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This Masters' dissertation, originally presented in Portuguese at the University of Coimbra (Portugal), has as its main goal reconstructing the multiple events which took place during the episodes of the central section of the Trojan Cycle, that is, all the episodes which occurred between the end of the plot of "Iliad" and beginning of the "Odyssey". With the goal of reaching that primary objective we will resort to the establishment of multiple intertextualities and to the reading of diverse iconographic sources. This work will begin by succinctly debating the existence of some fragilities in the "Epitome of the Chrestomathy of Proclus", a source that tends to be considered one of the most important pieces of evidence for what took place in each of these episodes. In a second moment we will present you several other literary sources that reference each of these episodes – including texts by Aeschylus, Pindar, Euripides, Virgil, or Ovid, but also texts a lot less known or studied, such as the "Excidium Troiae" or some of Tzetzes' productions – always paying special attention to the several references, and relationships, which are created in the context of those episodes that we seek to reconstruct. In third place, the evidence collected will then be used in an attempt to reconstruct the several events which would have their place in that central section of the Trojan Cycle, with that synthesis being based in multiple direct evidence that the texts and images have to offer us.

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Faculty of Letters of the University of Coimbra

Table of Contents

Title Page

Themes of the Trojan Cycle: Contribution to the Study of the Greek Mythological Tradition

1. Introduction and literature review

2. The Trojan Cycle and the problem of the Epitome of the Chrestomathy of Proclus

3. Some sources of the Trojan Cycle

3.1. The Iliad

3.2. The Odyssey

3.3. The fragments of the Aethiopis, the Little Iliad, the Sack of Troy and the Returns

3.4. Aeschylus’ Oresteia

3.5. The lost plays of Aeschylus

3.6. The odes of Pindar

3.7. Sophocles’ Ajax

3.8. Sophocles’ Philoctetes

3.9. Sophocles’ lost plays

3.10. Euripides’ Andromache

3.11. Euripides’ Electra

3.12. Euripides’ Hecuba

3.13. Euripides’ Helen

3.14. Euripides’ Trojan Women

3.15. Euripides’ Orestes

3.16. Euripides’ lost plays

3.17. Alexandra, attributed to Lycophron

3.18. Virgil’s Aeneid

3.19. Hyginus’ Fables

3.20. Parthenius’ Of the Sorrows of Love

3.21. Ovid’s Letters of the Heroines

3.22. Ovid’s Metamorphoses

3.23. Conon’s Narrations

3.24. Seneca’s Agamemnon

3.25. Seneca’s Trojan Women

3.26. The Library, attributed to Apollodorus

3.27. Dio Chrysostom’s Discourses

3.28. Ptolemaeus Chennos’ New History

3.29. Pausanias’ Description of Greece

3.30. Lucian’s Dialogues of the Dead

3.31. Philostratus’ On Heroes

3.32. Quintus of Smyrna’s Posthomerica

3.33. Dictys Cretensis’ Chronicle of the Trojan War

3.34. Dares Phrygius’ History of the Destruction of Troy

3.35. Triphiodorus’ Sack of Troy

3.36. Fulgentius’ Mythologies

3.37. The Excidium Troiae

3.38. The Vatican Mythographers

3.39. Tzetzes’ Antehomerica, Homerica and Posthomerica

3.40. Benoît de Saint-Maure’s Romance of Troy

4.1. The story of Penthesilea4.1.1. The episode of Penthesilea and its position in relation to the Iliad

4.1.2. Penthesilea’s participation in the Trojan War

4.1.3. Penthesilea in battle

4.1.4. The death of Penthesilea and Thersites

4.2.2. Memnon in combat, the death of Antilochus and the battle with Achilles

4.2.3. The death of Memnon

4.3.2. The recovery of Achilles’ body

4.3.3. Achilles’ funeral

4.3.4. The funeral games of Achilles and the challenge for his armour

4.3.5. Ajax’s suicide

4.4.2. The coming of Neoptolemus

4.4.3. Eurypylus’ battle with Neoptolemus

4.5. Philoctetes and the death of Paris4.5.1. The return of Philoctetes

4.5.2. The death of Paris

4.5.3. Paris and Oenone

4.5.4. Helenus and the requisites for the conquest of Troy

4.6.2. The artifice of the horse

4.6.3. The Trojans’ decision

4.6.4. Helen and the voices of the Greeks’ wives

4.6.5. The initial attack to the city

4.6.7. The episode of Antenor

4.6.8. The episode of Aeneas

4.6.9. The fates of Deiphobus, Helen and Aethra

4.6.10. Ajax the Lesser and the rape of Cassandra

4.6.11. Astyanax’s death

4.6.12. The fate of Polyxena

4.6.13. The fates of Cassandra, Andromache, Hecuba and Laodice

4.7. The Returns

4.7.1. The return of Ajax the Lesser

4.7.2. The return of Helen and Menelaus

4.7.3. The episode of Nauplius

4.7.4. The return of Agamemnon

4.7.5. The return of Neoptolemus and Helenus

4.7.6. The returns of Diomedes and Nestor

4.7.7. Other returns

Editions, translations and commentaries

Studies

Other Resources

Also By Miguel Carvalho Abrantes

 

Copyright © 2018 Miguel Carvalho AbrantesAll rights reserved. This book or any portion thereof may not be reproduced or used in any manner whatsoever without the express written permission of the publisher.

Themes of the Trojan Cycle – Contribution to the study of the greek mythological tradition

Technical Information:

Type of work

Master’s Dissertation

Title

THEMES OF THE TROJAN CYCLE

CONTRIBUTION TO THE STUDY OF THE GREEK MYTHOLOGICAL TRADITION

Author

Miguel Ruben Faria de Carvalho Abrantes

Orientator

Luísa de Nazaré Ferreira

Coorientator

Robert S. J. Garland

Course Identification

2nd Cycle in Classical Studies

Scientific Area

Classical Studies

Specialty/Branch

Classical Cultures and Literatures

Date

2015

[Symbol of the University of Coimbra]

Special Thanks

To Plato, Jesus, Cicero, Ovid (Naso magister erat!), Porphyry, Saint Augustine, Tzetzes, and all those countless figures who led me to study the many areas of Classical Studies.

To the four people who, again and again, made me continue.

To the most beautiful of all women, she knows who she is.

To Elisabete Cação, for the many questions she answered me across my Masters.

To the Professors Robert S. J. Garland and Luísa de Nazaré Ferreira, for having accepted to accompany and coordinate me in this voyage.

To the Professors who, in Portugal and outside of it, across the years taught me so much, with a bigger thank you to Carlos F. Clamote Carreto, Delfim Ferreira Leão, João Rasga and Nair de Nazaré Castro Soares.

To the colleagues from the “Residência Universitária da Alegria”, who always received me so well in Coimbra.

To whoever raised me, for the presence or the absence.

To all of those who, today and always, inspire me.

Index

ABSTRACT......................................................................................................................3

PRELIMINARY NOTES...............................................................................................5

1. Introduction and literature review.....................................................................7

2. The Trojan Cycle and the problem of the Epitome of the Chrestomathy of Proclus................15

3. Some sources of the Trojan Cycle....................................................................19

3.1. The Iliad............................................................................................................20

3.2. The Odyssey....................................................................................................21

3.3. The fragments of the Aethiopis, the Little Iliad, the Sack of Troy and the Returns  21

3.4. Aeschylus’ Oresteia.......................................................................................22

3.5. The lost plays of Aeschylus.........................................................................23

3.6. The odes of Pindar.........................................................................................23

3.7. Sophocles’ Ajax..............................................................................................23

3.8. Sophocles’ Philoctetes.................................................................................24

3.9. Sophocles’ lost plays.....................................................................................24

3.10. Euripides’ Andromache.............................................................................24

3.11. Euripides’ Electra.......................................................................................25

3.12. Euripides’ Hecuba.......................................................................................25

3.13. Euripides’ Helen..........................................................................................25

3.14. Euripides’ Trojan Women.........................................................................26

3.15. Euripides’ Orestes.......................................................................................26

3.16. Euripides’ lost plays...................................................................................26

3.17. Alexandra, attributed to Lycophron......................................................27

3.18. Virgil’s Aeneid..............................................................................................28

3.19. Hyginus’ Fables...........................................................................................28

3.20. Parthenius’ Of the Sorrows of Love.......................................................29

3.21. Ovid’s Letters of the Heroines................................................................30

3.22. Ovid’s Metamorphoses..............................................................................30

3.23. Conon’s Narrations.....................................................................................31

3.24. Seneca’s Agamemnon................................................................................31

3.25. Seneca’s Trojan Women............................................................................31

3.26. The Library, attributed to Apollodorus.................................................31

3.27. Dio Chrysostom’s Discourses..................................................................32

3.28. Ptolemaeus Chennos’ New History........................................................33

3.29. Pausanias’ Description of Greece...........................................................34

3.30. Lucian’s Dialogues of the Dead..............................................................34

3.31. Philostratus’ On Heroes............................................................................35

3.32. Quintus of Smyrna’s Posthomerica........................................................36

3.33. Dictys Cretensis’ Chronicle of the Trojan War...................................36

3.34. Dares Phrygius’ History of the Destruction of Troy.........................37

3.35. Triphiodorus’ Sack of Troy.......................................................................38

3.36. Fulgentius’ Mythologies............................................................................38

3.37. The Excidium Troiae..................................................................................39

3.38. The Vatican Mythographers.....................................................................40

3.39. Tzetzes’ Antehomerica, Homerica and Posthomerica......................41

3.40. Benoît de Saint-Maure’s Romance of Troy..........................................43

4. Some episodes of the Trojan Cycle..................................................................45

4.1. The story of Penthesilea..............................................................................47

4.1.1. The episode of Penthesilea and its position in relation to the Iliad................47

4.1.2. Penthesilea’s participation in the Trojan War..............................48

4.1.3. Penthesilea in battle.............................................................................49

4.1.4. The death of Penthesilea and Thersites..........................................50

4.2. The story of Memnon....................................................................................53

4.2.1. Memnon’s arrival in Troy....................................................................53

4.2.2. Memnon in combat, the death of Antilochus and the battle with Achilles................53

4.2.3. The death of Memnon..........................................................................55

4.3. The death and funeral of Achilles.............................................................59

4.3.1. The death of Achilles............................................................................59

4.3.2. The recovery of Achilles’ body...........................................................62

4.3.3. Achilles’ funeral.....................................................................................63

4.3.4. The funeral games of Achilles and the challenge for his armor................64

4.3.5. Ajax’s suicide..........................................................................................65

4.4. The episode of Eurypylus and Neoptolemus.........................................67

4.4.1.  The coming of Eurypylus....................................................................67

4.4.2.  The coming of Neoptolemus.............................................................67

4.4.3.  Eurypylus’ battle with Neoptolemus..............................................69

4.5. Philoctetes and the death of Paris............................................................71

4.5.1. The return of Philoctetes.....................................................................71

4.5.2. The death of Paris.................................................................................72

4.5.3. Paris and Oenone...................................................................................73

4.5.4. Helenus and the requisites for the conquest of Troy..................75

4.6. The artifice of the horse and the conquest of Troy.............................77

4.6.1. The taking of the Palladium...............................................................77

4.6.2. The artifice of the horse......................................................................78

4.6.3. The Trojans’ decision...........................................................................81

4.6.4. Helen and the voices of the Greeks’ wives....................................83

4.6.5. The initial attack to the city...............................................................83

4.6.6. The death of Priam................................................................................84

4.6.7. The episode of Antenor........................................................................85

4.6.8. The episode of Aeneas..........................................................................85

4.6.9. The fates of Deiphobus, Helen and Aethra....................................86

4.6.10. Ajax the Lesser and the rape of Cassandra.................................88

4.6.11. Astyanax’s death..................................................................................90

4.6.12. The fate of Polyxena...........................................................................90

4.6.13. The fates of Cassandra, Andromache, Hecuba and Laodice..92

4.7. The Returns.....................................................................................................95

4.7.1. The return of Ajax the Lesser............................................................95

4.7.2. The return of Helen and Menelaus..................................................95

4.7.3. The episode of Nauplius......................................................................96

4.7.4. The return of Agamemnon..................................................................97

4.7.5. The return of Neoptolemus and Helenus.......................................98

4.7.6. The returns of Diomedes and Nestor..............................................99

4.7.7. Other returns..........................................................................................99

CONCLUSION...........................................................................................................101

BIBLIOGRAPHY........................................................................................................105

RESUMO

Esta dissertação de Mestrado tem como principal objectivo reconstruir os múltiplos eventos que tomavam lugar durante os episódios da parte central do Ciclo Troiano, ou seja, todos aqueles que ocorriam entre o final da trama da Ilíada e o princípio da Odisseia. Com a intenção de se atingir esse objectivo primário, iremos recorrer ao estabelecimento de múltiplas intertextualidades e à leitura de diversas fontes iconográficas.

Esse trabalho principiará por discutir, sucintamente, a existência de algumas fragilidades no Epítome da Crestomatia de Proclo, fonte que tende a ser considerada como uma das mais importantes evidências para o que teve lugar nos episódios aqui em consideração.

Num segundo momento serão apresentadas outras fontes literárias que fazem referência a cada um desses episódios – incluindo textos de Ésquilo, Píndaro, Eurípides, Virgílio ou Ovídio, mas também obras muito menos conhecidas e estudadas, como o Excidium Troiae ou alguns dos textos de Tzetzes – prestando-se particular atenção às várias referências e relações que são feitas no contexto desses episódios que pretendemos reconstruir.

Em terceiro lugar, as evidências recolhidas serão usadas numa tentativa de reconstrução dos vários eventos que teriam lugar nessa parte central do Ciclo Troiano, sendo essa síntese baseada nas diversas provas directas que os textos e imagens têm para nos oferecer.

Palavras-chave: Ciclo Troiano, Proclo, Mitologia, Literatura, Iconografia.

––––––––

ABSTRACT

This Masters' dissertation has as its main goal reconstructing the multiple events which took place during the episodes of the central section of the Trojan Cycle, that is, all the episodes which occurred between the end of the plot of Iliad and beginning of the Odyssey. With the goal of reaching that primary objective we will resort to the establishment of multiple intertextualities and to the reading of diverse iconographic sources.

This work will begin by succinctly debating the existence of some fragilities in the Epitome of the Chrestomathy of Proclus, a source that tends to be considered one of the most important pieces of evidence for what took place in each of these episodes.

In a second moment we will present you several other literary sources that reference each of these episodes – including texts by Aeschylus, Pindar, Euripides, Virgil, or Ovid, but also texts a lot less known or studied, such as the Excidium Troiae or some of Tzetzes' productions – always paying special attention to the several references, and relationships, which are created in the context of those episodes that we seek to reconstruct.

In third place, the evidence collected will then be used in an attempt to reconstruct the several events which would have their place in that central section of the Trojan Cycle, with that synthesis being based in multiple direct evidence that the texts and images have to offer us.

Keywords: Trojan Cycle, Proclus, Mythology, Literature, Iconography.

Preliminary notes

Since the author of this dissertation does not have a degree in Classics, has little knowledge of Latin and close to none of Ancient Greek, he could only work on texts and studies that already existed in Portuguese, English, French or Spanish. In spite of that difficulty in accessing the original texts, the theme of this dissertation was chosen, most of all, due to the fascination that some of the episodes of the Trojan Cycle exert in the author, and by his will in continuing to develop research centered on the study of Greek and Latin mythology.

The abbreviations for the Greek works here cited are the ones from H. G. Liddell-R. Scott-H. Stuart Jones (eds.), A Greek-English Lexicon (Oxford, 1996). For the Latin authors, the ones of P. G. W. Glare (ed.), Oxford Latin Dictionary (Oxford, 1982). For works and authors not mentioned in these dictionaries, more direct references were used (for example, “Dict.” for the work of Dictys of Crete) or simplifications that allow us to easily understand what work we are talking about (for example, “ET” for the Excidium Troiae).

In the translation of Greek and Latin names to Portuguese we followed the work of M. H. Ureña Prieto et alii, Índices de nomes próprios gregos e latinos (Lisboa, 1995).

The articles of the Oxford Classical Dictionary (Oxford, 31996,  consulted in the digital version 3.53, 2000) are identified with the sigla OCD.

Across this dissertation we make several references to an “Epic Cycle” and a “Trojan Cycle”. We should clarify that the second designation alludes exclusively to the episodes of the Epic Cycle that relate directly to the Trojan War, beginning with the ones which took place before the Iliad and ending with the death of Odysseus.

Lastly, we should state that the lines of this dissertation were not written under the new Portuguese Ortographic Agreement.

[This English edition was translated directly from the Portuguese original, and there was an effort to retain all the sense of the original. However, since its writer is not a native English speaker, he hopes the quality of his research may compensate for his limited language.]

1. Introduction and literature review

Any study of the Greek and Latin literature from the Antiquity is hard to dissociate from the two big Homeric Poems, the Iliad and the Odyssey. For over a millenium, and until they were supplanted by the texts of Christianity, these were the two works that everyone should know, and that the most diverse authors never stop mentioning. Plato and Aristotle repeteadly mention them, the same way Cicero, Ovid, Claudius Aelianus, Saint Augustine and Boethius, among many others, do so. When the christian apologists want to show us the many errors of Paganism they also tend to resort to these works[1].

However, if these two epic poems were undeniably the most famous ones, they were neither the only ones attributed to Homer, nor the only ones that the century of the author had produced. It is quite famous the story of Margites, a work already attributed to this poet by Aristotle (Po. 4.1448b-1449a), and which did not reach us except in a few fragments, as are the several episodes that were left out of the homeric productions, but which their author already seemed to partially know. Episodes such as the ones of the death of Antilochus by Memnon, the death of Achilles, or the construction of the wooden horse, only appear to us attested more directly in later poems, but the verses attributed to Homer seemed to know them in some sense and make them several allusions, as we will see later on.

So, we are led to ask what happened to those lost epopees. In the many years that separate the time of Homer from the century of August we can still find, here and there, subtle references to each of them. Around the second century BC Aristarchus still seemed to know, at least partially, their contents[2]. If those allusions still continue to occur in the first centuries of our era, in works such as the ones of Athenaeus of Naucratis, they then tend to cease, as if those old poems, or their content, were lost forever, something that John Philoponus, author of the VI century AD, seems to attribute to the influence of an epopee by Peisander of Laranda (cf. West 2013: 51). For us, the oldest work that deals with these themes in a continuous way is the one of Quintus of Smyrna[3]. Others follow, such as Dictys of Crete and Dares Phrygius, but instead of evoking the poems from Homer’s time, they tend to make their own constructions with the material they likely still had in front of them.

When Tzetzes, in the XII century, writes on the episodes of the Trojan Cycle, he even mentions, from time to time, the sources he used to get that information, and if some of them still reached our day, others are for us empty names, making us think more directly on the quantity of material about this subject that was lost across the centuries.

This problem is particularly visible in another work created in the same century, but in a very different cultural context – the Romance of Troy, by Benoît de Sainte-Maure. If this author could even have known the Homeric Poems, or other compositions related to the Trojan Cycle[4], he seems to consider them secondary to the reports, allegedly written by witnesses of the war, attributed to Dictys of Crete and Dares Phrygius. It is those authors, and only those, that the French poet tells us he follows in the creation of his own poem, and those are also the same texts used by the authors that come after him. If there were, back then, other sources later lost, Benoît de Sainte-Maure never explictly mentions them.

Given that continuous loss and selection of sources we could think that many of the episodes not mentioned by Homer were today completly lost. This would be a major mistake, but in order to explain it we have to take a small step back in time, to the IX century of our era. It was then that Photius, patriarch of Constantinople, read around 280 works, writing about each of them in the pages of his Bibliotheca. He never tells us he read the Homeric Poems or other creations from the same epoch. However, he read a Chrestomathy, which he attributes to a Proclus[5], and he tells us this was a work in which was described an “Epic Cycle”, an artifical association of texts from several authors created with the purpose of producing a continuous plot which began with the birth of the old gods and ended with the death of Odysseus[6].

On the content of this “Epic Cycle” Photius only left us four brief sentences, insufficient for us to know much about any of the poems involved in the composition, even more because the text of that Chrestomathy did not reach us in a complete form. All this story could have ended here if, some centuries later, we had not found several epitomes of Proclus’ text, describing part of the actions which took place in the Cypria[7], in the Aethiopis, in the Little Iliad, in the Sack of Troy, in the Returns and in the Telegony, poems of diverse authorships but which, when associated between themselves and with the homeric productions, would make it possible for a reader to know all the continuous story of the Trojan Cycle.

It is with the intent of letting us know about the episodes the Homeric Poems do not tell us about that, today, this Epitome of the Chrestomathy of Proclus[8] tends to be repeatedly mentioned. G. Nagy does it in one of his works and at least in one of the courses he lectures (e.g. 2013: 74-77, 114), as do any good edition, or academical course, on the contents of the Homeric Poems (cf. Dowden 2006). This way, and facing the evidence provided by this epitome, it would be tempting to concatenate the fragments of each of those works in order to reconstruct them. Recently, M. L. West (2013: v-vi), a specialist perfectly familiarized with the fragments, arguments and testimonials of each of them attempted to do it, but when we read his work we end up noticing that his certainties are very tenuous, turning that reconstruction into an exercise of creativity instead of an association of concrete and hard to refute evidence, even when we connect them to iconographic sources, which the same specialist also takes into account. M. L. West repeatedly ends up falling in a game of probabilities[9], because, even when facing the evidence given by the epitome of Proclus’ work, and after it is associated with the remaining fragments of each text, we still know very little about their original content.

This enormous lack of information is, undoubtedly, a problem hard to overcome, but which almost all the bibliography on the Epic Cycle consulted during this study never stops repeating. Again and again, lines on the trojan episodes of this cycle tend to repeat themselves, focusing in the resumes attributed to Proclus or in the (few) citations of the original texts that we still have available. This generated a situation which, more than a century ago, was so perfectly resumed by T. W. Allen (1908a: 64): “Enough and too much has been written about the Epic Cycle. Upon scanty quotations and a jejune epitome a tedious literature has been built. The older writers, such as Welcker, tried to ‘reconstruct’ – as profitable and satisfying a task as inferring a burnt manor-house from its cellars; later scholars have gone out in tracing the tradition of the poems through the learned age of Greece – a scaffolding without ties, by which this or that conclusion is reached according to temperamental disposition to this or that fallacy.”

Was this author correct? Following his ideas we should see some more bibliography on this topic, so we can understand the way in which several authors dedicated themselves to the study of the Epic Cycle.

D. B. Monro (1883, 1884), in two articles published in the magazine The Journal of Hellenic Studies, explored Proclus’ resumes and the way in which they reached us, along with each of the poems that formed part of the Epic Cycle, the content of which he tried to reconstruct through those same resumes. If this author returned to this theme with more detail in 1901, it is of some importance to stress the fact these works, written before T. W. Allen’s own article, already presented us with most of the information we still have, making us understand that the kernel of the research on the Epic Cycle is, for over a century and up to our days, relatively stable.

J. M. Paton (1908) examined a rare representation of the death of Thersites, showing us that the episode was intimately connected to the figure of Achilles, but also mentioning the lack of iconographical evidence to support the way in which the literary sequence developed. This is a study of some importance since the episode of Thersites is related to the figure of Penthesilea, of which we will talk about later on, but its representation is art is very unfrequent.

The study of T. W. Allen (1908a, 1908b) cited above starts by presenting us the information on the work of Proclus that existed in his own time, developing it through an analysis of a possible authority of that text. In the second part the author focuses separately in each of the poems that constituted that “Cycle”, dissertating on them, this being a study that, in general, also seems to preserve most of the information we have on the subject.

A. Severyns (1928) studied the entire Epic Cycle by taking advantage of commentaries authored by the School of Aristarchus, using them as evidence for the reconstruction of some episodes. If this allowed him to recreate some of the most famous sequences, others are entirely absent[10], allowing us to observe that even in the time of the Alexandrian grammarian some episodes of the Trojan Cycle were more well-known than others. The same scholar, in his Recherches sur la “Chrestomathie” de Proclos (1938a, 1938b, 1953, 1963), explored in detail both Photius’ text on the Chrestomathy and the resumes attributed to Proclus, this being a crucial work for the study of both topics, which are here analysed in a very precise way.

B. A. Sparkes (1971) examined the representation of the episode of the Trojan horse in classical art, and he did it with illustrations, allowing us to understand some important aspects of the artistic reception of that mythological element across almost a millenium.

J. Griffin (1977) explored some of the less realistic aspects of episodes of the Epic Cycle, comparing them with sequences available in the Homeric Poems. Due to the presence of unique stories, such as the immortalization of Memnon, the possible invulnerability of Ajax or the magical properties of the Palladium[11], he is led to conclude the following: “In the [Epic] Cycle both heroism and realism are rejected in favour of an over-heated taste for sadistically coloured scenes.” (p. 45). This is a statement we have to agree with, since, by their unlikelihood, some of the episodes mentioned seem to clash with the general context of the poems attributed to Homer.

T. Gantz (1993) approached over 18 mythical sequences, here being particularly relevant his chapters 16 and 17, in which the author examines all the events of the Trojan War and the returns of several heroes, mentioning for each of the episodes not only literary testimonials but also multiple iconographic sources, for that reason constituting a work of great importance to the study of the Trojan Cycle.

M. J. Anderson (1999) studied the fall of Troy, defining it as: “a cluster of elements and episodes, among them the wooden horse, the attack on Kassandra, the murder of Priam (...) [which lie] at a pivotal point within a much larger story” (p. 3). For that, he looked for evidence of those stories in the Homeric Poems, in the tragedies of authors like Aeschylus and Euripides, and in the iconography from the same epoch, focusing on a set of episodes which, as he repeatedly tells us, had their place in the lost Sack of Troy. This is, therefore, an important work for the study of the final moments of the Trojan War.

J. Burgess wrote on many aspects of the Trojan Cycle, but one of his most recent works deserves special mention, The Death and the Afterlife of Achilles, published in 2009. The author attempts to reconstruct the episode of the death of Achilles, using as evidence not only the Iliad but also other productions from the Antiquity, also paying attention to topics such as the destiny of the hero after death or the location of his tomb, being, therefore, a study relevant to that particular sequence.

J. G. C. Grillo (2011) considered the rape of Cassandra by Ajax the Lesser, in order to explore, through the painting of Attic vases, if this daughter of Priam had, afterall, been sexually molested by the greek hero. Based on testimonials from Attic ceramic he ends up concluding the answer was a positive one.

I. F. Gatti (2012) focused his efforts on Proclus’ Chrestomathy, discoursing on it not only through the codex 239 of Photius’ Bibliotheca, as the title of the work could lead us to think, but also presenting and translating to Portuguese the Chrestomathy, through the few of its elements which reached us – a Life of Homer and the famous resumes of the poems of the Epic Cycle.