Preceding their Subjects.—Coordinating Conjunctions.—La Arabo en la Dezerto.

12. Indirect Statements.—The Indefinite Personal Pronoun Oni.—The Future Tense.—La Ventoflago.

13. The Demonstrative Pronoun Tiu.—Tenses in Indirect Quotations.—Formation of Feminine Nouns.—En la Parko.

14. The Demonstrative Pronoun Ci tiu.—Possessive Form of the Demonstrative Pronoun.—The Suffix -Il-.—The Expression of Means or Instrumentality.—La Mango.

15. The Demonstrative Adjective.—Adverbs Defined and Classified.—Formation of Opposites.—La Ruza Juna Viro.

16. The Demonstrative Adverb of Place.—Accompaniment.—The Adverb For.—The Meaning of Povi.—Malamikoj en la Dezerto.

17. The Demonstrative Temporal Adverb.—Comparison of Adjectives.—Manner and Characteristic.—Diri, Paroli and Rakonti.—Frederiko Granda kaj la Juna Servisto.

18. The Demonstrative Adverb of Motive or Reason.—Derivation of Adverbs.—Comparison of Words Expressing Quantity.—Comparisons Containing Ol.—Causal Clauses.—Pri la Sezonoj.

19. Ju and Des in Comparisons.—The Preposition Inter.—The Preposition Pro.—Prepositions with Adverbs and Other Prepositions.—La Autuno kaj la Vintro.

20. The Demonstrative Adverb of Manner and Degree.—Prepositions Expressing Time-Relations.—En Septembro.

21. The Accusative of Time.—Adverbs and the Accusative of Time.—The Preposition Por.—La Sezonoj kaj la Mondo.

22. Clauses Expressing Duration of Time.—Clauses Expressing Anticipation.—The Infinitive with Anstatau, Por, Antau ol.—The Expression of a Part of the Whole.—Diogeno kaj Aleksandro Granda.

23. Adverbs Expressing a Part of the Whole.—The Demonstrative Adverb of Quantity.—Result Clauses.—En la Butiko.

24. The Interrogative Pronoun.—The Present Active Participle.—Compound Tenses.—The Progressive Present Tense.—The Suffix -Ej-.—En Nia Domo.

25. The Interrogative Adjective.—The Imperfect Tense.—Salutations and Exclamations.—Word Formation.—Koni and Scii.—La Nepo Vizitas la Avinon.

26. The Interrogative Adverb of Place.—The Past Active Participle.—Adverb Derivation from Prepositions.—Adverbs Expressing Direction of Motion.—The Suffix -Eg-.—La Pluvego.

27. The Interrogative Temporal Adverb.—The Perfect Tense.—The Preposition Ce.—The Suffix -Ar-.—Tempo and Fojo.—The Orthography of Proper Names.—Roberto Bruce kaj la Araneo.

28. The Interrogative Adverb of Motive or Reason.— The Infinitive as Subject.—Present Action with Past Inception.—The Suffix -Ul-.—Logi and Vivi.—Pri la Avo kaj la Avino.

29. The Interrogative Adverb of Manner and Degree.—The Pluperfect Tense.—Cardinal Numbers.—The Accusative of Measure.—Nia Familio.

30. The Interrogative Adverb of Quantity.—Modifiers of Impersonally Used Verbs.—Formation of Cardinal Numerals.—The Suffix -An-.—Leciono Pri Aritmetiko.

31. The Relative Pronoun.—The Future Perfect Tense.—Ordinal Numerals.—Alfredo Granda kaj la Libro.

32. Kia as a Relative Adjective.—Kie as a Relative Adverb.—The Future Active Participle.—The Periphrastic Future Tenses.—The Suffix -Ind-.—Alfredo Granda kaj la Kukoj.

33. Kiam as a Relative Adverb.—Kiel as a Relative Adverb.—Numeral Nouns and Adverbs.—Word Derivation from Prepositions.—La Invito.

34. Prepositions as Prefixes.—The Suffix -Ebl-.—Expression of the Highest Degree Possible.—Titles and Terms of Address.—Ce la Festo.

35. Kiom as a Relative Adverb.—The Present Passive Participle.—Fractions.—Descriptive Compounds.—La Hinoj.

36. The Present Passive Tense.—The Use of De to Express Agency.—The General Meaning of De.—Word Derivation from Primary Adverbs.—The Suffix -Ist-.—Antikva Respubliko.

37. The Distributive Pronoun.—The Preposition Po.—Dependent Compounds.—La Capelo sur la Stango.

38. The Distributive Adjective.—The Imperfect Passive Tense.—Compound Tenses of Impersonal Verbs.—Reciprocal Expressions.—The Suffix -Uj-.—Vilhelmo Tell kaj la Pomo.

39. The Distributive Adverb of Place.—The Future Passive Tense.—Possessive Compounds.—The Time of Day.—The Suffix -Obl-.—En la Stacidomo.

40. The Distributive Temporal Adverb.—The Distributive Adverb Cial.—The Past Passive Participle.—The Perfect Passive Tense.—The Preposition Lau.—The Suffix -Em-.—La Perdita Infano.

41. The Distributive Adverb Ciel.—The Distributive Adverb Ciom.—The Pluperfect Passive Tense.—The Future Perfect Passive Tense.—The Expression of Material.—The Suffix -Et-.—La Donaco.

42. The Future Passive Participle.—The Passive Periphrastic Future Tenses.—The Generic Article.—The Suffix -Ec-.—Sur la Vaporsipo.

43. The Indefinite Pronoun.—Participial Nouns.—The Prefix Ek-.—The Suffix -Id-.—La Nesto sur la Tendo.

44. The Indefinite Adjective.—The Indefinite Adverb of Place.—Predicate Nominatives.—La Cevalo kaj la Sonorilo.

45. The Indefinite Temporal Adverb.—The Indefinite Adverb Ial.—Causative Verbs.—Emphasis by Means of Ja.—Ce la Malnova Ponto.

46. The Indefinite Adverb Iel.—The Indefinite Adverb Iom.—The Suffix -Ad-.—The Use of Mem.—Arhimedo kaj la Kronoj.

47. The Negative Pronoun.—The Adverbial Participle.—The Prefix Re-.—La Filozofo Arhimedo.

48. The Negative Adjective.—The Negative Adverb of Place.—The Negative Temporal Adverb.—The Suffix -Aj-.—The Adverb Jen.—Du Artkonkursoj.

49. The Negative Adverbs Nenial, Neniel, Neniom.—The Suffix -Ig-.—La Krepusko.

50. The Pronouns ending in -O.—Correlative Words.—The Use of Ajn.—The Suffix -Ing-.—La Gordia Ligajo.

51. The Pronoun Ambau.—Formations with -Ig- and -Ig-.—Factual Conditions.—La Monahoj kaj la Azeno.

52. The Conditional Mood.—Compound Tenses of the Conditional Mood.—Less Vivid Conditions.—Independent Use of the Conditional Mood.—The Prefix Dis-.—Pri la Gravitado.

53. Conditions Contrary to Fact.—The Verb Devi.—The Preposition Sen.—La Filozofo Sokrato.

54. Summary of Conditions.—Clauses of Imaginative Comparison.—The Use of Al to Express Reference.—The Suffix -Estr-.—La Ostracismo de Aristejdo.

55. The Imperative Mood.—Resolve and Exhortation.—Commands and Prohibitions.—Less Peremptory Uses of the Imperative.—The Use of Mosto.—La Glavo de Damoklo.

56. The Imperative in Subordinate Clauses.—The Preposition Je.—The Suffix -Op-.—La Marsado de la Dekmil Grekoj.

57. Clauses Expressing Purpose.—Further Uses of the Accusative.—Synopsis of the Conjugation of the Verb.—The Suffix -Um-.—La Reirado de la Dekmilo.

58. Permission and Possibility.—The Prefix Ge-.—The Suffix -Ac-.—Interjections.—Aleksandro Granda.

59. The Position of Unemphatic Pronouns.—Some Intransitive Verbs.—The Suffix -Er-.—The Prefixes Bo- and Duon-.—Correspondence.—Kelkaj Leteroj.

60 Some Transitive Verbs.—Elision.—The Prefix Eks-.—The Prefix Pra-.—The Suffixes -Cj- and -Nj-.—Weights and Measures.—The International Money System.—Abbreviations.—Pri La Kamero.


Lesson 1

ALPHABET.

 

1. The Esperanto alphabet contains the following letters: a, b, c, c, d, e, f, g, g, h, h, i, j, j, k, l, m, n, o, p, r, s, s, t, u, u, v, z.

 

VOWELS.

 

2. The vowels of the alphabet are pronounced as follows:

 

a as in far.

 

e as in fiancé, like a in fate.

This "long a" sound in English frequently ends with a vanish,—a brief terminal sound of i, which makes the vowel slightly diphthongal, as in day, aye. Such a vanish must not be given to any of the Esperanto vowels.

 

i as in machine.

 

o as in toll, for.

 

u as in rude, rural.

 

CONSONANTS.

 

3. The consonants b, d, f, h, k, l, m, n, p, t, v, z, are pronounced as in English, and the remaining eleven as follows:

 

c like ts in hats, tsetse.

 

c like ch in chin, much.

 

g like g in go, big.

 

g like g in gem, j in jar.

 

h is produced by expelling the breath forcibly, with the throat only partially open.

As in pronouncing German and Scotch ch, Spanish j, Irish gh, Russian x, Classical Greek ? etc. There are only a few words containing this consonant.

 

j like y in yes, beyond.

 

j like z in azure, s in visual.

 

r is slightly trilled or rolled.

 

s like s in see, basis.

 

s like sh in shine, rash, ch in machine.

 

u like w or consonantal u. See Diphthongs, 5.

 

NAMES OF THE LETTERS.

 

4. The vowels are named by their sounds, as given in 2. The names of the consonants are bo, co, co, do, fo, go, go, ho, ho, jo, jo, ko, lo, mo, no, po, ro, so, so, to, uo, vo, zo. These are used in speaking of the letters, in pronouncing them in abbreviations, as ko to po for k. t. p. (= etc.), and in spelling words, as bo, i, ro, do, o, birdo.

 

DIPHTHONGS.

 

5. Diphthongs are combinations of two vowels uttered as a single sound, by one breath-impulse. The diphthongs in Esperanto contain an i or u sound as the second element, but in order to avoid confusion with combinations of vowels not forming diphthongs (as in naiva, like English naive, etc.), they are written with j and u instead. Their pronunciation is as follows:

 

aj like ai in aisle.

 

ej like ei in vein, ey in they.

 

oj like oi in coin, oy in boy.

 

uj like ui in ruin, u(e)y in gluey.

 

eu like ayw in wayward, or like é(h)oo pronounced together.

 

au like ou in out, ow in owl.

 

COMBINATIONS OF CONSONANTS.

 

6. Each consonant, in a combination of two or more consonants, is pronounced with its full value, whether within a word or at its beginning. There are no silent letters.

 

a. Thus, both consonants are clearly sounded in the groups kn, kv, gv, sv, in such words as knabo, kvin, gvidi, sviso.

 

b. The combination kz, as in ekzisti, ekzameno, must not be modified to the gs or ks represented by x in exist, execute.

 

c. The combination sc, as in escepte, scias, is equivalent to the combination sts in last said, first song, pronounced together rapidly. The s in a word beginning with sc may be sounded with the end of the preceding word, if that word ends in a vowel, as mis-cias for mi scias.

 

d. The n and g are pronounced separately in the combination ng, in such words as lingvo, angulo, producing the sound of ng heard in linger, not that in singer.

 

e. Each of two similar letters is clearly sounded, as interrilato, ellasi, like inter-relate, well-laid.

 

SYLLABLES.

 

7. Each word contains as many syllables as it has vowels and diphthongs. The division of syllables within a word is as follows:

 

a. A single consonant goes with the following vowel, as pa-no, be-la, a-e-ro.

 

b. A consonant followed by l or r (which are liquids) goes with the l or r, as in ta-blo, a-kra, a-gra-bla.

 

c. Otherwise, the syllable division is made before the last consonant of the group, as sus-pek-ti, sank-ta, deks-tra.

 

d. Prefixes are separated from the words to which they are attached, as dis-meti, mal-akra, and compound words are divided into their component parts, as cef-urbo, sun-ombrelo.

 

ACCENT.

 

8. Words of more than one syllable are accented upon the syllable before the last, as tá-blo, a-grá-bla, sus-pék-ti.

 

WORDS FOR PRACTICE.

 

9. (To be pronounced aloud, and correctly accented) Afero, trairi, najbaro, aero, hodiau, pacienco, centono, cielo, ec, samideano, treege, obei, obeu, Europo, gvidi, gojo, ciujn, justa, guste, jugi, jaudo, lingvo, knabo, larga, pagi, kvieteco, ekzemplo, ellerni, fojo, krajono, forrajdi, kuirejo, cevalejo, sankteco, scio, nescio, edzo, meze, duobla, sipo, sargi, poso, svingi, sklavo, palaj, safajo, atmosfero, monaho, geometrio, laudi, vasta, eksplodi, sencesa, sensencajo, malluma, arbaranoj, mango, fresa, auskulti, dauri.


Lesson 2

NOUNS.

 

10. Words which are the names of persons or things are called nouns. The ending, or final letter, of nouns in Esperanto is o:

knabo, boy.

cevalo, horse.

pomo, apple.

tablo, table.

 

THE ARTICLE.

 

11. The definite article is la, the, as la knabo, the boy, la cevalo, the horse, la tablo, the table, la pomo, the apple. In English there is an indefinite article "a, an" for the singular, but none for the plural. Esperanto has no indefinite article for either singular or plural. Therefore knabo may mean boy, or a boy, pomo may mean apple or an apple.

 

ADJECTIVES

 

12. A word used with a noun (expressed or understood) to express a quality or characteristic is called an adjective. The ending of adjectives in Esperanto is a:

bela, beautiful.

flava, yellow.

granda, large.

forta, strong.

 

ATTRIBUTIVE ADJECTIVES.

 

13. An adjective is said to modify a noun whose quality it expresses. When directly preceding or following its noun, it is called an attributive adjective:

 

la granda cevalo, the large horse.

bela birdo, a beautiful bird.

floro flava, a yellow flower.

forta knabo, a strong boy.

 

PRESENT TENSE OF THE VERB.

 

14. Words which express action or condition are called verbs. When representing an act or condition as a fact, and dealing with the present time, they are said to be in the present tense. The ending of all Esperanto verbs in the present tense is -as:

kuras, runs, is running.

flugas, flies, is flying.

brilas, shines, is shining.

dormas, sleeps, is sleeping.

 

15. The person or thing whose action or condition the verb expresses is called the subject of the verb:

 

La suno brilas, the sun shines (is shining), subject: suno.

Knabo kuras, a boy runs (is running), subject: knabo.

 

Vocabulary.

(To be memorized in this and in all following lessons.)

 

bela, beautiful.

birdo, bird.

blanka, white.

bona, good.

brilas, shines, is shining.

cevalo, horse.

dormas, sleeps, is sleeping.

flava, yellow.

floro, flower.

flugas, flies, is flying.

forta, strong,

granda, large.

kaj, and.

kantas, sings, is singing.

knabo, boy.

kuras, runs, is running.

la, the.

luno, moon.

marsas, walks, is walking.

pomo, apple.

suno, sun.

tablo, table.

violo, violet.

viro, man.

 

READING LESSON.

 

1. Bona viro. 2. La granda tablo. 3. Blanka floro. 4. Flava birdo. 5. La bela birdo kantas. 6. Forta knabo kuras. 7. La bona viro marsas. 8. La bela cevalo kuras. 9. La suno brilas. 10. Birdo flugas kaj knabo kuras. 11. Cevalo blanka marsas. 12. La bela luno brilas. 13. La knabo kantas kaj la viro dormas. 14. Bela granda pomo. 15. La bona knabo kantas. 16. La granda cevalo dormas. 17. La suno brilas kaj la luno brilas. 18. Granda forta tablo. 19. Violo flava. 20. La bona flava pomo.

 

SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION.

 

1. A beautiful flower. 2. A good large table. 3. A yellow violet and a white violet. 4. The moon is-shining (shines). 5. The good boy is-walking (walks). 6. The beautiful yellow bird is-flying (flies). 7. The strong man is-sleeping (sleeps). 8. The white bird is-singing (sings). 9. A strong horse runs, and a man walks. 10. The sun shines, and the boy is-singing (sings). 11. The large yellow apple. 12. An apple large and good.


Lesson 3

THE PLURAL NUMBER.

 

16. The plural number of nouns, that is, the form which indicates more than one person or thing, is made by adding -j to the noun, as viroj, men, from viro, man; tabloj, tables, from tablo, table.

 

-oj is pronounced like oy in boy. See 5.

 

17. An adjective modifying a plural noun agrees with it in number, being given the plural form by the addition of the ending -j. An adjective modifying two or more nouns used together is of course given the plural form:

 

bonaj viroj, good men.

grandaj cevaloj, large horses.

belaj birdo kaj floro (bela birdo kaj bela floro), beautiful bird and (beautiful) flower.

 

-aj is pronounced like ai in aisle. See 5.

 

18. The article is invariable, that is, does not change in form when used with plural nouns, as la viro, the man, la viroj, the men. The verb is also invariable in form:

 

La viroj marsas, the men walk, the men are walking.

La suno kaj la luno brilas, the sun and the moon are shining.

La viro estas, the man is.

La viroj estas, the men are.

 

PREDICATE ADJECTIVE AND NOUN.

 

19. When the adjective is a part of that which is told or predicated of the subject of the verb, as when used with the verbs "to be," "to seem," etc., it is called a predicate adjective:

 

La birdo estas bela, the bird is beautiful.

La knabo sajnas bona, the boy seems good.

La viroj estas fortaj, the men are strong.

 

20. A noun may also be used as part of the predicate, and is then called a predicate noun:

 

Violoj estas floroj, violets are flowers.

La kolombo estas birdo, the dove is a bird.

 

21. Predicate nouns and adjectives agree in number with the word or words with which they are in predicate relation:

 

Rozoj estas belaj, roses are beautiful.

La knabo kaj la viro sajnas fortaj, the boy and the man seem strong.

 

Vocabulary.

 

alta, high, tall.

arbo, tree.

cambro, room.

domo, house.

en, in.

estas, is, are.

folio, leaf.

fresa, fresh.

gardeno, garden.

kampo, field.

kolombo, dove.

kusas, lies, is lying, lie.

longa, long.

rozo, rose.

ruga, red.

sego, chair.

sidas, sits, sit, is sitting.

sur, on.

sajnas, seems, seem.

verda, green.

 

READING LESSON.

 

1. La alta viro estas en la gardeno. 2. Blanka cevalo estas en la kampo. 3. Belaj birdoj sidas sur la verda arbo. 4. La bonaj knaboj estas en la domo. 5. La cambroj en la bela domo estas grandaj. 6. Fresaj floroj kusas sur la tablo. 7. La violoj en la kampo estas belaj. 8. La luno kaj la suno sajnas grandaj. 9. La kolomboj estas belaj birdoj. 10. La knaboj sajnas fortaj. 11. Rugaj pomoj estas sur la tablo en la cambro. 12. La fortaj viroj sidas sur segoj en la longa cambro. 13. La arboj estas altaj kaj verdaj. 14. La kolomboj sur la arboj kantas. 15. Fortaj cevaloj marsas kaj kuras en la verdaj kampoj. 16. La knaboj dormas en la granda domo. 17. Rugaj, flavaj, kaj verdaj folioj estas en la gardeno. 18. Longa tablo estas en la domo. 19. Belaj birdoj flugas kaj kantas en la kampo. 20. Fresaj rozoj sajnas belaj. 21. La folioj estas verdaj kaj rugaj.

 

SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION.

 

1. The trees in the garden are tall and green. 2. The rooms in the house are long. 3. The flowers on the table are red, yellow and white. 4. The leaves are long and green. 5. The men are-sitting (sit) on chairs in the garden. 6. In the garden are yellow roses. 7. The birds in the field are doves. 8. The boys in the room in the house seem tall. 9. Fresh violets are beautiful flowers. 10. The horses in the green fields seem strong. 11. Doves are-singing (sing) in the garden. 12. The men in the large house sleep. 13. The house is long and high, and the rooms in the house are large. 14. Red and yellow apples lie on the big table. 15. Green leaves are on the trees in the large garden.


Lesson 4

TRANSITIVE VERBS.

 

22. The verbs so far given have been intransitive verbs, expressing a state or an action limited to the subject, and not immediately affecting any other person or thing, as la knabo kuras, the boy runs. On the other hand a transitive verb expresses an act of the subject upon some person or thing; as, la knabo trovas — —, the boy finds — —.

 

THE ACCUSATIVE CASE.

 

23. The person or thing acted upon is called the direct object of a transitive verb, and is given the ending -n. This is called the accusative ending; and the word to which it is attached is said to be in the accusative case:

 

La viro havas segon, the man has a chair.

La knabo trovas florojn, the boy finds flowers.

 

The ending -n follows the ending -j, if the word to be put in the accusative case is in the plural number.

 

24. An attributive adjective modifying a noun in the accusative case is made to agree in case, by addition of the same accusative ending -n. This prevents any doubt as to which of two or more nouns in a sentence is modified by the adjective, and permits of variation in the order of the words:

 

La knabo trovas belan floron, the boy finds a beautiful flower.

Florojn belajn la viro havas, the man has beautiful flowers.

La viro havas grandan segon, the man has a large chair.

Rugan rozon la knabo havas, the boy has a red rose.

 

25. A predicate adjective or noun (19) is never in the accusative case, nor is the accusative ending ever attached to the article, which is invariable as stated in 18.

 

THE CONJUNCTION KAJ.

 

26. In the expression both … and … , the conjunction kaj is used for both words, being merely repeated:

 

La viro kaj marsas kaj kuras, the man both walks and runs.

La cevalo estas kaj granda kaj forta, the horse is both large and strong.

La knabo havas kaj rozojn kaj violojn, the boy has both roses and violets.

Kaj la knabo kaj la viro estas altaj, both the boy and the man are tall.

 

THE NEGATIVE NE.

 

27. The negative word meaning "not" when forming part of a sentence, and "no" when used as an answer to a question, is ne. When used as a sentence-negative, it usually immediately precedes the verb. For emphatic negation of some other word than the verb, ne may precede that word:

 

Violoj ne estas rugaj, violets are not red.

La viroj ne sidas sur segoj, the men are-not-sitting on chairs.

La kolombo kantas, ne flugas, the dove is-singing, not flying.

La domo estas blanka, ne verda, the house is white, not green.

 

Vocabulary.

 

apud, near, in the vicinity of.

benko, bench.

branco, branch.

diversa, various.

felica, happy.

frukto, fruit.

havas, have, has.

herbo, grass.

ili, they.

kolektas, gather, collect.

koloro, color.

larga, wide, broad.

mangas, eat, eats.

mola, soft.

nigra, black.

ne, not, no.

rompas, break, breaks.

sed, but.

trovas, find, finds.

vidas, see, sees.

 

READING LESSON.

 

1. La knaboj ne estas en la cambro en la blanka domo. 2. Ili estas en la granda gardeno. 3. La gardeno sajnas kaj longa kaj larga. 4. La felicaj knaboj vidas la belan gardenon. 5. Ili vidas florojn apud alta arbo. 6. La floroj havas diversajn kolorojn. 7. La knaboj kolektas kaj rugajn kaj flavajn florojn. 8. Sed ili ne trovas fruktojn en la gardeno. 9. Florojn blankajn ili ne vidas. 10. La alta arbo havas verdajn foliojn sur la brancoj. 11. La knaboj rompas brancon, kaj kolektas la fruktojn. 12. Ili vidas florojn sur la brancoj, sed la florojn ili ne kolektas. 13. La knaboj ne sidas sur benkoj en la gardeno, sed kusas sur la mola herbo. 14. La kolomboj sidas sur la arboj, kaj ili estas felicaj. 15. La knaboj vidas la belajn birdojn. 16. Fortaj nigraj cevaloj mangas la herbon en la kampo. 17. La knaboj vidas la cevalojn, sed la cevaloj ne vidas la knabojn. 18. La cevaloj ne dormas, ili mangas. 19. La fresa herbo estas verda kaj mola. 20. Felicaj estas kaj la knaboj kaj la cevaloj. 21. La pomo estas bona frukto.

 

SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION.

 

1. Green leaves are on the trees. 2. The boys break branches and gather the apples. 3. They are near the tall tree in the garden. 4. They find leaves on the tree, but they do not see the fruit. 5. The house is long, broad and high. 6. The rooms in the house are both long and wide. 7. The men have strong black horses. 8. The horses eat the fresh green grass in the field. 9. The men sit on benches in the garden. 10. The boys do not sleep, but they lie on the soft grass. 11. They see both the birds and the flowers, and they seem happy. 12. The flowers have various colors, but the grass is green. 13. The doves are not sitting on the tree, they are flying near the trees. 14. Beautiful red roses are lying on the table in the house. 15. The large red apples are near the yellow roses.


Lesson 5

THE COMPLEMENTARY INFINITIVE.

 

28. The infinitive is a form of the verb which expresses merely the general idea of the action or condition indicated, and has some of the characteristics of a noun. The ending of the infinitive is -i, as kuri, to run, esti, to be, havi, to have.

 

29. An infinitive used to complete the meaning of another verb, serving as a direct object to a transitive verb, is called a complementary infinitive. If the complementary infinitive is from a transitive verb, it may itself have a direct object:

 

La knabo volas kuri, the boy wishes to run.

Birdoj satas kanti, birds like to sing.

La knabo volas havi cevalon, the boy wishes to have a horse.

Ili volas trovi florojn, they wish to find flowers.

 

INTERROGATION.

 

30. An interrogative sentence is one which asks a question. Unless some directly interrogative word (as "who," "when," "why," etc.) is used, the sentence is rendered interrogative by use of the word cu. This interrogative particle is placed at the beginning of a sentence, the words of which are left in the same order as for a statement. Since there is no inversion of order, there is no necessity for a word like English "do" or "does," to introduce the verb:

 

Cu la knabo estas bona? Is the boy good?

Cu ili havas florojn? Have they flowers?

Cu la kolomboj kantas? Do the doves sing? (Are the doves singing?)

 

THE CONJUNCTION NEK.

 

31. In the expression neither … nor … , the conjunction nek is used for both words. Since an adjective modifier of two or more words connected by nek must necessarily modify them separately, the adjective remains in the singular number:

 

Ili nek marsas nek kuras, they neither walk nor run.

La viro havas nek domon nek gardenon, the man has neither a house nor a garden.

Nek la rozo nek la violo estas verda, neither the rose nor the violet is green.

 

Vocabulary.

(Verbs will hereafter be quoted in the infinitive form.)

 

bruna, brown.

cerizo, cherry.

cu, (30).

dolca, sweet.

gusto, taste.

gi, it.

Gertrude, Gertrude.

knabino, girl.

matura, ripe.

Mario, Mary.

nek, neither, nor.

persiko, peach.

jes, yes.

preferi, to prefer.

sati, to like.

voli, to wish.

 

READING LESSON.

 

1. Cu persiko estas ruga? 2. Jes, gi estas kaj ruga kaj dolca. 3. Cu cerizoj estas brunaj? 4. Ne, ili estas nek brunaj nek nigraj, sed flavaj. 5. Cu la pomo estas frukto? Jes, gi estas bona frukto. 6. Cu la viro kaj la knabo havas pomojn? 7. Ne, ili havas nek pomojn nek persikojn. 8. Cu Mario havas la maturan frukton? 9. Mario kaj Gertrudo havas la frukton. 10. Ili estas en la domo, kaj mangas la maturan frukton. 11. La persikoj havas dolcan guston. 12. La knabinoj volas havi florojn, sed la knaboj preferas kolekti diversajn fruktojn. 13. Ili volas trovi maturajn cerizojn kaj flavajn persikojn. 14. La cerizoj havas belan rugan koloron. 15. La persikoj sajnas molaj kaj bonaj. 16. Mario rompas brancon, kaj vidas cerizojn sur la brancoj. 17. Gertrudo estas felica, kaj volas havi la belan frukton. 18. Gertrudo estas alta, bela knabino. 19. Mario satas cerizojn. 20. La knaboj kaj knabinoj sidas sur la verda herbo, kaj mangas la cerizojn. 21. Ili ne volas mangi pomojn, ili preferas la dolcajn cerizojn. 22. La folioj apud la cerizoj estas nek largaj nek longaj.

 

SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION.

 

1. Have the girls beautiful flowers? 2. No, they have fresh fruit. 3. The boys do not wish to gather flowers. 4. They prefer to break the branches, and find the sweet cherries. 5. Gertrude wishes to eat apples, but Mary has neither apples nor peaches. 6. Do the girls like to sit in the house and eat fruit? 7. Yes, they like to sit in the house, but they prefer to walk in the field. 8. Are ripe peaches brown? 9. No, they are red and yellow. 10. Has the peach a sweet taste? 11. Do the girls see the beautiful black horses in the fields? 12. Yes, they see the horses, but the horses seem not to see the girls. 13. Mary sits on the soft green grass, and eats ripe fruit.


Lesson 6

PERSONAL PRONOUNS.

 

32. Words which stand in the place of nouns, as "you," "he," "who," "which," are called pronouns. Pronouns referring to the person speaking (I, we), the person addressed (you, thou), or the person or thing spoken of (he, she, it, they), are called personal pronouns. They are considered singular or plural, according to whether they refer to one or more persons. Since the meaning of such pronouns indicates the number, no plural ending is ever attached to them. The personal pronouns are:

 

First person: mi, I (me). ni, we (us).

 

Second person: vi, you. vi, you.

 

Third person: li, he (him).

si, she (her).

gi, it. ili, they (them).

 

There is another pronoun ci, thou, for the second person singular, used in solemn style, as in the Bible, in poetry, and also for intimate or familiar address when desired, like German du, French tu, etc.

 

AGREEMENT WITH PRONOUNS.

 

33. Nouns in predicate relation with pronouns, or adjectives modifying such pronouns, are made to agree with them in number:

 

Ni estas bonaj kaj felicaj, we are good and happy.

Rozoj estas floroj, ill ne estas fruktoj, roses are flowers, they are not fruits.

Gertrudo, vi estas bona, Gertrude, you are good.

Knabinoj, cu vi estas felicaj? Girls, are you happy?

 

CONJUGATION OF THE VERB.

 

34. Any pronoun may serve as the subject of a verb. The combination of the verb with each of the personal pronouns in succession for its subject, is called the conjugation of the verb. Following is the conjugation of the present tense of esti, and of vidi:

 

mi estas, I am.

vi estas, you are.

li (si, gi) estas, he (she, it) is.

ni estas, we are.

vi estas, you (plural) are.

ili estas, they are.

 

mi vidas, I see.

vi vidas, you see.

li (si, gi) vidas, he (she, it) sees.

ni vidas, we see.

vi vidas, you (plural) see.

ili vidas, they see.

 

Vocabulary.

 

al, to, toward.

Arturo, Arthur.

au, or (au.. au.., either.. or..)

car, because.

doni, to give.

fali, to fall.

fenestro, window.

hodiau, today.

kudri, to sew.

Roberto, Robert.

skui, to shake.

stari, to stand.

sub, under, beneath.

virino, woman.

 

READING LESSON.

 

1. Knaboj, cu vi volas sidi en la domo, au en la gardeno? 2. Ni preferas sidi hodiau en la gardeno, sub la granda arbo. 3. Cu vi havas pomojn, au cerizojn? 4. Ni havas nek pomojn nek cerizojn, sed ni havas dolcajn persikojn. 5. Arturo donas al vi la maturajn persikojn, car li satas kolekti frukton. 6. Arturo, cu vi rompas la brancojn? 7. Ne, sed mi skuas brancon, kaj la persikoj falas. 8. Mi staras sub la arbo, kaj kolektas la dolcan frukton. 9. La frukton mi donas al Mario kaj Gertrudo. 10. Mi volas doni persikon al Heleno, sed hodiau si estas en la domo. 11. Si sidas apud la fenestro kaj kudras. 12. Si preferas kudri, kaj volas nek marsi nek sidi en la gardeno. 13. Kaj si kaj la virino apud si volas kudri hodiau. 14. Ili estas felicaj, car ili vidas la birdojn en la arbo apud la fenestro. 15. La birdoj estas kolomboj, kaj sidas sur la arbo. 16. Sub la arboj en la kampo staras cevaloj, kaj ili mangas la verdan molan herbon. 17. Ni donas pomojn al ili, car ili satas pomojn. 18. Ni estas felicaj, car ni havas belajn persikojn maturajn kaj bonajn. 19. Roberto, vi estas alta, sed vi, knabinoj, ne estas altaj.

 

SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION.

 

1. Does Arthur break the branch and gather the apples? 2. No, he shakes the branch, and the apples fall. 3. They are ripe and sweet. 4. Robert, do you wish to stand beneath the tree? 5. No, I do not wish to stand under it, but near it. 6. I wish to give both the peaches and the apples to the woman. 7. She is sitting in the house, near the window. 8. Mary is sitting in (on) a chair near her. 9. Both Mary and the woman are sewing. 10. They prefer to sew, and do not wish to walk in the garden to-day. 11. They are happy because they like to sew. 12. They do not wish to gather flowers, or walk, or see the birds. 13. They have neither apples nor peaches, but they do not wish to eat. 14. They give the fruit to the boys and girls.


Lesson 7

THE PAST TENSE.

 

35. The past tense of the verb expresses an action which took place in past time, or a condition which existed in past time. The ending of this tense is -is, as kuris, ran, flugis, flew, brilis, shone. The conjugation of esti and also of vidi in the past tense is as follows:

 

mi estis, I was.

vi estis, you were.

li (si, gi) estis, he (she, it) was.

ni estis, we were.

vi estis, you (plural) were.

ili estis, they were.

 

mi vidis, I saw.

vi vidis, you saw.

li (si, gi) vidis, he (she, it) saw.

ni vidis, we saw.

vi vidis, you (plural) saw.

ili vidis, they saw.

 

PREPOSITIONS.

 

36. A preposition is a word like "in," "on," placed before a noun or pronoun to indicate some relation between this and another word. The preposition is said to govern the noun or pronoun, which is called its complement. In English, the complement of a preposition seems to be put in the accusative case if it is a pronoun, but to remain unchanged in form if it is a noun. In Esperanto the preposition does not affect the form of the word governed, which remains in the nominative case:

 

La arbo estas en la gardeno, the tree is in the garden.

Bonaj pomoj estas sur gi, good apples are on it.

Mi donis cerizojn al li, I gave cherries to him.

La knabo estas apud mi, the boy is near me.

Sub la arbo staris cevalo, under the tree stood a horse.

 

ACCUSATIVE CASE OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS.

 

37. For use as the object of a verb, any pronoun may be put in the accusative case by addition of the accusative ending -n (23):

 

La viro vidis vin kaj min, the man saw you and me.

Li vidis ilin kaj nin, he saw them and us.

Mi vidis nek lin nek sin, I saw neither him nor her.

Ni volas havi gin, we wish to have it.

 

Vocabulary.

 

agrabla, pleasant, agreeable.

bildo, picture.

blua, blue.

danki, to thank.

de, from.

diri, to say.

infano, child.

interesa, interesting.

luma, light (not dark).

muro, wall.

nun, now.

planko, floor.

pordo, door.

rigardi, to look (at).

tapiso, carpet.

tra, through.

 

READING LESSON.

 

1. Hodiau la knaboj kaj knabinoj estas en la granda domo. 2. Ili staras apud la tablo, en agrabla luma cambro. 3. Gi havas altajn largajn fenestrojn. 4. Sub la tablo kaj segoj, mola tapiso kusas sur la planko. 5. La tapiso havas belajn kolorojn, rugan, bluan, flavan, kaj verdan. 6. Virino marsis tra la pordo, kaj staris apud la tablo. 7. Si havis interesajn bildojn, kaj donis ilin al la knaboj kaj la knabinoj. 8. Si diris "Cu vi volas rigardi la bildojn?" 9. "Jes, ni dankas vin," diris la infanoj, kaj si donis al ili la bildojn. 10. Granda bildo falis de la tablo, sed Arturo nun havas gin. 11. Li donas gin al Mario, si dankas lin, kaj donas gin al Roberto. 12. Ili volis doni gin al Gertrudo, sed si diris "Ne, mi dankas vin, mi ne satas rigardi bildojn." 13. Si marsis de la tablo al la fenestro kaj diris "Mi preferas kudri." 14. Si volis sidi en granda sego apud la fenestro. 15. La virino rigardis sin kaj diris "Mi donis la bildojn al vi, knaboj kaj knabinoj," car ili estas interesaj bildoj. 16. Gertrudo diris "Vi estas bona al ni, sed mi volas sidi apud la pordo au la fenestro. 17. Mi kolektis dolcajn violojn en la gardeno, kaj nun mi volas rigardi la dolcajn florojn, kaj kudri."

 

SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION.

 

1. Do the boys and girls wish to be good? 2. They gathered fresh flowers and gave them to the woman. 3. The happy children were in the garden, but now they are in the house. 4. The rooms in the house are light, because they have large wide windows. 5. The doors in the room are wide and high. 6. The carpets on the floor seem soft, and have various beautiful colors. 7. A large strong table stands near the door. 8. We can sit near the table and look through the windows. 9. Gertrude is-looking-at the various pictures. 10. She looks-at them, and seems to be happy. 11. She gave a picture to me and I thanked her. 12. Helen walked near the table and shook it. 13. Arthur did not see the pictures because they were lying on the floor. 14. He looked-at the pictures on the wall, but they are neither interesting nor beautiful. 15. Robert looked through the window, and saw us in the pleasant garden.