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Opis ebooka The World Factbook - Opracowanie zbiorowe

The World Factbook jest coroczną publikacją Centralnej Agencji Wywiadowczej Stanów Zjednoczonych zawierającą podstawowe informacje o wszystkich krajach świata. Factbook na kilku stronach podsumowuje najważniejsze informacje o danym kraju: jego historię,geografię, demografię, rząd, gospodarkę, telekomunikację, transport, wojsko i kwestie międzynarodowe. Publikacja jest często cytowana jako istotne źródło informacji. Wydanie w języku angielskim.

The World Factbook provides information on the history, people, government, economy, geography, communications, transportation, military, and transnational issues for 267 world entities. The World Factbook is prepared by the Central Intelligence Agency. Comprehensive guide full of facts, maps, flags, and detailed information. A must for travellers, businessmen, politicians, and all who wants to know more about our fascinating world. -- We share these facts with the people of all nations in the belief that knowledge of the truth underpins the functioning of free societies (From official webpage). Tags: world, guide, facts, almanach

Opinie o ebooku The World Factbook - Opracowanie zbiorowe

Fragment ebooka The World Factbook - Opracowanie zbiorowe

The World Factbook

CIA, 2015

Copyright

ISBN: 978-83-7991-213-1 Copyright: Public Domain Information provided by Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) This electronic edition: © Masterlab, 2015 Cover image: Stephanie Hofschlaeger MASTERLAB

World

Background: Globally, the 20th century was marked by: (a) two devastating world wars; (b) the Great Depression of the 1930s; (c) the end of vast colonial empires; (d) rapid advances in science and technology, from the first airplane flight at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina (US) to the landing on the moon; (e) the Cold War between the Western alliance and the Warsaw Pact nations; (f) a sharp rise in living standards in North America, Europe, and Japan; (g) increased concerns about environmental degradation including deforestation, energy and water shortages, declining biological diversity, and air pollution; (h) the onset of the AIDS epidemic; and (i) the ultimate emergence of the US as the only world superpower. The

planet's population continues to explode: from 1 billion in 1820 to 2 billion in 1930, 3 billion in 1960, 4 billion in 1974, 5 billion in 1987, 6 billion in 1999, and 7 billion in 2012. For the 21st century, the continued exponential growth in science and technology raises both hopes (e.g., advances in medicine and agriculture) and fears (e.g., development of even more lethal weapons of war).

Geography

Geographic overview: The surface of the earth is approximately 70.9% water and 29.1% land. The former portion is divided into large water bodies termed oceans. The World Factbook recognizes and describes five oceans, which are in decreasing order

of size: the Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean, Southern Ocean, and Arctic Ocean. The land portion is generally divided into several, large, discrete landmasses termed continents. Depending on the convention used, the number of continents can vary from five to seven. The most common classification recognizes

seven, which are (from largest to smallest): Asia, Africa, North America, South America, Antarctica, Europe, and Australia. Asia and Europe are sometimes lumped together into a Eurasian continent resulting in six continents. Alternatively, North and South America are sometimes grouped as simply the Americas, resulting in a continent total of six (or five, if the Eurasia designation is used). North America is commonly understood to include the island of Greenland, the isles of the Caribbean, and to extend south all the way to the Isthmus of Panama. The easternmost extent of Europe is generally defined as being the Ural Mountains and the Ural River; on the southeast the Caspian Sea; and on the south the Caucasus Mountains, the Black Sea, and the Mediterranean. Portions of Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Russia, and Turkey fall within both Europe and Asia, but in every instance the larger section is in Asia. These countries are considered part of both continents. Armenia and Cyprus, which lie completely in Western Asia, are geopolitically European countries. Asia usually incorporates all the islands of the Philippines, Malaysia, and Indonesia. The islands of the Pacific are often lumped with Australia into a "land mass" termed Oceania or Australasia. Africa's northeast termed Oceania or Australasia. Africa's northeast extremity is frequently delimited at the Isthmus of Suez, but for geopolitical purposes, the Egyptian Sinai Peninsula is often included as part of Africa. Although the above groupings are the most common, different continental dispositions are recognized or taught in certain parts of the world, with some arrangements more heavily based on cultural spheres rather than physical geographic considerations.

Map references: Political Map of the World , Physical Map of the World , Standard Time Zones of the World , World Oceans

Area: total: 510.072 million sq km

land: 148.94 million sq km

water: 361.132 million sq km

note: 70.9% of the world's surface is water, 29.1% is land

Area - comparative: land area about 16 times the size of the US

top fifteen World Factbook entities ranked by size: Pacific Ocean 155.557 million sq km; Atlantic Ocean 76.762 million sq km; Indian Ocean 68.556 million sq km; Southern Ocean 20.327 million sq km; Russia 17,098,242 sq km; Arctic Ocean 14.056 million sq km; Antarctica 14 million sq km; Canada 9,984,670 sq km; United States 9,826,675 sq km; China 9,596,961 sq km; Brazil 8,514,877 sq km; Australia 7,741,220 sq km; European Union 4,324,782 sq km; India 3,287,263 sq km; Argentina 2,780,400 sq km

top ten largest water bodies: Pacific Ocean 155.557 million sq km; Atlantic Ocean 76.762 million sq km; Indian Ocean 68.556 million sq km; Southern Ocean 20.327 million sq km; Arctic Ocean 14.056 million sq km; Coral Sea 4,184,100 sq km; South China Sea 3,595,900 sq km; Caribbean Sea 2.834 million sq km; Bering Sea 2.52 million sq km; Mediterranean Sea 2.469 million sq km

top ten largest landmasses: Asia 44,568,500 sq km; Africa 30.065 million sq km; North America 24.473 million sq km; South America 17.819 million sq km; Antarctica 14 million sq km; Europe 9.948 million sq km; Australia 7,741,220 sq km; Greenland 2,166,086 sq km; New Guinea 785,753 sq km; Borneo 751,929 sq km

top ten largest islands: Greenland 2,166,086 sq km; New Guinea (Indonesia, Papua New Guinea) 785,753 sq km; Borneo (Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia) 751,929 sq km; Madagascar 587,713 sq km; Baffin Island (Canada) 507,451 sq km; Sumatra (Indonesia) 472,784 sq km; Honshu (Japan) 227,963 sq km; Victoria Island (Canada) 217,291 sq km; Great Britain (United Kingdom) 209,331 sq km; Ellesmere Island (Canada) 196,236 sq km

Land boundaries: the land boundaries in the world total 251,060 km (not counting shared boundaries twice); two nations, China and Russia, each border 14 other countries

note: 46 nations and other areas are landlocked, these

include: Afghanistan, Andorra, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Central African Republic, Chad, Czech Republic, Ethiopia, Holy See (Vatican City), Hungary, Kazakhstan, Kosovo, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Lesotho, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Malawi, Mali, Moldova, Mongolia, Nepal, Niger, Paraguay, Rwanda, San Marino, Serbia, Slovakia, South Sudan, Swaziland, Switzerland, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Uzbekistan, West Bank, Zambia, Zimbabwe; two of these, Liechtenstein and Uzbekistan, are doubly landlocked

Coastline: 356,000 km

note: 95 nations and other entities are islands that border

no other countries, they include: American Samoa, Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba, Ashmore and Cartier Islands, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Baker Island, Barbados, Bermuda, Bouvet Island, British Indian Ocean Territory, British Virgin Islands, Cabo Verde, Cayman Islands, Christmas Island, Clipperton Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Comoros, Cook Islands, Coral Sea Islands, Cuba, Curacao, Cyprus, Dominica, Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas), Faroe Islands, Fiji, French Polynesia, French Southern and Antarctic Lands, Greenland, Grenada, Guam, Guernsey, Heard Island and McDonald Islands, Howland Island, Iceland, Isle of Man, Jamaica, Jan Mayen, Japan, Jarvis Island, Jersey, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Kiribati, Madagascar, Maldives, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritius, Mayotte, Federated States of Micronesia, Midway Islands, Montserrat, Nauru, Navassa Island, New Caledonia, New Zealand, Niue, Norfolk Island, Northern Mariana Islands, Palau, Palmyra Atoll, Paracel Islands, Philippines, Pitcairn Islands, Puerto Rico, Saint Barthelemy, Saint Helena, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, Sao Tome and Principe, Seychelles, Singapore, Sint Maarten, Solomon Islands, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Spratly Islands, Sri Lanka, Svalbard, Tokelau, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Turks and Caicos Islands, Tuvalu, Vanuatu, Virgin Islands, Wake Island, Wallis and Futuna, Taiwan

Maritime claims: a variety of situations exist, but in general, most countries make the following claims measured from the mean low-tide baseline as described in the 1982 UN Convention

on the Law of the Sea: territorial sea - 12 nm, contiguous zone - 24 nm, and exclusive economic zone - 200 nm; additional zones provide for exploitation of continental shelf resources and an exclusive fishing zone; boundary situations with neighboring states prevent many countries from extending their fishing or economic zones to a full 200 nm

Climate: a wide equatorial band of hot and humid tropical climates - bordered north and south by subtropical temperate zones - that separate two large areas of cold and dry polar climates

Terrain: the greatest ocean depth is the Mariana Trench at 10,924 m in the Pacific Ocean

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Bentley Subglacial Trench (Antarctica) -2,555 m

note: in the oceanic realm, Challenger Deep in the Mariana Trench is the lowest point, lying -10,924 m below the surface of the Pacific Ocean

highest point: Mount Everest 8,850 m

top ten highest mountains (measured from sea level): Mount Everest (China-Nepal) 8,850 m; K2 (Pakistan) 8,611 m; Kanchenjunga (India-Nepal) 8,598 m; Lhotse (Nepal) 8,516 m; Makalu (China-Nepal) 8,463 m; Cho Oyu (China-Nepal) 8,201 m; Dhaulagiri (Nepal) 8,167 m; Manaslu (Nepal) 8,163 m; Nanga Parbat (Pakistan) 8,125 m; Anapurna (Nepal) 8,091 m

Natural resources: the rapid depletion of nonrenewable mineral resources, the depletion of forest areas and wetlands, the extinction of animal and plant species, and the deterioration in air and water quality (especially in some countries of Eastern Europe, the former USSR, and China) pose serious long-term problems that governments and peoples are only beginning to address

Land use: arable land: 10.43%

permanent crops: 1.15%

other: 88.42% (2011)

Irrigated land: 3,096,621.45 sq km (2011 est.)

Total renewable water resources: 53,789.29 cu km (2011)

Natural hazards: large areas subject to severe weather (tropical cyclones); natural disasters (earthquakes, landslides, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions)

volcanism: volcanism is a fundamental driver and consequence of plate tectonics, the physical process reshaping the Earth's lithosphere; the world is home to more than 1,500 potentially active volcanoes, with over 500 of these having erupted in historical times; an estimated 500 million people live near these volcanoes; associated dangers include lava flows, lahars (mudflows), pyroclastic flows, ash clouds, ash fall, ballistic projectiles, gas emissions, landslides, earthquakes, and tsunamis; in the 1990s, the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, created a list of 16 Decade Volcanoes worthy of special study because of their

great potential for destruction: Avachinsky-Koryaksky (Russia), Colima (Mexico), Etna (Italy), Galeras (Colombia), Mauna Loa (United States), Merapi (Indonesia), Nyiragongo (Democratic Republic of the Congo), Rainier (United States), Sakurajima (Japan), Santa Maria (Guatemala), Santorini (Greece), Taal (Philippines), Teide (Spain), Ulawun (Papua New Guinea), Unzen (Japan), Vesuvius (Italy)

Environment - current issues: large areas subject to overpopulation, industrial disasters, pollution (air, water, acid rain, toxic substances), loss of vegetation (overgrazing, deforestation, desertification), loss of wildlife, soil degradation, soil depletion, erosion; global warming becoming a greater concern

Geography - note: the world is now thought to be about 4.55 billion years old, just about one-third of the 13.8-billion-year age estimated for the universe

People and Society

Languages: Mandarin Chinese 12.44%, Spanish 4.85%, English 4.83%, Arabic 3.25%, Hindi 2.68%, Bengali 2.66%, Portuguese 2.62%, Russian 2.12%, Japanese 1.8%, Standard German 1.33%, Javanese 1.25% (2009 est.)

note 1: percents are for "first language" speakers only; the six UN languages - Arabic, Chinese (Mandarin), English, French, Russian, and Spanish (Castilian) - are the mother tongue or second language of about half of the world's population, and are the official languages in more than half the states in the world; some 150 to 200 languages have more than a million speakers

note 2: all told, there are an estimated 7,100 languages spoken in the world; aproximately 80% of these languages are spoken by less than 100,000 people; about 50 languages are spoken by only 1 person; communities that are isolated from each other in mountainous regions often develop multiple languages; Papua New Guinea, for example, boasts about 836 separate languages

note 3: approximately 2,300 languages are spoken in Asia, 2,150, in Africa, 1,311 in the Pacific, 1,060 in the Americas, and 280 in Europe

Religions: Christian 33.39% (of which Roman Catholic 16.85%, Protestant 6.15%, Orthodox 3.96%, Anglican 1.26%), Muslim 22.74%, Hindu 13.8%, Buddhist 6.77%, Sikh 0.35%, Jewish 0.22%, Baha'i 0.11%, other religions 10.95%, non-religious 9.66%, atheists 2.01% (2010 est.)

Population: 7,095,217,980 (July 2013 est.)

top ten most populous countries (in millions): China 1,349.59; India 1,220.80; United States 316.67; Indonesia 251.16; Brazil 201.01; Pakistan 193.24; Nigeria 174.51; Bangladesh 163.65; Russia 142.50; Japan 127.25

Age structure: 0-14 years: 26% (male 956,360,171/female 893,629,520) 15-24 years: 16.8% (male 613,806,639/female 577,904,561) 25-54 years: 40.6% (male 1,478,739,525/female 1,447,244,791) 55-64 years: 8.4% (male 298,092,946/female 312,206,795) 65 years and over: 8.2% (male 265,453,689/female 331,172,947) (2013 est.)

Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 52 %

youth dependency ratio: 39.9 %

elderly dependency ratio: 12.1 %

potential support ratio: 8.3 (2013)

Median age: total: 29.4 years

male: 28.7 years

female: 30.2 years (2013 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.1%

note: this rate results in about 148 net additions to the worldwide population every minute or 2.5 every second (2013 est.)

Birth rate: 18.9 births/1,000 population

note: this rate results in about 255 worldwide births per minute or 4.3 births every second (2013 est.)

Death rate: 7.9 deaths/1,000 population

note: this rate results in about 107 worldwide deaths per minute or 1.8 deaths every second (2013 est.)

Urbanization: urban population: 50.5% of total population (2010)

rate of urbanization: 1.85% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

ten largest urban agglomerations: Tokyo (Japan) - 36,669,000; Delhi (India) - 22,157,000; Sao Paulo (Brazil) - 20,262,000; Mumbai (India) - 20,041,000; Mexico City (Mexico) - 19,460,000; New York-Newark (US) - 19,425,000; Shanghai (China) - 16,575,000; Kolkata (India) - 15,552,000; Dhaka (Bangladesh) - 14,648,000; Karachi (Pakistan) - 13,125,000 (2009)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female 0-14 years: 1.07 male(s)/female 15-24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female 25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female 55-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female

total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2013 est.)

Infant mortality rate: total: 37.61 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 39.39 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 35.69 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 68.09 years

male: 66.09 years

female: 70.24 years (2013 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.45 children born/woman (2013 est.)

Hospital bed density: 2.9 beds/1,000 population (2005)

Drinking water source:

improved: urban: 96.3% of population

rural: 80.9% of population

total: 88.9% of population

unimproved: urban: 3.7% of population

rural: 19.1% of population

total: 11.1% of population (2011 est.)

Sanitation facility access:

improved: urban: 79.9% of population

rural: 47% of population

total: 64.1% of population

unimproved: urban: 20.1% of population

rural: 53% of population

total: 35.9% of population (2011 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.8% (2009 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 35.3 million (2009 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 1.6 million (2009 est.)

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 84.1%

male: 88.6%

female: 79.7%

note: almost three-quarters of the world's 775 million illiterate adults are found in only ten countries (in

descending order: India, China, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nigeria, Ethiopia, Egypt, Brazil, Indonesia, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo); of all the illiterate adults in the world, two-thirds are women; extremely low literacy rates are concentrated in South and West Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa (2010 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 12 years

male: 12 years

female: 12 years (2011)

Government

Administrative divisions: 195 countries, 72 dependent areas and other entities

Legal system: the legal systems of nearly all countries are generally

modeled upon elements of five main types: civil law (including French law, the Napoleonic Code, Roman law, Roman-Dutch law, and Spanish law); common law (including United States law); customary law; mixed or pluralistic law; and religious law (including Islamic law); an additional type of legal system - international law - governs the conduct of independent nations in their relationships with one another

International law organization participation: all members of the UN are parties to the statute that established the International Court of Justice (ICJ) or World Court; 54 countries have accepted jurisdiction of the ICJ as compulsory with reservations and 14 countries have accepted ICJ jurisdiction as compulsory without reservations; states parties to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (ICCt) are those countries that have ratified or acceded to the Rome Statute, the treaty that established the Court; a total of 121 (effective 1 July 2012) countries have accepted jurisdiction of the ICCt (see Appendix B for a clarification on the differing mandates of the ICJ and ICCt)

Economy

Economy - overview: The international financial crisis of 2008-09 led to the first downturn in global output since 1946 and presented

the world with a major new challenge: determining what mix of fiscal and monetary policies to follow to restore growth and jobs, while keeping inflation and debt under control. Financial stabilization and stimulus programs that started in 2009-11, combined with lower tax revenues in 2009-10, required most countries to run large budget deficits. Treasuries issued new public debt - totaling $7.6 trillion since 2008 - to pay for the additional expenditures. To keep interest rates low, most central banks monetized that debt, injecting large sums of money into their economies - between December 2008 and December 2012 the global money supply increased by more than 31%. Governments now are faced with the difficult task of spurring current growth and employment without saddling their economies with so much debt that they sacrifice long-term growth and financial stability. And when economic activity picks up, central banks will confront the difficult task of containing inflation without raising interest rates so high they snuff out further growth. Fiscal and monetary data for 2012 are currently available for 180 countries, which together account for 98.5% of World GDP. Of the 180 countries, 85 pursued unequivocally expansionary policies, boosting government spending while also expanding their money supply spending while also expanding their money supply relatively rapidly - faster than the world average of 4.1%; 37 followed restrictive fiscal and monetary policies, reducing government spending and holding money growth to less than the 4.1% average; and the remaining 58 followed a mix of counterbalancing fiscal and monetary policies, either reducing government spending while accelerating money growth, or boosting spending while curtailing money growth. (For more information, see attached spreadsheet, Fiscal and Monetary Data, 2008-2012.) In 2012, fiscal policy shifted towards greater austerity for a majority of the countries. In an attempt to attack their deficit and debt problems head-on, nearly 5 out of 6 countries slowed the rate of growth of government spending, and 1 in 3 countries actually lowered the level of their expenditures. The global growth rate for government expenditures dropped from 5.9% in 2010 and 10.1% in 2011, to just 1.4% in 2012. Roughly 1 out of 3 central banks tightened monetary policy, decelerating the rate of growth of their money supply, and about 1 out of 7 actually withdrew money from circulation. Growth of the global money supply, as measured by the narrowly defined M1, slowed from 8.7% in 2009 and 10.4% in 2010 to 5.2% in 2011 and 4.1% in 2012. These policy choices significantly affected economic performance. The global budget deficit narrowed to roughly $2.7 trillion in 2012, or 3.8% of World GDP. But growth of the world economy slipped from 5.1% in 2010 and 3.7% in 2011, to just 3.1% in 2012. And world unemployment increased to 9.2%. Countries with expansionary fiscal and monetary policies achieved significantly higher rates of growth, lower unemployment, higher growth of tax revenues, and greater success reducing the public debt burden than those countries that chose contractionary policies. In 2012, the 85 countries that followed a pro-growth approach achieved a median GDP growth rate of 4.9%, compared to just 0.8% for the 37 countries with restrictive fiscal and monetary policies, a difference of more than 4 percentage points. Among the 85, China grew 7.8%, Indonesia 6.0%, Mexico 4.0%, Russia 3.4%, Turkey 3.0%, the United States 2.2%, and Canada 1.9%, while among the 37, Brazil grew 1.3%, Germany 0.7%, France 0.1%, Belgium -0.2%, Netherlands -0.5%, Spain -1.4%, and Italy -2.3%. The median unemployment rate for the 37 countries jumped to 11.5%, while the median for the pro-growth countries held steady at 7.3%. Faster GDP growth and lower unemployment rates translated into increased tax revenues and a lower debt burden. Revenues for the 85 expansionary countries grew at a median rate of 10.8%, whereas tax revenues fell at a median rate of 6.2% for the 37 countries that chose austere economic policies. Budget balances improved for about half of the 37, but, for most, debt grew faster than GDP, and the median level of their public debt as a share of GDP increased 2.5 percentage points, to 57.8%. On the other hand, budget balances deteriorated for most of the 85 pro-growth countries, but GDP growth outpaced increases in debt, and the median level of public debt as a share of GDP actually declined slightly (-0.1 percentage points). The world recession has suppressed inflation rates - world inflation declined 1.0 percentage point in 2012 to about 4.0%. At the same time, the median inflation rate for the 85 pro-growth countries, at 5.5%, was 2.5 percentage points higher than that for the countries that followed more austere fiscal and monetary policies. Overall, the latter countries also improved their current account balances by shedding imports; as a result, current account balances deteriorated for most of the countries that pursued pro-growth policies. Slower growth of world income reduced import demand and crude oil prices fell. Consequently, the dollar value of world trade grew just 1% in 2012, compared with 18% in 2011. Beyond the current global slowdown, the world faces several long-standing economic challenges. The addition of 80 million people each year to an already overcrowded globe is exacerbating the problems of pollution, waste-disposal, epidemics, water-shortages, famine, over-fishing of oceans, deforestation, desertification, and depletion of non-renewable resources. The nation-state, as a bedrock economic-political institution, is steadily losing control over international flows of people, goods, services, funds, and technology. The introduction of the euro as the common currency of much of Western Europe in January 1999, while paving the way for an integrated economic powerhouse, has created economic risks because the participating nations have varying income levels and growth rates, and hence, require a different mix of monetary and fiscal policies. Governments, especially in Western Europe, face the difficult political problem of channeling resources away from welfare programs in order to increase investment and strengthen incentives to seek employment. Because of their own internal problems and priorities, the industrialized countries are unable to devote sufficient resources to deal effectively with the poorer areas of the world, which, at least from an economic point of view, are becoming further marginalized. The terrorist attacks on the US on 11 September 2001 accentuated a growing risk to global prosperity - the diversion of resources away from capital investments to counter-terrorist programs. Despite these vexing problems, the world economy also shows great promise. Technology has made possible further advances in a wide range of fields, from agriculture, to medicine, alternative energy, metallurgy, and transportation. Improved global communications have greatly reduced the costs of international trade, helping the world gain from the international division of labor, raise living standards, and reduce income disparities among nations. Much of the resilience of the world economy in the aftermath of the financial crisis resulted from government and central bank leaders resulted from government and central bank leaders around the globe working in concert to stem the financial onslaught, knowing well the lessons of past economic failures.

GDP (purchasing power parity): $87.18 trillion (2013 est.) $84.78 trillion (2012 est.) $82.24 trillion (2011 est.)

note: data are in 2013 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate): GWP (gross world product): $73.87 trillion (2013 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 2.8% (2013 est.) 3.1% (2012 est.) 3.8% (2011 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP): $13,100 (2013 est.) $12,800 (2012 est.) $12,600 (2011 est.)

note: data are in 2013 US dollars

GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 62%

government consumption: 18.5%

investment in fixed capital: 19.4%

investment in inventories: 0.5%

exports of goods and services: 29.3%

imports of goods and services: -29.7% (2011 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin: agriculture: 5.9%

industry: 30.5%

services: 63.6% (2012 est.)

Industries: dominated by the onrush of technology, especially in computers, robotics, telecommunications, and medicines and medical equipment; most of these advances take place in OECD nations; only a small portion of non-OECD countries have succeeded in rapidly adjusting to these technological forces; the accelerated development of new technologies is complicating already grim environmental problems

Industrial production growth rate: 3.9% (2011 est.)

Labor force: 3.314 billion (2013 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 35.4%

industry: 22.8%

services: 41.8% (2008)

Unemployment rate: 9% (2013 est.) 8.2% (2012 est.)

note: 30% combined unemployment and underemployment in many non-industrialized countries; developed countries typically 4%-12% unemployment (2007 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.8%

highest 10%: 28.2% (2008 est.)

Distribution of family income - Gini index: 39 (2007 est.) 37.2 (1998 est.)

Budget: revenues: $22.37 trillion

expenditures: $24.69 trillion (2013 est.)

Taxes and other revenues: 30.3% of GDP (2013 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-): -3.1% of GDP (2013 est.)

Public debt: 64.8% of GDP (2013 est.) 64.7% of GDP (2012 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): world average 4% (2013 est.) developed countries 1.6% (2013 est.) developing countries 5.6% (2013 est.)

note: the above estimates are weighted averages; inflation in developed countries is 0% to 4% typically, in developing countries, 5% to 10% typically; national inflation rates vary widely in individual cases; inflation rates have declined for most countries for the last several years, held in check by increasing international competition from several low wage countries, and by soft demand as a result of the world financial crisis (2013 est.)

Stock of narrow money: $27.6 trillion (31 December 2013 est.) $26.88 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of broad money: $83.41 trillion (31 December 2013 est.) $79.08 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of domestic credit: $87.58 trillion (31 December 2013 est.) $85.82 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares: $53.87 trillion (31 December 2012 est.) $47.13 trillion (31 December 2011) $54.61 trillion (31 December 2010 est.)

Exports: $18.48 trillion (2013 est.) $18.19 trillion (2012 est.)

Exports - commodities: the whole range of industrial and agricultural goods and services

top ten - share of world trade: electrical machinery, including computers 14.8%; mineral fuels, including oil, coal, gas, and refined products 14.4%; nuclear reactors, boilers, and parts 14.2%; cars, trucks, and buses 8.9%; scientific and precision instruments 3.5%; plastics 3.4%; iron and steel 2.7%; organic chemicals 2.6%; pharmaceutical products 2.6%; diamonds, pearls, and precious stones 1.9%

Imports: $18.09 trillion (2013 est.) $17.93 trillion (2012 est.)

Imports - commodities: the whole range of industrial and agricultural goods and services

top ten - share of world trade: see listing for exports

Debt - external: $72.82 trillion (31 December 2013 est.) $70.43 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)

note: this figure is the sum total of all countries' external debt, both public and private

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $24.6 trillion (31 December 2013 est.) $23.14 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $25.34 trillion (31 December 2013 est.) $23.83 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)

Energy

Electricity - production: 21.11 trillion kWh (2010 est.)

Electricity - consumption: 19.46 trillion kWh (2010 est.)

Electricity - exports: 650 billion kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - imports: 669.6 billion kWh (2012 est.) Electricity - installed generating

capacity: 5.281 billion kW (2010 est.)

Electricity - from fossil fuels: 66.2% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)

Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 7.5% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 18.1% of total installed capacity (2010 est.) Electricity - from other renewable

sources: 5.8% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)

Crude oil - production: 89.04 million bbl/day (2012 est.)

Crude oil - exports: 43.93 million bbl/day (2010 est.)

Crude oil - imports: 44.89 million bbl/day (2010 est.)

Crude oil - proved reserves: 1.63 trillion bbl (1 January 2013 es) Refined petroleum products -

production: 82.72 million bbl/day (2010 est.) Refined petroleum products -

consumption: 87.6 million bbl/day (2011 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports: 25.56 million bbl/day (2010 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports: 24.64 million bbl/day (2010 est.)

Natural gas - production: 3.452 trillion cu m (2011 est.)

Natural gas - consumption: 3.272 trillion cu m (2010 est.)

Natural gas - exports: 1.332 trillion cu m (2011 est.)

Natural gas - imports: 1.652 trillion cu m (2011 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves: 194.9 trillion cu m (1 January 2013 es) Carbon dioxide emissions from

consumption of energy: 32.62 billion Mt (2011 est.)

Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 1.2 billion (2011)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 6 billion (2011)

Internet users: 2.1 billion (2010)

Transportation

Airports: total airports - 41,821 (2013)

top ten by passengers: Atlanta (ATL) - 95,672,104; Beijing (PEK) - 81,908,740; London (LHR) - 70,051,902; Tokyo (HND) - 67,824,747; Chicago (ORD) - 67,124,607; Los Angeles (LAX) - 63,849,335; Paris (CDG) - 61,478,475; Dallas/Fort Worth (DFW) - 58,887,570; Dubai (DXB) - 58,392,171; Jakarta (CGK) - 57,839,056 (2013)

top ten by cargo (metric tons): Hong Kong (HKG) - 4,120,348; Memphis (MEM) - 4,053,865; Shanghai (PVG) - 2,969,554; Anchorage (ANC) - 2,470,147; Incheon (ICN) - 2,461,229; Dubai (DXB) - 2,294,614; Louisville (SDF) - 2,186,937; Frankfurt (FRA) - 2,067,698; Tokyo (NRT) - 2,014,500; Paris (CDG) - 1,940,850 (2013) (2013) 2,014,500; Paris (CDG) - 1,940,850 (2013) (2013)

Heliports: 6,524 (2013)

Railways: total: 657,382 km (2013)

Roadways: total: 64,285,009 km (2013)

Waterways: 2,293,412 km

top ten longest rivers: Nile (Africa) 6,693 km; Amazon (South America) 6,436 km; Mississippi-Missouri (North America) 6,238 km; Yenisey-Angara (Asia) 5,981 km; Ob-Irtysh (Asia) 5,569 km; Yangtze (Asia) 5,525 km; Yellow (Asia) 4,671 km; Amur (Asia) 4,352 km; Lena (Asia) 4,345 km; Congo (Africa) 4,344 km

note: rivers are not necessarily navigable along the entire length; if measured by volume, the Amazon is the largest river in the world

top ten largest natural lakes (by surface area): Caspian Sea (Azerbaijan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Russia, Turkmenistan) 372,960 sq km; Lake Superior (Canada, United States) 82,414 sq km; Lake Victoria (Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda) 69,490 sq km; Lake Huron (Canada, United States) 59,596 sq km; Lake Michigan (United States) 57,441 sq km; Lake Tanganyika (Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Tanzania, Zambia) 32,890 sq km; Great Bear Lake (Canada) 31,800 sq km; Lake Baikal (Russia) 31,494 sq km; Lake Nyasa (Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania) 30,044 sq km; Great Slave Lake (Canada) 28,400 sq km

note: the areas of the lakes are subject to seasonal variation; only the Caspian Sea is saline, the rest are fresh water (2013)

Ports and terminals: top ten container ports as measured by Twenty-Foot Equivalent Units (TEUs) throughput: Shanghai (China) - 31,739,000; Singapore (Singapore) - 29,937,700; Hong Kong (China) - 24,384,000; Shenzhen (China) - 22,570,800; Busan (South Korea) - 16,163,842; Ningbo (China) - 14,719,200; Guangzhou (China) - 14,260,400; Qingdao (China) - 13,020,100; Dubai (UAE) - 12,617,595; - Rotterdam (Netherlands) - 11,876,920 (2011)

Transportation - note: the International Maritime Bureau (IMB) reports that 2011 saw a very slight (1%) decrease in global pirate activities with marginally fewer people taken hostage at sea; in 2011, pirates attacked a total of 439 ships world-wide including hijacking 45 ships, capturing 802 seafarers, and killing eight; while the Horn of Africa remains the most dangerous area for maritime shipping, accounting for more than 50% of all attacks in 2011, a number of attacks also occurred in the coastal waters of Indonesia, the South China Sea, Bangladesh, and West Africa; as of July 2012, there were 189 attacks worldwide with 20 hijackings; the Horn of Africa remains the most dangerous region in 2012 with 70 attacks, 13 hijackings, 212 hostages seized; as of July 2012, Somali pirates held 11 vessels and 174 hostages; the decrease in successful pirate attacks is due, in part, to more aggressive anti-piracy operations by international naval forces as well as the increased use of armed security teams aboard merchant ships

Military

Military expenditures: 2.42% of GDP (2012) 2.51% of GDP (2011) 2.42% of GDP (2010)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: stretching over 250,000 km, the world's 322 international land boundaries separate 195 independent states and 71 dependencies, areas of special sovereignty, and other miscellaneous entities; ethnicity, culture, race, religion, and language have divided states into separate political entities as much as history, physical terrain, political fiat, or conquest, resulting in sometimes arbitrary and imposed boundaries; most maritime states have claimed limits that include territorial seas and exclusive economic zones; overlapping limits due to adjacent or opposite coasts create the potential for 430 bilateral maritime boundaries of which 209 have agreements that include contiguous and non-contiguous segments; boundary, borderland/resource, and territorial disputes vary in intensity from managed or dormant to violent or militarized; undemarcated, indefinite, porous, and unmanaged boundaries tend to encourage illegal cross-border activities, uncontrolled migration, and confrontation; territorial disputes may evolve from historical and/or cultural claims, or they may be brought on by resource competition; ethnic and cultural clashes continue to be responsible for much of the territorial fragmentation and internal displacement of the estimated 6.6 million people and cross-border displacements of 8.6 million refugees around the world as of early 2006; just over one million refugees were repatriated in the same period; other sources of contention include access to water and mineral (especially hydrocarbon) resources, fisheries, and arable land; armed conflict prevails not so much between the uniformed armed forces of independent states as between stateless armed entities that detract from the sustenance and welfare of local populations, leaving the community of nations to cope with resultant refugees, hunger, disease, impoverishment, and environmental degradation

Refugees and internally displaced persons: the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) estimated that as of the end of 2012 there were 45.2 million people forcibly displaced worldwide; this includes 15.4 million refugees, 937,000 asylum seekers, and 28.8 million conflict IDPs (another 32.4 million IDPs were displaced by natural disasters); the UNHCR estimates there are currently 10-12 million stateless persons (2012)

Trafficking in persons: current situation: approximately 800,000 people, mostly women and children, are trafficked annually across national borders, not including the millions who are trafficked within their own countries; at least 80% of the victims are female and up to 50% are minors; 75% of all victims are trafficked into commercial sexual exploitation; almost two-thirds of the global victims are trafficked intra-regionally within East Asia and the Pacific (260,000 to 280,000 people) and Europe and Eurasia (170,000 to 210,000 people) (2012) Tier 2 Watch List: (44 countries) Afghanistan, Albania, Angola, Bahrain, Barbados, Belarus, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Chad, Comoros, Djibouti, Federated States of Micronesia, The Gambia, Guinea, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Kenya, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Madagascar, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Marshall Islands, Morocco, Namibia, Rwanda, Saint Lucia, Seychelles, Solomon Islands, South Sudan, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Tanzania, Thailand, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uruguay, Venezuela Tier 3: (21 countries) Algeria, Central African Republic, China, Democratic Republic of Congo, Cuba, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Guinea-Bissau, Iran, North Korea, Kuwait, Libya, Mauritania, Papua New Guinea, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, Uzbekistan, Yemen, Zimbabwe (2013)

Illicit drugs: cocaine: worldwide coca leaf cultivation in 2007 amounted to 232,500 hectares; Colombia produced slightly more than two-thirds of the worldwide crop, followed by Peru and Bolivia; potential pure cocaine production decreased 7% to 865 metric tons in 2007; Colombia conducts an aggressive coca eradication campaign, but both Peruvian and Bolivian Governments are hesitant to eradicate coca in key growing areas; 551 metric tons of export-quality cocaine (85% pure) is documented to have been seized or destroyed in 2005; US consumption of export quality cocaine is estimated to have been in excess of 380 metric tons

opiates: worldwide illicit opium poppy cultivation continued to increase in 2007, with a potential opium production of 8,400 metric tons, reaching the highest levels recorded since estimates began in mid-1980s; Afghanistan is world's primary opium producer, accounting for 95% of the global supply; Southeast Asia - responsible for 9% of global opium - saw marginal increases in production; Latin America produced 1% of global opium, but most was refined into heroin destined for the US market; if all potential opium was processed into pure heroin, the potential global production would be 1,000 metric tons of heroin in 2007

Afghanistan

Introduction

Background: Ahmad Shah DURRANI unified the Pashtun tribes and founded Afghanistan in 1747. The country served as a buffer between the British and Russian Empires until it won independence from notional British control in 1919. A brief experiment in democracy ended in a 1973 coup and a 1978 communist counter-coup. The Soviet Union invaded in 1979 to support the tottering Afghan communist regime, touching off a long and destructive war. The USSR withdrew in 1989 under relentless pressure by internationally supported anti-communist mujahedin rebels. A series of subsequent civil wars saw Kabul finally fall in 1996 to the Taliban, a hardline Pakistani-sponsored movement that emerged in 1994 to end the country's civil war and anarchy. Following the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks, a US, Allied, and anti-Taliban Northern Alliance military action toppled the Taliban for sheltering Osama BIN LADIN. The UN-sponsored Bonn Conference in 2001 established a process for political reconstruction that included the adoption of a new constitution, a presidential election in 2004, and National Assembly elections in 2005. In December 2004, Hamid KARZAI became the first democratically elected president of Afghanistan and the National Assembly was inaugurated the following December. KARZAI was re-elected in August 2009 for a second term. Despite gains toward building a stable central government, a resurgent Taliban and continuing provincial instability - particularly in the south and the east - remain serious challenges for the Afghan Government.

Geography

Location: Southern Asia, north and west of Pakistan, east of Iran

Geographic coordinates: 33 00 N, 65 00 E

Map references: Asia

Area: total: 652,230 sq km

country comparison to the world: 41

land: 652,230 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: almost six time the size of Virginia; slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries: total: 5,529 km

border countries: China 76 km, Iran 936 km, Pakistan 2,430 km, Tajikistan 1,206 km, Turkmenistan 744 km, Uzbekistan 137 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: arid to semiarid; cold winters and hot summers

Terrain: mostly rugged mountains; plains in north and southwest

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Amu Darya 258 m

highest point: Noshak 7,485 m

Natural resources: natural gas, petroleum, coal, copper, chromite, talc, barites, sulfur, lead, zinc, iron ore, salt, precious and semiprecious stones

Land use: arable land: 11.95%

permanent crops: 0.18%

other: 87.87% (2011)

Irrigated land: 32,080 sq km (2003)

Total renewable water resources: 65.33 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural): total: 20.28 cu km/yr (1%/1%/98%)

per capita: 823.1 cu m/yr (2005)

Natural hazards: damaging earthquakes occur in Hindu Kush mountains; flooding; droughts

Environment - current issues: limited natural freshwater resources; inadequate supplies of potable water; soil degradation; overgrazing; deforestation (much of the remaining forests are being cut down for fuel and building materials); desertification; air and water pollution

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection

signed, but not ratified: Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation

Geography - note: landlocked; the Hindu Kush mountains that run northeast to southwest divide the northern provinces from the rest of the country; the highest peaks are in the northern Vakhan (Wakhan Corridor)

People and Society

Nationality: noun: Afghan(s)

adjective: Afghan

Ethnic groups: Pashtun 42%, Tajik 27%, Hazara 9%, Uzbek 9%, Aimak 4%, Turkmen 3%, Baloch 2%, other 4%

Languages: Afghan Persian or Dari (official) 50%, Pashto (official) 35%, Turkic languages (primarily Uzbek and Turkmen) 11%, 30 minor languages (primarily Balochi and Pashai) 4%, much bilingualism, but Dari functions as the lingua franca

note: the Turkic languages Uzbek and Turkmen, as well as Balochi, Pashai, Nuristani, and Pamiri are the third official languages in areas where the majority speaks them

Religions: Sunni Muslim 80%, Shia Muslim 19%, other 1%

Population: 31,822,848 (July 2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 41

Age structure: 0-14 years: 42% (male 6,793,832/female 6,579,388) 15-24 years: 22.2% (male 3,600,264/female 3,464,781) 25-54 years: 29.4% (male 4,771,323/female 4,586,963) 55-64 years: 2.5% (male 603,197/female 622,539) 65 years and over: 2.5% (male 371,753/female 428,808) (2014 est.)

Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 96 %

youth dependency ratio: 91.4 %

elderly dependency ratio: 4.6 %

potential support ratio: 21.7 (2013)

Median age: total: 18.1 years

male: 18.1 years

female: 18.2 years (2014 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.29% (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 39

Birth rate: 38.84 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 10

Death rate: 14.12 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 7

Net migration rate: -1.83 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 163

Urbanization: urban population: 23.5% of total population (2011)

rate of urbanization: 4.41% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population: KABUL (capital) 3.097 million (2011)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female 0-14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female 15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 25-54 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 55-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.87 male(s)/female

total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2014 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth: 20.1

note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2010 est.)

Maternal mortality rate: 460 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)

country comparison to the world: 22

Infant mortality rate: total: 117.23 deaths/1,000 live births

country comparison to the world: 1

male: 124.89 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 109.18 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 50.49 years

country comparison to the world: 220

male: 49.17 years

female: 51.88 years (2014 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.43 children born/woman (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 9

Contraceptive prevalence rate: 21.8% (2010)

Health expenditures: 9.6% of GDP (2011)

country comparison to the world: 30

Physicians density: 0.19 physicians/1,000 population (2010)

Hospital bed density: 0.4 beds/1,000 population (2010)

Drinking water source:

improved: urban: 85.4% of population

rural: 53% of population

total: 60.6% of population

unimproved: urban: 14.6% of population

rural: 47% of population

total: 39.4% of population (2011 est.)

Sanitation facility access:

Improved: urban: 45.6% of population

rural: 23.2% of population

total: 28.5% of population

Unimproved: urban: 54.4% of population

rural: 76.8% of population

total: 71.5% of population (2011 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.1% (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 123

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 4,300 (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 125

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 300 (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 102

Major infectious diseases: degree of risk: intermediate

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever

vectorborne disease: malaria

animal contact disease: rabies

note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2013)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 2.2% (2008)

country comparison to the world: 182

Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 32.9% (2004)

country comparison to the world: 9

Education expenditures: NA

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 28.1%

male: 43.1%

female: 12.6% (2000 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 9 years

male: 11 years

female: 7 years (2011)

Child labor - children ages 5-14: total number: 3,252,243

percentage: 25 %

note: data on child labor in Afghanistan is uncertain and may be higher than the estimated 25% of children ages 5-14 derived from 2011 survey results; UNICEF estimated that 30% of children ages 5-14 in 2011 were engaged in child labor (2008 est.)

Government

Country name: conventional long form: Islamic Republic of Afghanistan

conventional short form: Afghanistan

local long form: Jamhuri-ye Islami-ye Afghanistan

local short form: Afghanistan

former: Republic of Afghanistan

Government type: Islamic republic

Capital: name: Kabul

geographic coordinates: 34 31 N, 69 11 E

time difference: UTC+4.5 (9.5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions: 34 provinces (welayat, singular - welayat); Badakhshan, Badghis, Baghlan, Balkh, Bamyan, Daykundi, Farah, Faryab, Ghazni, Ghor, Helmand, Herat, Jowzjan, Kabul, Kandahar, Kapisa, Khost, Kunar, Kunduz, Laghman, Logar, Nangarhar, Nimroz, Nuristan, Paktika, Paktiya, Panjshir, Parwan, Samangan, Sar-e Pul, Takhar, Uruzgan, Wardak, Zabul

Independence: 19 August 1919 (from UK control over Afghan foreign affairs)

National holiday: Independence Day, 19 August (1919)

Constitution: several previous; latest drafted 14 December 2003 - 4 January 2004, signed 16 January 2004, ratified 26 January 2004 (2012)

Legal system: mixed legal system of civil, customary, and Islamic law

International law organization participation: has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Hamid KARZAI (since 7 December 2004); First Vice President (vacant); Second Vice President Abdul Karim KHALILI (since 7 December 2004); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Hamid KARZAI (since 7 December 2004); First Vice President (vacant); Second Vice President Abdul Karim KHALILI (since 7 December 2004)

cabinet: 25 ministers; note - ministers are appointed by the president and approved by the National Assembly (For more information visit the World Leaders website )

elections: the president is elected by direct vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); if no candidate receives 50% or more of the vote in the first round of voting, the two candidates with the most votes will participate in a second round; election last held on 20 August 2009 (next to be held on 5 April 2014)

election results: Hamid KARZAI reelected president; percent of vote (first round) - Hamid KARZAI 49.67%, Abdullah ABDULLAH 30.59%, Ramazan BASHARDOST 10.46%, Ashraf GHANI 2.94%; other 6.34%; note - ABDULLAH conceded the election to KARZAI following the first round vote

Legislative branch: the bicameral National Assembly consists of the Meshrano Jirga or House of Elders (102 seats, two-thirds of members elected from provincial councils for four-year terms, and one-third nominated by the president for five-year terms) and the Wolesi Jirga or House of People (no more than 250 seats; members directly elected for five-year terms)

note: the constitution allows the government to convene a constitutional Loya Jirga (Grand Council) on issues of independence, national sovereignty, and territorial integrity; it can amend the provisions of the constitution and prosecute the president; it is made up of members of the National Assembly and chairpersons of the provincial and district councils; no Loya Jirga of this type has ever been held, and district councils have never been elected

elections: last held on 18 September 2010 (next election expected in 2015)

election results: results by party - NA; note - ethnicity is the main factor influencing political alliances; approximate percentage of seats by ethnic group - Pashtun 39%, Hazara 24%, Tajik 21%, Uzbek 6%, other 10% (including Aimak, Arab, Baloch, Nuristani, Pahhai, Turkmen, Turkic); women hold 69 seats

Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court or Stera Mahkama (consists of the Supreme Court Chief and 8 justices organized into criminal, public security, civil, and commercial divisions or dewans)

judge selection and term of office: court chief and justices appointed by the president with the approval of the Wolesi Jirga; court chief and justices serve single 10-year terms

subordinate courts: Appeals Courts; Primary Courts; Special Courts for issues including narcotics, security, property, family, and juveniles

Political parties and leaders: note - the Ministry of Justice licensed 84 political parties as of December 2012

Political pressure groups and leaders: other: religious groups, tribal leaders, ethnically based groups, Taliban

International organization participation: ADB, CICA, CP, ECO, EITI (candidate country), FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, MIGA, MINUSMA, NAM, OIC, OPCW, OSCE (partner), SAARC, SACEP, SCO (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Eklil Ahmad HAKIMI (since 16 February 2011)

chancery: 2341 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 483-6410

FAX: [1] (202) 483-6488

consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Richard YONEOKA

embassy: The Great Masood Road, Kabul

mailing address: U.S. Embassy Kabul, APO, AE 09806

telephone: [93] 0700 108 001

FAX: [93] 0700 108 564

Flag description: three equal vertical bands of black (hoist side), red, and green, with the national emblem in white centered on the red band and slightly overlapping the other two bands; the center of the emblem features a mosque with pulpit and flags on either side, below the mosque are numerals for the solar year 1298 (1919 in the Gregorian calendar, the year of Afghan independence from the UK); this central image is circled by a border consisting of sheaves of wheat on the left and right, in the upper-center is an Arabic inscription of the Shahada (Muslim creed) below which are rays of the rising sun over the Takbir (Arabic expression meaning "God is great"), and at bottom center is a scroll bearing the name Afghanistan; black signifies the past, red is for the blood shed for independence, and green can represent either hope for the future, agricultural prosperity, or Islam

note: Afghanistan had more changes to its national flag in the 20th century than any other country; the colors black, red, and green appeared on most of them

National symbol(s): lion

National anthem: name: "Milli Surood" (National Anthem)

lyrics/music: Abdul Bari JAHANI/Babrak WASA

note: adopted 2006; the 2004 constitution of the post-Taliban government mandated that a new national anthem should be written containing the phrase "Allahu Akbar" (God is Great) and mentioning the names of Afghanistan's ethnic groups

Economy

Economy - overview: Afghanistan's economy is recovering from decades of conflict. The economy has improved significantly since the fall of the Taliban regime in 2001 largely because of the infusion of international assistance, the recovery of the agricultural sector, and service sector growth. Despite the progress of the past few years, Afghanistan is extremely poor, landlocked, and highly dependent on foreign aid. Much of the population continues to suffer from shortages of housing, clean water, electricity, medical care, and jobs. Criminality, insecurity, weak governance, lack of infrastructure, and the Afghan Government's difficulty in extending rule of law to all parts of the country pose challenges to future economic growth. Afghanistan's living standards are among the lowest in the world. The international community remains committed to Afghanistan's development, pledging over $67 billion at nine donors' conferences between 2003-10. In July 2012, the donors at the Tokyo conference pledged an additional $16 billion in civilian aid through 2015. Despite this help, the Government of Afghanistan will need to overcome a number of challenges, including low revenue collection, anemic job creation, high levels of corruption, weak government capacity, and poor public infrastructure. Afghanistan's growth rate slowed markedly in 2013.

GDP (purchasing power parity): $45.3 billion (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 101 $34.25 billion (2012 est.) $30.45 billion (2011 est.)

note: data are in 2013 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate): $20.65 billion (2013 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3.1% (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 113 12.5% (2012 est.) 6.1% (2011 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP): $1,100 (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 216 $1,100 (2012 est.) $1,000 (2011 est.)

note: data are in 2013 US dollars

GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 96.5%

government consumption: 23.3%

investment in fixed capital: 25.4%

investment in inventories: 0%

exports of goods and services: 18.1%

imports of goods and services: -63.4% (2011 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin: agriculture: 20%

industry: 25.6%

services: 54.4%

note: data exclude opium production (2011 est.)

Agriculture - products: opium, wheat, fruits, nuts; wool, mutton, sheepskins, lambskins

Industries: small-scale production of bricks, textiles, soap, furniture, shoes, fertilizer, apparel, food-products, non-alcoholic beverages, mineral water, cement; handwoven carpets; natural gas, coal, copper

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Labor force: 7.512 million (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 62

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 78.6%

industry: 5.7%

services: 15.7% (FY08/09 est.)

Unemployment rate: 35% (2008 est.)

country comparison to the world: 186 40% (2005 est.)

Population below poverty line: 36% (FY08/09)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3.8%

highest 10%: 24% (2008)

Budget: revenues: $2.333 billion

expenditures: $4.122 billion (2012 est.)

Taxes and other revenues: 11.3% of GDP (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 206

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-): -8.7% of GDP (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 200

Fiscal year: 21 December - 20 December

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6.8% (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 182 5.7% (2011 est.)

Commercial bank prime lending rate: 15% (31 December 2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 38 15.15% (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of narrow money: $6.121 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 95 $5.928 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of broad money: $6.499 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 118 $6.351 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of domestic credit: $-819.6 million (31 December 2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 186 $-520.2 million (31 December 2011 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares: $NA

Current account balance: -$743.9 million (2011 est.)

country comparison to the world: 114 -$736 million (2010 est.)

Exports: $376 million (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 180 $388.5 million (2011 est.)

note: not including illicit exports or reexports

Exports - commodities: opium, fruits and nuts, handwoven carpets, wool, cotton, hides and pelts, precious and semi-precious gems

Exports - partners: Pakistan 32.2%, India 27%, Tajikistan 8.5%, US 6.2% (2012)

Imports: $6.39 billion (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 118 $5.154 billion (2011 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery and other capital goods, food, textiles, petroleum products

Imports - partners: Pakistan 24.3%, US 18%, Russia 8.7%, India 5.8%, China 5.6%, Germany 4.4% (2012)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $5.983 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 88 $5.268 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Debt - external: $1.28 billion (FY10/11)

country comparison to the world: 154 $2.7 billion (FY08/09)

Exchange rates: afghanis (AFA) per US dollar - 50.92 (2012 est.) 46.75 (2011 est.) 46.45 (2010)

Energy

Electricity - production: 986.1 million kWh (2010 est.)

country comparison to the world: 146

Electricity - consumption: 2.489 billion kWh (2010 est.)

country comparison to the world: 135

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 95

Electricity - imports: 1.572 billion kWh (2010 est.)

country comparison to the world: 57 Electricity - installed generating

capacity: 489,100 kW (2010 est.)

country comparison to the world: 140

Electricity - from fossil fuels: 23.5% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)

country comparison to the world: 188

Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)

country comparison to the world: 34

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 76.5% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)

country comparison to the world: 17 Electricity - from other renewable

sources: 0% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)

country comparison to the world: 148

Crude oil - production: 1,950 bbl/day (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 106

Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2010 est.)

country comparison to the world: 76

Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2010 est.)

country comparison to the world: 149

Crude oil - proved reserves: NA bbl (1 January 2013 es) Refined petroleum products -

production: 0 bbl/day (2010 est.)

country comparison to the world: 117 Refined petroleum products -

consumption: 4,229 bbl/day (2011 est.)

country comparison to the world: 174

Refined petroleum products - exports: 0 bbl/day (2010 est.)

country comparison to the world: 148

Refined petroleum products - imports: 36,250 bbl/day (2010 est.)

country comparison to the world: 83

Natural gas - production: 140 million cu m (2011 est.)

country comparison to the world: 81

Natural gas - consumption: 140 million cu m (2010 est.)

country comparison to the world: 104

Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2011 est.)

country comparison to the world: 55

Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2011 est.)

country comparison to the world: 150

Natural gas - proved reserves: 49.55 billion cu m (1 January 2013 es)

country comparison to the world: 65 Carbon dioxide emissions from

consumption of energy: 6.589 million Mt (2011 est.)

country comparison to the world: 120

Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 13,500 (2012)

country comparison to the world: 198

Telephones - mobile cellular: 18 million (2012)

country comparison to the world: 55

Telephone system: general assessment: limited fixed-line telephone service; an increasing number of Afghans utilize mobile-cellular phone networks

domestic: aided by the presence of multiple providers, mobile-cellular telephone service continues to improve rapidly; the Afghan Ministry of Communications and Information claims that more than 90 percent of the population live in areas with access to mobile-cellular services

international: country code - 93; multiple VSAT's provide international and domestic voice and data connectivity (2012)

Broadcast media: state-owned broadcaster, Radio Television Afghanistan (RTA), operates a series of radio and television stations in Kabul and the provinces; an estimated 150 private radio stations, 50 TV stations, and about a dozen international broadcasters are available (2007)

Internet country code: .af

Internet hosts: 223 (2012)

country comparison to the world: 199

Internet users: 1 million (2009)

country comparison to the world: 101

Communications - note: Internet access is growing through Internet cafes as well as public "telekiosks" in Kabul (2005)

Transportation

Airports: 52 (2013)

country comparison to the world: 9 1

Airports - with paved runways: total: 2 3

over 3,047 m: 4 2,438 to 3,047 m: 4 1,524 to 2,437 m: 11 914 to 1,523 m: 2

under 914 m: 2 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 2 9 2,438 to 3,047 m: 4 1,524 to 2,437 m: 13 914 to 1,523 m: 6

under 914 m: 6 (2013)

Heliports: 9 (2013)

Pipelines: gas 466 km (2013)

Roadways: total: 42,150 km

country comparison to the world: 85

paved: 12,350 km

unpaved: 29,800 km (2006)

Waterways: 1,200 km; (chiefly Amu Darya, which handles vessels up to 500 DWT) (2011)

country comparison to the world: 59

Ports and terminals: river port(s): Kheyrabad, Shir Khan

Military

Military branches: Afghan Armed Forces: Afghan National Army (ANA, includes Afghan Air Force (AAF)) (2011)

Military service age and obligation: 18 is the legal minimum age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2012)

Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 7,056,339

females age 16-49: 6,653,419 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 4,050,222

females age 16-49: 3,797,087 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually: male: 392,116

female: 370,295 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures: NA% (2012) 4.74% of GDP (2011) NA% (2010)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Afghan, Coalition, and Pakistan military meet periodically to clarify the alignment of the boundary on the ground and on maps; Afghan and Iranian commissioners have discussed boundary monument densification and resurvey; Iran protests Afghanistan's restricting flow of dammed Helmand River tributaries during drought; Pakistan has sent troops across and built fences along some remote tribal areas of its treaty-defined Durand Line border with Afghanistan which serve as bases for foreign terrorists and other illegal activities; Russia remains concerned about the smuggling of poppy derivatives from Afghanistan through Central Asian countries

Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 16,147 (Pakistan) (2012)

IDPs: about 647,779 (mostly Pashtuns and Kuchis displaced in the south and west due to drought and instability) (2014)

Trafficking in persons: current situation