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Opis ebooka The Two Babylons - Alexander Hislop

There is this great difference between the works of men and the works of God, that the same minute and searching investigation, which displays the defects and imperfections of the one, brings out also the beauties of the other. If the most finely polished needle on which the art of man has been expended be subjected to a microscope, many inequalities, much roughness and clumsiness, will be seen. But if the microscope be brought to bear on the flowers of the field, no such result appears. Instead of their beauty diminishing, new beauties and still more delicate, that have escaped the naked eye, are forthwith discovered; beauties that make us appreciate, in a way which otherwise we could have had little conception of, the full force of the Lord’s saying, “Consider the lilies of the field, how they grow; they toil not, neither do they spin: and yet I say unto you, That even Solomon, in all his glory, was not arrayed like one of these.” (Mat 6:28-29) The same law appears also in comparing the Word of God and the most finished productions of men. There are spots and blemishes in the most admired productions of human genius. But the more the Scriptures are searched, the more minutely they are studied, the more their perfection appears; new beauties are brought into light every day; and the discoveries of science, the researches of the learned, and the labours of infidels, all alike conspire to illustrate the wonderful harmony of all the parts, and the Divine beauty that clothes the whole.If this be the case with Scripture in general, it is especially the case with prophetic Scripture. As every spoke in the wheel of Providence revolves, the prophetic symbols start into still more bold and beautiful relief. This is very strikingly the case with the prophetic language that forms the groundwork and corner-stone of the present work. There never has been any difficulty in the mind of any enlightened Protestant in identifying the woman “sitting on seven mountains,” and having on her forehead the name written, “Mystery, Babylon the Great,” with the Roman apostacy. “No other city in the world has ever been celebrated, as the city of Rome has, for its situation on seven hills. Pagan poets and orators, who had not thought of elucidating prophecy, have alike characterised it as ‘the seven hilled city.’” Thus Virgil refers to it: “Rome has both become the most beautiful (city) in the world, and alone has surrounded for herself seven heights with a wall.” Propertius, in the same strain, speaks of it (only adding another trait, which completes the Apocalyptic picture) as “The lofty city on seven hills, which governs the whole world.” Its “governing the whole world” is just the counterpart of the Divine statement—”which reigneth over the kings of the earth” (Rev 17:18). To call Rome the city “of the seven hills” was by its citizens held to be as descriptive as to call it by its own proper name. Hence Horace speaks of it by reference to its seven hills alone, when he addresses, “The gods who have set their affections on the seven hills.” Martial, in like manner, speaks of “The seven dominating mountains.” In times long subsequent, the same kind of language was in current use; for when Symmachus, the prefect of the city, and the last acting Pagan Pontifex Maximus, as the Imperial substitute, introduces by letter one friend of his to another, he calls him “De septem montibus virum”—”a man from the seven mountains,” meaning thereby, as the commentators interpret it, “Civem Romanum, “A Roman Citizen.” 

Opinie o ebooku The Two Babylons - Alexander Hislop

Fragment ebooka The Two Babylons - Alexander Hislop

THE TWO BABYLONS;

OR,

PAPAL WORSHIP

PROVED TO BE THE

WORSHIP OF NIMROD AND HIS WIFE

With Sixty-One Woodcut Illustrations from

NINEVEH, BABYLON, EGYPT, POMPEII, &c.

BY THE LATE

REV. ALEXANDER HISLOP, OF EAST FREE CHURCH, ARBROATH.

Seventh Edition

EDINBURGH:

JAMES WOOD, 130, GEORGE STREET.

LONDON: HOULSTON AND WRIGHT.

MDCCCLXXI

Hope. Inspiration. Trust.

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© 2017 CrossReach Publications

All Rights Reserved, Including The Right To Reproduce This Book Or Portions Thereof In Any Form Whatever.

TO THE RIGHT HONOURABLE

LORD JOHN SCOTT,

AS A TESTIMONY OF RESPECT

FOR HIS TALENTS, AND THE DEEP AND ENLIGHTENED INTEREST

TAKEN BY HIM IN THE SUBJECT OF

PRIMEVAL ANTIQUITY;

AS WELL AS AN EXPRESSION OF GRATITUDE FOR

MANY MARKS OF COURTESY AND KINDNESS

RECEIVED AT HIS HANDS;

This Work

IS RESPECTFULLY INSCRIBED

BY HIS OBLIGED AND FAITHFUL SERVANT,

THE AUTHOR.

Dec. 1857.

OPINIONS OF THE PRESS IN REGARD TO FORMER EDITIONS OF THE WORK.

“The volume before us on the subject of Romanism is able and interesting. The Author is a ‘full man.’ His scholarship is ripe, and his historical research deep and accurate. Classical and Oriental literature, and the records of antiquity, he employs with the skill and readiness of a master, to make good his positions. Rarely indeed, within the same space, have we seen such a rich variety of learned and curious information arrayed in evidence against the assumptions, usages, doctrines, and pretended apostolical origin of Romanism. The tinsel garments of pretended sanctity he strips off, and the charm of sacred association he scatters to the winds.”—Evangelical Magazine.

“One of the most valuable contributions towards the settlement of the great controversy which we hold with Antichrist that has appeared for years The relation which mythology bears to mythology, and which all bear to Chris tian Theism, is beautifully, though apparently unconsciously, developed in Mr Hislop’s ‘Two Babylons.’”—Stanyan Bigg ia Downshire Protestant.

“Mr. Hislop’s work entitles him to a place in the first ranks of those who have been honoured, by their discoveries, to throw intensely interesting light, in different ways, on some of the darkest pages of the world’s history.”—Original Secession Magazine.

“Mr. Hislop has displayed no small amount of historical and philological lore, which stamp him as a scholar of no mean rank. His felicity in tracing analogies is very remarkable.”—Scottish Press.

“Mr. Hislop has collected a large mass of materials (many of them new and very striking) in proof of his position; and has arranged and stated his argument with a calmness, precision, and force, that greatly impress the reader.”—Christian Treasury.

“These papers (on the Moral Identity of Babylon and Rome) produced at the time a powerful impression; and their learned author has since prosecuted his inquiries more fully, and in a most interesting volume, just published, has set forth in ample detail the whole proofs and illustrations of his interesting and striking theory. ... It gives one a strange and vivid idea of the inspiration of Scripture to read these remarkable pages.”—Dr. Begg in Bulwark.

“This is a work of no commonplace character. It clearly proves that the religion of the Church of Rome is the religion of ancient Babylon, tinted and varnished with the name of Christianity.”—Achill Herald.

“This work is of no common erudition. We have not for a considerable time met with any volume that presents the subject in lights so striking and original. The author has performed a noble service to our common Protestantism, and is entitled to the thanks of every section of the true Church.”—Dr Campbell of London in British Standard.

“We venture to say, no reader will rise from its perusal without a loftier reverence for God’s truth, and a deeper conviction of the indelible brand that truth has stamped upon the Papal system. There is a touch of the sublime in finding the predictions of the Seer of Patmos unloosed from their enigmatic mystery, when we bring together the early idolatrous worship of Chaldea, and the latest dogmas of Rome. The simple narrative of the two developments completes the circle—a luminous ring, which lights up the dark page of prophecy until it reads like a history written but yesterday.”—Northern Warder.

“The vast amount of learning, and the philological research and comparison so fascinating to many minds, coupled with the striking analogies every now and then made apparent, render the book as attractive as a novel, and the reader is drawn on irresistibly to the end. Its pages form a mine of historical wealth, or rather a depository of ores and fossils dug from a vast number of sources, and labelled, classified, and arranged until, like specimens from the various strata of the earth’s crust similarly laid out in a museum, and pieced together by the hands of a master in geology, the oneness of the source whence sprung the many systems of religion of ancient times is made manifest, as are the corruptions which in later ages have crept into the Church of the primitive Christians.”—Arbroath Guide.

N.B.—Should any further Errata, in addition to the List already appended, be discovered after the issue of the work, they will be furnished to purchasers on application to the Publisher, on receipt of postage stamps to pay for their transmission.

CONTENTS

Note by the Editor (7th Edition)

Preface to the Second Edition

Preface to the Third Edition,

Galleria

Introduction

Chapter I Distinctive Character of the Two Systems

Chapter II Section I Trinity in Unity

Chapter II Section II The Mother and Child, and the Original of the Child

Chapter II Section II Sub-Section I The Child in Assyria

Chapter II Section II Sub-Section II The Child In Egypt

Chapter II Section II Sub-Section III The Child in Greece

Chapter II Section II Sub-Section IV The Death of the Child

Chapter II Section II Sub-Section V The Deification of the Child

Chapter II Section III The Mother of the Child

Chapter III Festivals Section I. Christmas and Lady-day

Chapter III Section II Easter

Chapter III Section III The Nativity of St. John

Chapter III Section IV The Feast of the Assumption

Chapter IV Doctrine and Discipline

Chapter IV Section I Baptismal Regeneration

Chapter IV Section II Justification by Works

Chapter IV Section III The Sacrifice of the Mass

Chapter IV Section IV Extreme Unction

Chapter IV Section V Purgatory and Prayers for the Dead

Chapter V Rites and Ceremonies Section I Idol Processions

Chapter V Section II Relic Worship

Chapter V Section III The Clothing and Crowning of Images

Chapter V Section IV The Rosary and the Worship of the Sacred Heart

Chapter V Section V Lamps and Wax-Candles

Chapter V Section VI The Sign of the Cross

Chapter VI Section I The Sovereign Pontiff

Chapter VI Section II Priests, Monks, and Nuns

Chapter VII The Two Developments Historically and Prophetically Considered

Chapter VII Section I The Great Red Dragon

Chapter VII Section II The Beast from the Sea

Chapter VII Section III The Beast from the Earth

Chapter VII Section IV The Image of the Beast

Chapter VII Section V The Name of the Beast, the Number of His Name— The Invisible Head of the Papacy

Conclusion

Appendix

Index.

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NOTE BY THE EDITOR (7th EDITION)

Had the lamented author been spared to superintend the issue of the Fourth Edition of his work, it is probable he would have felt himself called upon to say something in reference to the political and ecclesiastical events that have occurred since the publication of the last edition. By the authoritative promulgation of the dogma of the Pope’s Infallibility, his argument as to the time of the slaying of the Witnesses, and his identification of the Roman pontiff as the legitimate successor of Belshazzar have been abundantly confirmed.

It is gratifying to the author’s friends to know that the work has been so favourably received hitherto, and that no one, so far as we are aware, has ventured to challenge the accuracy of the historical proofs adduced in support of the startling announcement on the title page. But it is deplorable to think that, notwithstanding all the revelations made from time to time of the true character and origin of Popery, Ritualism still makes progress in the Churches, and that men of the highest influence in the State are so infatuated as to seek to strengthen their political position by giving countenance to a system of idolatry. If Britons would preserve their freedom and their pre-eminence among the nations, they should never forget the Divine declaration, “Them that honour me I will honour, and they that despise ME shall be lightly esteemed.”

It only remains for the editor to say that the work has been carefully revised throughout, and a few trifling errors in the references have, in consequence, been corrected. One or two notes also, enclosed in bracket’s have been added

R. H.

Blair Bank, Polmont Station, N.B.

PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION

Since the appearing of the First Edition of this work, the author has extensively prosecuted his researches into the same subject; and the result has been a very large addition of new evidence. Somewhat of the additional evidence has already been given to the public, first through the columns of the ‘British Messenger,’ and then in the publication entitled ‘The Moral Identity of Babylon and Rome,’ issued by Mr Drummond of Stirling. In the present edition of ‘The Two Babylons,’ the substance of that work is also included. But the whole has now been re-written, and the mass of new matter that has been added, is so much greater than all that had previously appeared, that this may fairly be regarded as an entirely new work. The argument appears now with a completeness, which, considering the obscurity in which the subject had long been wrapped, the author himself, only a short while ago, could not have ventured to anticipate as a thing capable of attainment.

*****

On the principle of giving honour to whom honour is due, the author gladly acknowledges, as he has done before, his obligations to the late H. J. Jones, Esq.—to whose researches Protestantism is not a little indebted—who was the first that directed his attention to this field of inquiry. That able, and excellent, and distinguished writer, however, was called to his rest before his views were matured. His facts, in important instances, were incorrect; and the conclusions at which he ultimately arrived, were, in very vital respects, directly the reverse of those that are unfolded in these pages. Those who have read, in the ‘Quarterly Journal of Prophecy,’ his speculations in regard to the Beast from the sea, will, it is believed, readily perceive that, in regard to it, as well as other subjects, his argument is fairly set aside by the evidence here adduced.

The author has also to offer his thanks to Mr. Layard, the great Assyrian discoverer, for the courtesy with which he gave his sanction to the copying of the woodcuts from his valuable work, ‘Nineveh and Babylon,’ which were necessary for the illustration of the present work, as well as to Mr. Murray, of Albemarle Street, London, the proprietor of Mr. Layard’s works, who most handsomely granted his permission to make use of them. It is not only for the use of these wood-cuts from Mr. Layard, that the author is indebted to the liberality of Mr. Murray. All the Egyptian illustrations, also, are his, which he kindly put at the author’s disposal, for the elucidation of his work. They are taken from the works of Sir G. Wilkinson, on ancient Egypt, the exceeding value of whose researches, as bearing upon his own investigations, he feels constrained to acknowledge, though on some points he differs from his conclusions.

In the matter of illustrations, the author’s thanks are also due to the Messrs. Chambers of Edinburgh, not only for granting permission to copy the figures of the Babylonian Mother and Child, and the Ephesian Diana, which are taken from Kitto’s (in many respects) most valuable ‘Illustrated Commentary,’ now re-issued by them, but also for their spontaneous kindness in offering casts of these figures for the use of “this work.

In regard to the subject of the work, there are just two remarks the author would make. The first has reference to the Babylonian legends. These were all intended primarily to commemorate facts that took place in the early history of the postdiluvian world. But along with them were mixed up the momentous events in the history of our first parents. These events, as can be distinctly proved, were commemorated in the secret system of Babylon with a minuteness and particularity of detail of which the ordinary student of antiquity can have little conception. The post-diluvian divinities were connected with the ante-diluvian patriarchs, and the first progenitors of the human race, by means of the metempsychosis; and the names given to them were skilfully selected, so as to be capable of divers meanings, each of these meanings having reference to some remarkable feature in the history of the different patriarchs referred to. The knowledge of this fact is indispensable to the unravelling of the labyrinthine subject of Pagan mythology, which, with all its absurdities and abominations, when narrowly scrutinized, will be found exactly to answer to the idea contained in the well-known line of Pope in regard to a very different subject:—

“A mighty maze, but not without a plan.”

In the following work, however, this aspect of the subject has, as much as possible, been kept in abeyance, it being reserved for another work, in which, if Providence permit, it will be distinctly handled.

The other point on which the author finds it necessary to say a word, has reference to the use of the term “Chaldee,” as employed in this work. According to ordinary usage, that term is appropriated to the language spoken in Babylon, in the time of Daniel and thereafter. In these pages, the term Chaldee, except where otherwise stated, is applied indiscriminately to whatever language can be proved to have been used in Babylonia from the time that the Babylonian system of idolatry commenced. Now, it is evident from the case of Abraham, who was brought up in Ur of the Chaldees, and who doubtless brought his native language along with him into Canaan, that, at that period, Chaldee and Hebrew were substantially the same. When, therefore, a pure Hebrew word is found mixed up with a system that confessedly had its origin in Babylonia, the land of the Chaldees, it cannot be doubted that that term, in that very form, must have originally belonged to the Chaldee dialect, as well as to that which is now commonly known as Hebrew. On this ground, the author has found himself warranted to give a wider application to the term “Chaldee” than that which is currently in use.

And now, in sending forth this new edition, the author hopes he can say that, however feebly, he has yet had sincerely an eye, in the whole of his work, to the glory of “that name that is above every name,” which is dear to every Christian heart, and through which all tribes, and peoples, and kindreds, and tongues, of this sinful and groaning earth, are yet destined to be blessed. In the prosecuting of his researches, he has found his own faith sensibly quickened. His prayer is, that the good Spirit of all grace may bless it for the same end to all who may read it.

PREFACE TO THE THIRD EDITION,

In giving the Third Edition of this work to the public, I have little else to do than to express my acknowledgments to those to whom I am under obligations, for enabling me thus far to bring it to a successful issue.

To Mr. Murray, of Albemarle Street, London; Mr. Vaux, of the British Museum; and Messrs. Black and Messrs. Chambers, Edinburgh, I am specially indebted for permission to copy woodcuts belonging to them. Individual woodcuts, from other sources, are acknowledged in the body of the work. To Mr. John Adam, the artist, who has executed the whole of the woodcuts, with a few exceptions, I have to express my obligations for the spirit and artistic skill displayed in their execution; and I do so with the more pleasure, that Mr. Adam is a native of Arbroath, and the son of a worthy elder of my own.

I have also acknowledgments of another kind to make. Considering the character of this work—a work that, from its very nature, required wide, and at the same time, minute research, and the consultation of works of a very recondite character; and, taking also into view not only the very limited extent of my own library, but the distance of my abode from any of the great libraries of the land, where rare and expensive works may be consulted, the due preparation of such a work was attended with many difficulties. The kindness of friends, however, has tended wonderfully to remove these difficulties. From all quarters I have met with the most disinterested aid, of which I retain a grateful and pleasing remembrance. To enumerate all the different sources whence help has come to me, in the prosecution of my task, would be impossible. There are three individuals, however, who stand out from the rest, whom I cannot pass over without notice. Each of them has co-operated (and all spontaneously), though in different ways, in enabling me thus far to accomplish my task, and their aid has been of the most essential importance.

To Mrs. Barkworth, of Tranby Hall, Yorkshire, (whose highly cultivated mind, enlightened zeal for Protestant truth, and unwearied beneficence, need no testimony of mine,) I am signally indebted, and it gives me pleasure to acknowledge it.

I have also to acknowledge my deep and peculiar obligations to one who chooses to be unknown,1 who, entirely on public grounds, has taken a very lively interest in this work. He has spared neither expense nor pains, that every incidental error being removed, the argument might be presented to the public in the most perfect possible form. For this purpose, he has devoted a large portion of his time, during the last three years, to the examination of every quotation contained in the last edition, going, in every case where it was at all possible, to the fountain-head of authority. His co-operation with me, in the revisal of the work, has been of the greatest advantage. His acute and logical mind, quick in detecting a flaw, his determination to be satisfied with nothing that had not sufficient evidence to rest upon, and yet his willing surrender to the force of truth, when ever that evidence was presented, have made him a most valuable coadjutor. “As iron sharpeneth iron,” says Solomon, “so doth a man sharpen the countenance of his friend.” I have sensibly found it so. His correspondence, by this stimulus, has led to the accumulation of an immense mass of new evidence, here presented to the reader, which, but for his suggestions, and objections too, might never have been discovered. In the prosecution of his investigation he has examined no fewer than 2402 out of the 270 works contained in the accompanying list of “Editions,” many of them of large extent, all of which are in his own possession, and not a few of which he has procured for the purpose of verification. His object and mine has been, that the argument might be fairly stated, and that error might, as far as possible, be avoided. How far this object has been attained, the references and list of “Editions” will enable each reader competent to the task, to judge for himself. For myself, however, I cannot but express my high sense of the incalculable value of the service which the extraordinary labours of my kind and disinterested friend have rendered to the cause of universal Protestantism.

But while making mention of my obligations to the living, I may not forget what I owe to the dead. To him whose name stands on the front of this work, I am, in some respects, pre-eminently indebted, and I cannot send forth this edition without a tribute of affection to his memory. It is not for me to speak of his wit, and the brilliancy of his conversational powers, that captivated all that knew him; of the generous unselfishness of his nature, that made him a favourite with every one that came in contact with him; or of the deep interest that he took in the efforts at present being made for improving the dwellings of the working-classes, and especially of those on his own estate, as well as in their moral and religious improvement. But I would be liable to the charge of ingratitude if I contented myself, in the circumstances, with the mere formal dedication, which, though appropriate enough while he was alive, is now no more so when he is gone.

The time and the circumstances in which his active friend ship was extended to me, made it especially welcome. His keen eye saw at a glance, as soon as the subject of this work came under his attention, the importance of it; and from that time forward/though the work was then in its most rudimentary form, he took the deepest interest in it. He did not wait till the leading organs of popular opinion, or the great dispensers of fame, should award their applause; but, prompted by his own kindly feeling, he spontaneously opened up a correspondence with me, to encourage and aid me in the path of discovery on which I had entered.

His own studies qualified him to appreciate the subject and pronounce upon it. For many years he had deeply studied the Druidical system, which, with the haze and mystery around it, and with its many points of contact with the patriarchal religion, had a strange and peculiar fascination for him. For the elucidation of this subject, he had acquired most valuable works; and what he possessed he was most ready to communicate. In the prosecution of my inquiries, I had met with what to me seemed insuperable difficulties. He had only to know of this to set himself to remove them; and the aid derived from him was at once precious and opportune; for through his acquaintance with Druidism, and the works received from him, difficulties disappeared, and a flood of light irradiated the whole subject. If, therefore, the reader shall find the early history of superstition, not only in. our native land, but in the world at large, set in a new and instructive light in these pages, he must know that he is essentially indebted for that to Lord John Scott. In one, who was an entire stranger, being thus prompted to render efficient assistance to me at such a time, I could not but thankfully recognise the hand of a gracious Providence; and when I reflect on the generous, and humble, and disinterested kindness with which the four years’ correspondence between us, was conducted on his part,—a correspondence in which he always treated me with as much confidence as if I had been his friend and brother, I cannot but feel warm and tender emotions, mingling with the thoughts that spring up in my bosom. Friendship such as his was no ordinary friendship. His memory, therefore, must be ever dear to me; the remembrance of his kindness ever fragrant.

Unexpected was the stroke —now, alas! near three years ago—by which our correspondence was brought to an end; but painful though that stroke was, and solemnizing, there was no gloom attending it. The “hope full of immortality” cheered his dying bed. For years back he had found the emptiness of the world, and had begun to seek the better part. His religion was no sentimental religion, his fear of God was not taught by the commandment of men. His faith was drawn directly from the inspired fountain of divine truth. From the time that the claims of God to the homage of his heart had laid hold on him, the Word of God became his grand study, and few men have I ever known who held with a more firm and tenacious grasp the great truth, that the Word of God, and that Word alone, is the light and rule for the guidance of Christians; and that every departure from that Word, alike on the part of churches and individuals, implies, as he himself expressed it, “going off the rails,” and consequently danger of the highest kind. As his religion was scriptural, so it was spiritual. In one of his earliest letters to me, he avowed that the bond of “spiritual religion” was that by which he felt himself specially bound to those whose character and spirit showed them to be the true sheep of Christ’s pasture; and in accepting the dedication of my work, he particularly stated, that the interest that he took in it was not as a mere matter of literary curiosity, but as being “fitted to teach great truths, which the world is not very willing to learn.” This, in the connection in which he wrote it, evidently had special reference to the great doctrine of “regeneration.” His mind was deeply penetrated with a sense of the majesty of God, and the “awfulness” of our relations to Him, in consequence of the sin that has entered the world, and has infected the whole human race, and therefore he vividly realized the indispensable necessity of Mediation and Atonement, to give hope to sinful man in prospect of the grand account.

The origin of that earnestness and attachment to spiritual religion, which he manifested in his last years, was, as I was assured by a relative, now also gone to his reward, the perusal of the tract entitled ‘Sin no Trifle.’ Deep was the impression that tract had made. He read it, and re-read it, and continually carried it about with him, till it was entirely worn away. Under the impressions springing from such views of sin, he said to an intimate friend, when in the enjoyment of health and vigour, “It is easy to die the death of a gentleman, but that will not do.” His death was not the death of a mere gentleman. It was evidently the death of a Christian.

The circumstances in which he was removed were fitted to be peculiarly affecting to me. In reply to a letter—the last which I received from him—in which he expressed deep interest in the spread of vital religion, I was led, in pursuance of the theme, to which he himself had specially referred, to dwell more than ever before on the necessity not merely of having hope towards God, but of having the question of personal acceptance decisively settled, and the consequent habitual possession of the “joy of salvation,” and as one special reason for this, referred to the fact, that all would be needed in a dying hour. “And who can tell,” I added, “how suddenly those who are surrounded with all the comforts of life may be removed from the midst of them?” In illustration of this, I referred to the affecting case of one whom I had known well, just a short while before, lost along with his family in the Royal Charter, who had made a large fortune in Australia, who was returning home, on the point of setting foot on his native shores, with the prospect of spending his days in ease and affluence, when suddenly father and mother, son and daughter, were all engulfed in a watery grave. My letter concluded with these words: “In view of such a solemnizing event, well may we say, What is man? But oh, man is great, if he walks with God, and the divine words are fulfilled in his experience, ‘God, who commanded the light to shine out of darkness, hath shined in our hearts, to give the light of the knowledge of the glory of God in the face of Jesus Christ.’ That this may be more and more the experience of your Lordship, is my earnest desire.” When I wrote this I had not the least suspicion that I was writing to a dying man. But so it proved to be. Only a few days after he received this, he was smitten with his death-sickness. From his dying bed he sent me a kindly memorial of his affectionate remembrance, and in his painful illness, he manifested the supporting power of faith, when faith has respect to the truth as it is in Jesus, and appropriates Him as a personal and Almighty Saviour.

Editions Of WorksQuoted Or Referred To In This Work.

Adam’s Roman Antiquities,

London

1835

Catechismus Romanus,

Lyons

1659

Æliani Historiæ,

Rome

1545

Catlin’s American Indians,

London

1841

Ælianus de Nat. Animal,

Tubingen

1768

Catullus,

Utrecht

1659

Æschylus,

Paris

1552, ‘57

Cedreni Compendium,

Bonn

1838

Agathias (Corp. Script. Byzant.),

Bonn

1828

Cæsar,

London

1770

Alford’s Greek Test.,

London

1856

Charlotte Elizabeth’s Personal Recollections,

London

1847

Ambrosii Opera,

Paris

1836

Charlotte Elizabeth’s Sketches of Irish History,

Dublin

1844

Ammianus Marcellinus,

Paris

1681

Chesney’s Euphrates Expedition,

London

1850

Anacreon,

Cambridge

1805

Chronicon Paschale,

Bonn

1832

Apocalypse, Original Interpretation,

London

1857

Chrysostomi Opera Omnia,

Paris

1738

Apocriphi (Diodati, Bibbia),

London

1819

Ciceronis Opera Omnia,

Paris

1740

Apollodorus,

Gottingen

1803

Clemens Alexandrinus, Opera,

Wurtzburg

1778

Apuleius,

Leipsic

1842

Clemens Protrepticos,

Lutetiæ

1629

Arati Phœnomena,

Leipsic

1793

Clericus (Johannes) de Chaldæis et de Sabæis,

Amsterdam

1700

Aristophanes,

Amsterdam

1710

Clinton, Fasti Hellenici,

Oxford

1834

Arnobius,

Paris

1836

Codex Theodosianus,

Bonn

1842

Athenæus,

Leyden

1612

Coleman’s Hindoo Mythology,

London

1832

Athenagoras,

Wurtzburg

1777

Cory’s Fragments,

London

1732

Asiatic Journal,

London

1816

Courayer’s Council of Trent,

London

1736

Asiatic Researches,

London

1806

Covenanter, Irish,

Belfast

1862

Augustini Opera Omnia,

Bassano

1807

Crabb’s Mythology,

London

1854

Augustine’s City of God, with Lud. Vives’s Comment.,

London

1620

Crichton’s Scandinavia,

Edinburgh

1838

Aulus Gellius,

Leyden

1666

Coleman’s Hindoo Mythology,

London

1832

Aurelius Victor,

Utrecht

1696

Cummianus (Patr. Patrum),

Paris

1851

Ausonii Opera,

Amsterdam

1669

Davies’s Druids,

London

1809

Barker and Ainsworth’s Lares and Penates of Cilicia,

London

1853

Daubuz’s Symbolical Dictionary,

London

1842

Barker’s Hebrew Lexicon,

London

1811

D’Aubigne’s Reformation,

Brussels

1839

Baronii Annales,

Cologne

1609

David’s Antiquités Etrusques, &c,

Paris

1787

Bede’s Works,

Cambridge

1722

Davis’s (Sir J. F.) China,

London

1857

Begg’s Handbook of Popery,

Edinburgh

1856

David’s Antiquités Etrusques, &c,

Paris

1787

Bell’s (Robert) Wayside Pictures,

London

1849

Davis’s (Sir J. F.) China,

London

1857

Bell’s (John) Italy,

Edinburgh

1825

David’s Antiquités Etrusques, &c,

Paris

1787

Berosus,

Leipsic

1825

Davis’s (Sir J. F.) China,

London

1857

Betham’s Etruria Celtica,

Dublin

1842

David’s Antiquités Etrusques, &c,

Paris

1787

Betham’s Gael and Cymbri,

Dublin

1834

Davis’s (Sir J. F.) China,

London

1857

Bilney ( British Reformers),

London

S. D.

Didron’s Christian Iconography,

London

1851

Bion (Poet. Græc. Min.),

Cambridge

1661

Diodori Bibliotheca,

Paris

1559

Blakeney’s Popery in its Social Aspect,

Edinburgh

S. D.

Diogenes Laertius,

London

1664

Borrow’s Gipsies,

London

1843

Dionysius Afer,

London

1658

Bower’s Lives of the Popes,

London

1750

Dionysius Halicarn.,

Oxford

1704

Bryant’s Mythology,

London

1807

Dryden’s Virgil,

London

1709

Bulwark, The,

Edinburgh

1852-‘58

Dupuis, Origine de tous les Cultes,

Paris

1822

Bunsen’s Egypt,

London

1848

Dymock’s Classical Dictionary,

London

1833

Cæsar,

London

1770

Elliott’s Horæ Apocalypticæ

London

1851

Callimachus,

Utrecht

1697

Ennodii Opera,

Paris

1611

Epiphanii Opera Omnia,

Cologne

1682

Jamblicbus on the Mysteries,

Chiswick

1821

Eunapius,

Geneva

1616

Jamieson’s Scottish Dictionary,

Edinburgh

1808

Euripides,

Cambridge

1694

Jewell (British Reformers),

London

S. D.

Eusebii Præpar. Evangel.,

Leipsic

1842

Jones’s (Sir W.) Works,

London

1807

Eusebii Chronicon,

Venice

1818

Josephus (Græcé),

Basle

1544

Eusebii Chron.,

Basle

1529

Justini Hist. (Hist. Rom. Script.),

Aurelii, Allobrog.

1609

Eusebii Vita Constantin.,

Paris

1677

Justinus Martyr,

Wurtzburg

1777

Eustace’s Classical Tour,

London

1813

Justus Lipsius,

London

1698

Eutropius (Rom. Hist. Script. Graæ. Min.)

Frankfort

1590

Juvenal,

London

1728

Evangelical Christendom,

London

1853, 55

Kennedy’s Ancient and Hindoo Mythology,

London

1831

Firmicus, Julius,

Oxford

1678

Kennett’s Roman Antiquities,

London

1696

Flores Seraphici,

Coloniœ, Agrippinœ

1640

Kitto’s Cyclopædia,

Edinburgh

1856

Furniss’s What Every Christian must Know,

London

S. D.

Kitto’s Illustrated Commentary,

London

1840

Fuss’s Roman Antiquities,

Oxford

1850

Knox’s History of Reformation,

Edinburgh

1846-48

Garden of the Soul,

Dublin, London

1850, S. D.

Knox (British Reformers),

London

S. D.

Gaussen’s Daniel,

Paris

1848-49

Lactantius,

Cambridge

1685

Gebelin, Monde Primitif,

Paris

1773-82

Lafitan, Mœurs des Sauvages Amériquains,

Paris

1742

Gesenii Lexicon,

London

1855

Landseer’s Sebean Researches,

London

1823

Gibbon’s Decline and Fall,

Dublin

1781

Layard’s Babylon and Nineveh,

London

1853

Gibson’s Preservative,

London

1848

Layard’s Nineveh,

London

1849

Gieseler’s Eccles. History,

Edinburgh

1846

Livius,

Amsterdam

1710

Gill’s Commentary,

London

1852-54

Lorimer’s Manual of Presbytery,

Edinburgh

1842

Gillespie’s Sinim,

Edinburgh

1854

Lucan. de Bell. Civ.,

Leyden

1658

Golden Manual,

London

1850

Lucianus,

Amsterdam

1743

Gregorii Nazianzeni Opera,

Antwerp

1612

Lucretius,

Oxford

1695

Greswell’s Dissertations,

Oxford

1837

Lycophron (Poet. Græc. Min.),

Geneva

1814

Guizot’s European Civilisation,

London

1846

Macrobius,

Sanct. Colon.

1521

Hanmer’s Chronographia;

London

1636

M ‘Gavin’s Protestant,

Glasgow

1850

Hardy, Spence. Buddhism,

London

1858

Maimonides More Nevochim,

Basle

1629

Harvet, Epistle of. Gent., Review

London

1598

Maitland on the Catacombs,

London

1846

Hay’s Sincere Christian,

Dublin

1783

Mallet’s Northern Antiquities,

London

1770, 1847

Heathen Mythology,

London

S. D.

Manilius,

Berlin

1846

Herodoti Historia,

Paris

1592

Martialis Epigrammata,

Leyden

1656

Hesiodus,

Oxford

1737

Massy, Memoir of Rev. G.,

London

1859

Hesychii Lexicon,

Leyden

1688

Maurice’s Indian Antiquities,

London

See Note

Hieronymi Opera,

Paris

1643

Mede’s Works,

London

1672

Hislop’s Light of Prophecy,

Edinburgh

1846

Middleton’s Letter from Rome,

London

1741

Homer,

Cambridge

1711

Milner’s Church History,

London

1712

Homer (Pope’s),

London

1715

Milton’s Paradise Lost,

London

1695

Horapollo’s Hieroglyphics,

Amsterdam

1835

Minutius Felix,

Leyden

1672

Horatius,

Paris

1691

Missale Romanum,

Paris

1677

Hue’s Voyage dans la Tartarie et Thibet,

Paris

1857

Missale Romanum,

Vienna

1506

Humboldt’s Mexican Researches,

London

1814

Missionary Record of Free Church,

Edinburgh

1855

Hurd’s Rites and Ceremonies,

London

S. D.

Moor’s Hindoo Pantheon,

London

1810

Hyde’s Religio Persarum,

Oxford

1700

Morgan’s (Lady) Italy,

London

1824

Hygini Fabulæ,

Leipsic

1856

Moses of Chorené,

London

1736

Irenæi Opera,

Leipsic

1853

Müller’s Dorians,

Oxford

1830

Mulleri Fragmenta,

Paris

1846-51

Septuagint,

Paris

1628

Newman’s Development of Doctrine

London

1846

Servius,

Gottingen

1826

Niebuhr’s Roman History,

London

1855

Savary’s Letters on Egypt,

London

1786

Nonnus de Phil. Oriental, et Dionysiaca,

Leipsic

1857

Seymour’s Evenings with Romanists,

London

1854

Orphic Hymns (Poet. Græc),

Paris

1556

Sinclair’s (Sir George) Letters to Protestants,

Edinburgh

1852

Onvaroff’s Eleusinian Mysteries,

London

1817

Smith’s Classical Dictionary,

London

1859

Ovidii Opera,

Leyden

1661

Socrates Ecclesiasticus,

Paris

1686

Pancarpium Maria?

Antwerp

1618

Sophocles,

London

1747

Paradisus Sponsi et Sponsæ,

Antwerp

1618

Stanley’s History of Philosophy,

London

1687

Parkhurst’s Hebrew Lexicon,

London

1799

Statius,

Leyden

1671

Parsons’ Japhet,

London

1767

Stephens’s Central America,

London

1841

Pausanias,

Leipsic

1696

Stockii Clavis,

Lipsiœ

1753

Paxton’s Illustrations, Geography,

Edinburgh

1842

Strabo,

Basle

1549

Persius,

Leyden

1696

Suidas,

Geneva

1619

Petri Suavis Polani, Concilium Tridentinum,

Gorinchemi

1658

Symmachi Epistolæ,

Douai

1587

Pfeiffer’s (Ida) Iceland,

London

1583

Tacitus,

Dublin

1730

Photii Bibliotheca,

Berlin

1824

Taylor’s Mystic Hymns of Orpheus,

Chiswick

1824

Photii Lexeōn Synagog,

London

1822

Taylor’s Mystic Hymns of Pausanias,

London

1794

Pindarus,

Oxford

1697

Tertulliani Opera,

Paris

1844

Pinkerton’s Voyages,

London

1808-14

Theocritus (Poet. Græc. Min.),

Cambridge

1661

Platonis Opera,

Paris

1578

Theopompus (Müller),

Paris

1853

Plinii Opera,

Frankfort

1599

Thevenot, Voyages,

Paris

1689

Plutarchi Opera,

Frankfort

1599

Thuani Historia,

London

1733

Pococke’s India in Greece,

London

1852

Todd’s Western India,

London

1839

Pompeii,

London

1831

Toland’s Druids,

Edinburgh

1815

Pontificate Romanum,

Venice

1843, 57

Tooke’s Pantheon,

London

1806

Poor Man’s Manual of Devotions

Dublin

1833

Trimen’s Architecture,

London

1849

Porphyrius de Antro Nympharum,

Utrecht

1765

Trogus Pompeius (Hist. Rom. Script.),

Aurel. & Allobrog

1609

Potter’s Greek Antiquities,

Oxford

1697

Turner’s Anglo-Saxons,

London

1823

Prescott’s Conquest of Peru,

London

1855

Usher’s Syllogé,

Dublin

1632

Prescott’s Conquest of Mexico,

London

1843

Valerius Maximus,

Veniee

1505

Prisciani Opera,

Leipsic

1819

Vaux’s Nineveh,

London

1851

Proclus in Timæo,

Vratislaviœ

1847

Vaux’s Antiquities of British Museum,

London

1851

Proclus’ Theology of Plato

London

1816

Virgilius,

Paris

1675

Propertius,

Utrecht

1659

Vitruvius, De Arohitectura,

Leipsic

1807

Quarterly Journal of Prophecy,

London

1852

Dionysius Vossius, Maimonides, “De Idolatria”,

Amsterdam

1668

Quintus Curtius,

Amsterdam

1684

Walpole’s Ansayri,

London

1849

Redhouse’s Turkish Dictionary,

London

1856

Wilkinson’s Egyptians,

London

1837-41

Rome in the Nineteenth Century,

London

1823

Williams’ Missionary Enterprises,

London

1847

Russell’s Egypt,

Edinburgh

1831

Wilson’s India 3000 Years Ago,

Bombay

1858

Ryle’s (Rev. J.) Commentary,

Ipswich

1858

Wilson’s Parsee Religion,

Bombay

1843

Salverté, Eusèbe, Sciences Occultes,

Paris

1856

Wylie’s Great Exodus,

London

1862

Salverté, Eusèbe, Essai sur les Noms,

Paris

1824

Zenophontis Opera,

Paris

1625

Sanchuniathon,

Bremen

1837

Joannes Zonaras, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinae

Bonn

1841-45

Scottish Protestant; vols I, II,

Glasgow

1852

Zosimus (Rom. Hist. Script. Græci. Min.),

Frankfort

1590

Note.—Of Maurice’s “Indian Antiquities” in the copy quoted, except where otherwise stated, the 1st, 2nd, and 7th vols, are 1806; the 3rd, 1794; the 4th and fifth, 1800; and the 6tb, 1812.

List Of Illustrations

FIG.

PAGE

FIG.

PAGE

1. Woman with Cup from Babylon

31. Sacred Egg of Heliopolis, and Typhon’s Egg

2. Woman with Cup from Rome

32. Mystic Egg of Astarte

3. Triune Divinity of Ancient Assyria

33. Juno, with Pomegranate

4. Triune Divinity of Pagan Siberians

34. Two-Headed God

5. Goddess Mother and Son, from Babylon

35. Cupid with Wine-cup and Ivy Garland of Bacchus

6. Goddess Mother and Son, from India

36. Symbols of Nimrod and Baal-berith

7. Janus and his Club

37. Geres, Mother of Bar, “the Son,” and of Bar, “the Corn,”

8. Diana of Ephesus

38. Sun-Worship in Egypt

9. Three-Horned Head of Togrul Begh

39. Popish Image of “God,” with Clover Crown

10. Assyrian Hercules, or Zernebogus

40. Cupid, with Symbolic “Heart,”

11. Horned Head-Dresses

41. Vishnu, with same

12. Three-Horned Cap of Vishnu

42. Lion of Mithra, with Bee in its Mouth

13. Tyrian Hercules

43. The Cruciform T or Tau of Ancient Nations

14. Winged Bull from Nimrud

44. Ancient Pagans adorned with Crosses

15. Winged Bull from Persepolis

45. Bacchus, with Head-Band covered with Crosses

16. Centaur from Babylonia

46. Various Examples of Pagan Crosses

17. Centaur from India

47. Egyptian Pontiff-King (under a Canopy) borne on Men’s Shoulders

18. Osiris of Egypt

48. Assyrian Dagon, with Fish-Head Mitre

19. Egyptian High Priest

49. Maltese God with similar Mitre

20. Egyptian Calf-Idol

50. The Sacrificial Mitre of Chinese Emperor, as Pontifex Maximus of theNation

21. Assyrian Divinity, with Spotted Fallow-Deer

51. Babylonion Crosier

22. Bacchus, with Cup and Branch

52. The Defied Serpent, or Serpent of Eire

23. An Egyptian Goddess, and Indian Crishna, crushing the Serpent’s Head

53. Roman Eire-Worship and Serpent-Worship combined

24. Baal-Berith, Lord of the Covenant

54. Hindu Goddess Devaki, with the Infant Crishna at her Breast

25. Dove and Olive Branch of Assyrian Juno

55. The Ram-Headed God of Egypt

26. Circe, the Daughter of the Sun

56. The Ram-Headed Boy-God of Etruria

27. The Yule Log

57. Indian Goddess Lakshmi, sitting in a Lotus-flower, borne by a Tortoise

28. Roman Emperor Trajan burning Incense to Diana

58. Virgin and Child sitting in Cup of Tulip

29. Egyptian God Seb, and Symbolic Goose

59. The Serpent of Æsculapius, and the Fly -Destroying Swallow, theSymbol of Beel-zebub, from Pompeii

30. The Goose of Cupid

60. Popish Image of “God,” with bandaged Globe of Paganism

61. Supreme Divinity of Ancient Persia, with bands of Cybele’, “theBinder with Cords,”

Galleria

Introduction

“And upon her forehead was a name written, Mystery, Babylon the Great, the Mother of Harlots and Abominations of the Earth.”—Revelation 17:5

There is this great difference between the works of men and the works of God, that the same minute and searching investigation, which displays the defects and imperfections of the one, brings out also the beauties of the other. If the most finely polished needle on which the art of man has been expended be subjected to a microscope, many inequalities, much roughness and clumsiness, will be seen. But if the microscope be brought to bear on the flowers of the field, no such result appears. Instead of their beauty diminishing, new beauties and still more delicate, that have escaped the naked eye, are forthwith discovered; beauties that make us appreciate, in a way which otherwise we could have had little conception of, the full force of the Lord’s saying, “Consider the lilies of the field, how they grow; they toil not, neither do they spin: and yet I say unto you, That even Solomon, in all his glory, was not arrayed like one of these.” (Mat 6:28-29) The same law appears also in comparing the Word of God and the most finished productions of men. There are spots and blemishes in the most admired productions of human genius. But the more the Scriptures are searched, the more minutely they are studied, the more their perfection appears; new beauties are brought into light every day; and the discoveries of science, the researches of the learned, and the labours of infidels, all alike conspire to illustrate the wonderful harmony of all the parts, and the Divine beauty that clothes the whole.

If this be the case with Scripture in general, it is especially the case with prophetic Scripture. As every spoke in the wheel of Providence revolves, the prophetic symbols start into still more bold and beautiful relief. This is very strikingly the case with the prophetic language that forms the groundwork and corner-stone of the present work. There never has been any difficulty in the mind of any enlightened Protestant in identifying the woman “sitting on seven mountains,” and having on her forehead the name written, “Mystery, Babylon the Great,” with the Roman apostacy. “No other city in the world has ever been celebrated, as the city of Rome has, for its situation on seven hills. Pagan poets and orators, who had not thought of elucidating prophecy, have alike characterised it as ‘the seven hilled city.’” Thus Virgil refers to it: “Rome has both become the most beautiful (city) in the world, and alone has surrounded for herself seven heights with a wall.”3 Propertius, in the same strain, speaks of it (only adding another trait, which completes the Apocalyptic picture) as “The lofty city on seven hills, which governs the whole world.” Its “governing the whole world”4 is just the counterpart of the Divine statement—”which reigneth over the kings of the earth” (Rev 17:18). To call Rome the city “of the seven hills” was by its citizens held to be as descriptive as to call it by its own proper name. Hence Horace speaks of it by reference to its seven hills alone, when he addresses, “The gods who have set their affections on the seven hills.”5 Martial, in like manner, speaks of “The seven dominating mountains.”6 In times long subsequent, the same kind of language was in current use; for when Symmachus, the prefect of the city, and the last acting Pagan Pontifex Maximus, as the Imperial substitute, introduces by letter one friend of his to another, he calls him “De septem montibus virum”—”a man from the seven mountains,” meaning thereby, as the commentators interpret it, “Civem Romanum, “A Roman Citizen.”7 Now, while this characteristic of Rome has ever been well marked and defined, it has always been easy to show, that the Church which has its seat and headquarters on the seven hills of Rome might most appropriately be called “Babylon,” inasmuch as it is the chief seat of idolatry under the New Testament, as the ancient Babylon was the chief seat of idolatry under the Old. But recent discoveries in Assyria, taken in connection with the previously well-known but ill-understood history and mythology of the ancient world, demonstrate that there is a vast deal more significance in the name Babylon the Great than this. It has been known all along that Popery was baptised Paganism; but God is now making it manifest, that the Paganism which Rome has baptised is, in all its essential elements, the very Paganism which prevailed in the ancient literal Babylon, when Jehovah opened before Cyrus the two-leaved gates of brass, and cut in sunder the bars of iron.

That new and unexpected light, in some way or other, should be cast, about this very period, on the Church of the grand Apostacy, the very language and symbols of the Apocalypse might have prepared us to anticipate. In the Apocalyptic visions, it is just before the judgment upon her that, for the first time, John sees the Apostate Church with the name Babylon the Great “written upon her forehead” (Rev 17:5). What means the writing of that name “on the forehead”? Does it not naturally indicate that, just before judgment overtakes her, her real character was to be so thoroughly developed, that everyone who has eyes to see, who has the least spiritual discernment, would be compelled, as it were, on ocular demonstration, to recognise the wonderful fitness of the title which the Spirit of God had affixed to her. Her judgment is now evidently hastening on; and just as it approaches, the Providence of God, conspiring with the Word of God, by light pouring in from all quarters, makes it more and more evident that Rome is in very deed the Babylon of the Apocalypse; that the essential character of her system, the grand objects of her worship, her festivals, her doctrine and discipline, her rites and ceremonies, her priesthood and their orders, have all been derived from ancient Babylon; and, finally, that the Pope himself is truly and properly the lineal representative of Belshazzar. In the warfare that has been waged against the domineering pretensions of Rome, it has too often been counted enough merely to meet and set aside her presumptuous boast, that she is the mother and mistress of all churches—the one Catholic Church, out of whose pale there is no salvation. If ever there was excuse for such a mode of dealing with her, that excuse will hold no longer. If the position I have laid down can be maintained, she must be stripped of the name of a Christian Church altogether; for if it was a Church of Christ that was convened on that night, when the pontiff-king of Babylon, in the midst of his thousand lords, “praised the gods of gold, and of silver, and of wood, and of stone” (Dan 5:4), then the Church of Rome is entitled to the name of a Christian Church; but not otherwise. This to some, no doubt, will appear a very startling position; but it is one which it is the object of this work to establish; and let the reader judge for himself, whether I do not bring ample evidence to substantiate my position.

CHAPTER I

DISTINCTIVE CHARACTER OF THE TWO SYSTEMS

In leading proof of the Babylonian character of the Papal Church the first point to which I solicit the reader’s attention, is the character of Mystery which attaches alike to the modern Roman and the ancient Babylonian systems. The gigantic system of moral corruption and idolatry described in this passage under the emblem of a woman with a “GOLDEN CUP IN HER HAND” (Rev 17:4), “making all nations DRUNK with the wine of her fornication” (Rev 17:2; 18:3), is divinely called “Mystery, Babylon the Great” (Rev 17:5). That Paul’s “Mystery of iniquity,” as described in 2 Thessalonians 2:7, has its counterpart in the Church of Rome, no man of candid mind, who has carefully examined the subject, can easily doubt. Such was the impression made by that account on the mind of the great Sir Matthew Hale, no mean judge of evidence, that he used to say, that if the apostolic description were inserted in the public “Hue and Cry” any constable in the realm would be warranted in seizing, wherever he found him, the bishop of Rome as the head of that “Mystery of iniquity.” Now, as the system here described is equally characterised by the name of “Mystery,” it may be presumed that both passages refer to the same system. But the language applied to the New Testament Babylon, as the reader cannot fail to see, naturally leads us back to the Babylon of the ancient world. As the Apocalyptic woman has in her hand A CUP, wherewith she intoxicates the nations, so was it with the Babylon of old. Of that Babylon, while in all its glory, the Lord thus spake, in denouncing its doom by the prophet Jeremiah: “Babylon hath been a GOLDEN CUP in the Lord’s hand, that made all the earth drunken: the nations have drunken of her wine; therefore the nations are mad” (Jer 51:7). Why this exact similarity of language in regard to the two systems? The natural inference surely is, that the one stands to the other in the relation of type and antitype. Now, as the Babylon of the Apocalypse is characterised by the name of “Mystery,” so the grand distinguishing feature of the ancient Babylonian system was the Chaldean “Mysteries,” that formed so essential a part of that system. And to these mysteries, the very language of the Hebrew prophet, symbolical though of course it is, distinctly alludes, when he speaks of Babylon as a “golden CUP.” To drink of “mysterious beverages,” says Salverté, was indispensable on the part of all who sought initiation in these Mysteries.8 These “mysterious beverages” were composed of “wine, honey, water, and flour.”9 From the ingredients avowedly used, and from the nature of others not avowed, but certainly used,10 there can be no doubt that they were of an intoxicating nature; and till the aspirants had come under their power, till their understandings had been dimmed, and their passions excited by the medicated draught, they were not duly prepared for what they were either to hear or to see. If it be inquired what was the object and design of these ancient “Mysteries,” it will be found that there was a wonderful analogy between them and that “Mystery of iniquity” which is embodied in the Church of Rome. Their primary object was to introduce privately, by little and little, under the seal of secrecy and the sanction of an oath, what it would not have been safe all at once and openly to propound. The time at which they were instituted proved that this must have been the case. The Chaldean Mysteries can be traced up to the days of Semiramis, who lived only a few centuries after the flood, and who is known to have impressed upon them the image of her own depraved and polluted mind.11

Fig. 1 Woman with cup12 from Babylon.—Kitto's Biblical Cyclopaedia)

That beautiful but abandoned queen of Babylon was not only herself a paragon of unbridled lust and licentiousness, but in the Mysteries which she had a chief hand in forming, she was worshipped as Rhea, the great “Mother” of the gods, with such atrocious rites as identified her with Venus, the Mother of all impurity, and raised the very city where she had reigned to a bad eminence among the nations, as the grand seat at once of idolatry and consecrated prostitution.13

Thus was this Chaldean queen a fit and remarkable prototype of the “Woman” in the Apocalypse, with the golden cup in her hand, and the name on her forehead, “Mystery, Babylon the Great, the Mother of harlots and abominations of the earth.” (Fig. 1) The Apocalyptic emblem of the Harlot woman with the cup in her hand was even embodied in the symbols of idolatry, derived from ancient Babylon, as they were exhibited in Greece; for thus was the Greek Venus originally represented,14 and it is singular that in our own day, and so far as appears for the first time, the Roman Church has actually taken this very symbol as her own chosen emblem. In

1825, on occasion of the jubilee, Pope Leo XII struck a medal, bearing on the one side his own image, and on the other, that of the Church of Rome symbolised as a “Woman,” holding in her left hand a cross, and in her right a CUP, with the legend around her, “Sedet super universum,” “The whole world is her seat.”15 (Fig. 2) Now the period when Semiramis lived,—a period when the patriarchal faith was still fresh in the minds of men, when Shem was still alive,16 to rouse the minds of the faithful to rally around the banner for the truth and cause of God, made it hazardous all at once and publicly to set up such a system as was inaugurated by the Babylonian queen.

Fig. 2 Woman with cup from Rome, on reverse of medal.—(Elliott's Horæ)

We know, from the statements in Job, that among patriarchal tribes that had nothing whatever to do with Mosaic institutions, but which adhered to the pure faith of the patriarchs, idolatry in any shape was held to be a crime, to be visited with signal and summary punishment on the heads of those who practised it. “If I beheld the sun,” said Job, “when it shined, or the moon walking in brightness; and my heart hath been secretly enticed, and17 my mouth hath kissed my hand; this also were an iniquity to be punished by the judge; for I should have denied the God that is above” (Job 31:26-28).

Now if this was the case in Job’s day, much more must it have been the case at the earlier period when the Mysteries were instituted. It was a matter, therefore, of necessity, if idolatry were to be brought in, and especially such foul idolatry as the Babylonian system contained in its bosom, that it should be done stealthily and in secret.18

Even though introduced by the hand of power, it might have produced a revulsion, and violent attempts might have been made by the uncorrupted portion of mankind to put it down; and at all events, if it had appeared at once in all its hideousness, it would have alarmed the consciences of men, and defeated the very object in view. That object was to bind all mankind in blind and absolute submission to a hierarchy entirely dependent on the sovereigns of Babylon. In the carrying out of this scheme, all knowledge, sacred and profane, came to be monopolised by the priesthood,19 who dealt it out to those who were initiated in the “Mysteries” exactly as they saw fit, according as the interests of the grand system of spiritual despotism they had to administer might seem to require. Thus the people, wherever the Babylonian system spread, were bound neck and heel to the priests. The priests were the only depositaries of religious knowledge; they only had the true tradition by which the writs and symbols of the public religion could be interpreted; and without blind and implicit submission to them, what was necessary for salvation could not be known. Now compare this with the early history of the Papacy, and with its spirit and modus operandi throughout, and how exact was the coincidence! Was it in a period of patriarchal light that the corrupt system of the Babylonian “Mysteries” began? It was in a period of still greater light that that unholy and unscriptural system commenced, that has found such rank development in the Church of Rome. It began in the very age of the apostles, when the primitive Church was in its flower, when the glorious fruits of Pentecost were everywhere to be seen, when martyrs were sealing their testimony for the truth with their blood. Even then, when the Gospel shone so brightly, the Spirit of God bore this clear and distinct testimony by Paul: “the mystery of iniquity doth already work” (2 Thess 2:7). That system of iniquity which then began it was divinely foretold was to issue in a portentous apostacy, that in due time would be awfully “revealed,” and would continue until it should be destroyed “by the breath of the Lord’s mouth, and consumed by the brightness of His coming.” (ibid. v.8) But at its first introduction into the Church, it came in secretly and by stealth, with “all deceivableness of unrighteousness.” It wrought “mysteriously” under fair but false pretences, leading men away from the simplicity of the truth as it is in Jesus. And it did so secretly, for the very same reason that idolatry was secretly introduced in the ancient Mysteries of Babylon; it was not safe, it was not prudent to do otherwise. The zeal of the true Church, though destitute of civil power, would have aroused itself, to put the false system and all its abettors beyond the pale of Christianity, if it had appeared openly and all at once in all its grossness; and this would have arrested its progress. Therefore it was brought in secretly, and by little and little, one corruption being introduced after another, as apostacy proceeded, and the backsliding Church became prepared to tolerate it, till it has reached the gigantic height we now see, when in almost every particular the system of the Papacy is the very antipodes of the system of the primitive Church. Of the gradual introduction of all that is now most characteristic of Rome, through the working of the “Mystery of iniquity,” we have very striking evidence, preserved even by Rome itself, in the inscriptions copied from the Roman catacombs. These catacombs are extensive excavations underground in the neighbourhood of Rome, in which the Christians, in times of persecution during the first three centuries, celebrated their worship, and also buried their dead. On some of the tombstones there are inscriptions still to be found, which are directly in the teeth of the now well-known principles and practices of Rome. Take only one example: What, for instance, at this day is a more distinguishing mark of the Papacy than the enforced celibacy of the clergy? Yet from these inscriptions we have most decisive evidence, that even in Rome, there was a time when no such system of clerical celibacy was known. Witness the following, found on different tombs:

1. “To Basilius, the presbyter, and Felicitas, his wife. They made this for themselves.”

2. “Petronia, a priest’s wife