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Thomas Mayne Reid, was a Scots-Irish American novelist. "Captain" Reid wrote many adventure novels akin to those written by Frederick Marryat and Robert Louis Stevenson. He was a great admirer of Lord Byron.Collection of 39 Works of Captain Mayne Reid________________________________________Bruin The Grand Bear HuntGaspar the GauchoNo QuarterOdd PeoplePopular Adventure TalesQuadrupeds What They Are and Where FoundRan Away to SeaThe Boy HuntersThe Boy SlavesThe Boy TarThe Bush BoysThe CastawaysThe Child WifeThe Cliff ClimbersThe Death ShotThe Desert HomeThe Finger of FateThe Flag of DistressThe Free LancesThe Giraffe HuntersThe Headless HorsemanThe Hunters' FeastThe Land of FireThe Lone RanchThe Lost MountainThe Ocean WaifsThe Plant HuntersThe QuadroonThe Rifle RangersThe Scalp HuntersThe Tiger HunterThe Vee-BoersThe War TrailThe White ChiefThe White GauntletThe Wild HuntressThe Young VoyageursThe Young YagersWood Rangers
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The Premium Complete Collection of Captain Mayne Reid
Detailed Biography of Captain Mayne Reid
Bruin The Grand Bear Hunt
Gaspar the Gaucho
Popular Adventure Tales
Quadrupeds What They Are and Where Found
Ran Away to Sea
The Boy Hunters
The Boy Slaves
The Boy Tar
The Bush Boys
The Child Wife
The Cliff Climbers
The Death Shot
The Desert Home
The Finger of Fate
The Flag of Distress
The Free Lances
The Giraffe Hunters
The Headless Horseman
The Hunters' Feast
The Land of Fire
The Lone Ranch
The Lost Mountain
The Ocean Waifs
The Plant Hunters
The Rifle Rangers
The Scalp Hunters
The Tiger Hunter
The War Trail
The White Chief
The White Gauntlet
The Wild Huntress
The Young Voyageurs
The Young Yagers
Thomas Mayne Reid, the son of Thomas Mayne Reid, a Presbyterian preacher, was born April 4, 1818, at Ballyroney, County Down, Ireland. He began to study for the ministry but soon abandoned that and in 1840 set out for America. He arrived in New Orleans and traded and hunted with the Indians, and hunted and trapped along the Missouri and Platte Rivers. For a time he taught school in Nashville, Tennessee, but in 1842 he went to Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and in 1848 to Philadelphia, where he lived for about three years. His first publication was in the Pittsburgh Morning Chronicle, where some of his verse appeared in 1842 under the pseudonym "The Poor Scholar." In 1846 he joined the staff of the New York Herald as Society Editor, and in the autumn of the same year he was writing for the Spirit of the Times. During the war with Mexico, he was commissioned as second lieutenant in Burnett's regiment of New York Volunteers, and sailed for Vera Cruz in December, 1846. Vera Cruz taken, he was with his regiment in the storming of Chapultepec, where he was wounded in the hip September 13, 1847. Shortly thereafter he was made first lieutenant. He resigned from the army May 5, 1848, and during the autumn and winter of 1848-49 lived with Donn Piatt in the valley of the Mac-o-chee, in Ohio; while there he wrote "The Rifle Rangers," which, however, was not published until 1850. He returned to New York in the spring of 1849, and sailed for Liverpool in June. He visited his home in Ireland, and then began in London the production of numerous novels of adventure. "The Scalp Hunters," his next story, appeared in 1851. In 1853 he was married to Elizabeth Hyde, a girl of fifteen, and removed from London to Buckinghamshire, about twenty miles from London. A daily evening paper, The Little Times, which he began to publish in 1867, was a failure, and in October of the same year he and Mrs. Reid went to the United States, arriving at Newport, Rhode Island, in November. Here he wrote "The Child Wife," which was published by Sheldon & Co. of New York. In their advertisement they announced that "Captain Mayne Reid has now become an American citizen, and this is the first of his books in the sale of which he has any direct pecuniary interest. Protected by our laws, he now receives the regular copyright of an American author." Mrs. Reid stated, in her biography of her husband, which is not always accurate, that "Frank Leslie's Paper paid him 8,000 dollars for the right of first appearance in its columns." She also said that The Fireside Companion paid him $5,000 for "The Finger of Fate." In January, 1868, he entered into an agreement with Beadle & Co. to write a series of dime novels for them, "The Helpless Hand" being the first. This was followed by "The Scalp Hunters," a reprint, "The Planter Pirate" and "The White Squaw" in the same year, and "The Yellow Chief" in 1869. For "The White Squaw" he received $700 from Beadle, said at the time to be the highest price ever received by any writer for a dime novel. It was, however, not the highest price paid for the serial rights of a story, for Leon Lewis, Oll Coomes, and several other writers received more. Reid continued writing for Beadle for eight or nine years and, in fact, continued to send them sketches until his death. A magazine which he started in 1869, Onward, lasted only fourteen months. The next year he was confined to St. Luke's Hospital in New York for some time, owing to an infection of the wound he received in Mexico. On September 10, 1870, he was able to leave the hospital and sailed for England where he resumed the pen, writing short stories and revising some of his earlier novels. "The Death Shot" was also written at this time and appeared in The Penny Illustrated Paper. In October, 1874, an abscess formed on the knee of his wounded leg, and thereafter he was unable to walk without the aid of crutches. He was joint editor with John Latey of The Boys' Illustrated News from April 6, 1881, for ten months, and wrote for it "The Lost Mountain; a Tale of Sonora." About this time Reid's invention began to flag and he became less popular, so that he turned his attention to farming near Ross, in Herefordshire, although he also continued to write. His last novel, "No Quarter," a tale of the Parliamentary wars, and his last boys' book, "The Land of Fire," were published after his death, which occurred October 22, 1883. He was buried in Kensal Green Cemetery.
The Grand Bear Hunt
by Captain Mayne Reid.
THE PALACE GRODONOFF.
On the banks of the Neva, near the great city of Saint Petersburg, stands a splendid palace, known as the Palace Grodonoff. It is the property of a Russian nobleman of that name, as it is also his place of residence. Were you to drive up to the front gate of this grand palace, you would see a coat-of-arms sculptured in granite over the entrance. In this piece of sculpture, the principal and most striking figure is a bear, with the blade of a knife buried in his breast, the haft being clutched by a human hand! Open the gate, and enter the spacious courtyard. Inside, on the right and left, you will observe two live bears--both of chestnut-brown colour, and each of them as big as a buffalo. You cannot fail to notice them, for, ten chances to one, they will rush towards you with fierce growls; and were it not that a strong chain hinders them from reaching you, you might have reason to repent having entered the courtyard of the palace Grodonoff. Look around you in the courtyard and over the different doors that open upon it; you will again see the crest of the bear, sculptured in stone; you will see it over the stables, the coach-house, the granary, the kitchens,-- everywhere. You may know by all this, that it is the coat-of-arms of the Baron Grodonoff, whose crest is a bear with a blade buried in its breast, and a human band clutching the haft.
You will naturally conclude that there is some history connected with this singular tableau--that it is the commemoration of some deed done by a Grodonoff, entitling him to use the bear as his heraldic device. This is quite true; and if you enter the picture-gallery of the palace, you will there behold the deed more explicitly represented, in a large oil-painting hung conspicuously in the centre of the wall. The scene of this painting is a forest of old trees, whose grey, gnarled trunks stand thickly over the ground. There is only a little open space or glade in the middle; and this is occupied by three figures, two men and a bear. The bear is between the two men; or, rather, one of the men is prostrate upon the ground--where he has been struck down by a blow from Bruin's paw--while the huge animal stands over him reared up on his hind quarters. The other man is upon his feet, apparently engaged in a desperate wrestle with the fierce brute, and likely to prove the conqueror--as he has already buried the blade of a large hunting-knife in the animal's breast, and directly over the region of its heart. Indeed, the shaggy monster already shows signs of succumbing. His paw has dropped from the shoulder of his antagonist, his long tongue lolls out, the blood rushes from his mouth and nostrils, and it is evident that his strength is fast forsaking him, and that he will soon sink lifeless upon the earth. You will notice that the two men who figure in the painting are very dissimilar in appearance. Both are young men, and both are in hunting costume; but so unlike in their dress, that you could not fancy they followed the same occupation. He upon the ground is richly attired. He wears a tunic of finest green cloth slashed with sable fur on the skirt, collar, and sleeves; his limbs are encased in breeches of white doeskin; and his boots, reaching nearly to his thighs, are of soft russet leather, ample at the tops. A belt around his waist is richly embroidered; and the hilt of a short hunting-sword, protruding from the sheath, appears chased and studded with jewels. A light plumed hat lies upon the ground near his head--evidently tossed off in the struggle--and beside it is a boar-spear that has been jerked out of his fingers as he fell. The whole costume is similar to that used upon the stage--when some young German or Sclavonian prince is represented as hunting the wild boar in the forests of Lithuania.
In reality it is a prince who is depicted in the group of the gallery Grodonoff--but not a German prince. He is a Russian, and the bear is the Russian bear.
The other hunter--he who had given its death-blow to the fierce quadruped--is dressed in a style entirely different. It is the costume of a fur-hunter--a trapper of sables--and consists of skin coat and cap, with a strong leathern belt round his waist, and rough boots of untanned hide upon his legs and feet. The costume is rude, and bespeaks him a peasant; but his face, as the painter has represented it, is neither common nor ill-looking. It is not so handsome as that of the prince: for he would be an unskilful artist--one utterly reckless of his own fortune--who should paint the features of a peasant as handsome as those of a prince. In Russia, as elsewhere, such an imprudent painter would be a rara avis indeed.
The picture of which we are speaking is the piece de resistance of the Grodonoff gallery. Its size and conspicuous position declare the fact; and the story attached to it will show that it merits the distinction. But for that picture, or rather the scene which it represents, there would be no Grodonoff gallery--no palace--no baron of the name. Paintings, palace, title, all have their origin in the incident there represented--the battle with the bear.
The story is simple and may be briefly told. As, already stated, he upon his back, hat off, and spear detached from his grasp, is a Russian prince--or rather was one, for at the time when our history commences he is an emperor. He had been hunting the wild boar; and, as often happens to sporting princes, had become separated from his courtier attendants. The enthusiasm of the chase had led him on, into the fastnesses of the forest, where he came suddenly face to face with a bear. Princes have their hunter ambition as well as other men; and, in hopes of tailing a trophy, this one attacked the bear with his boar-spear. But the thrust that might have penetrated the flesh of a wild boar, had no effect upon the tough thick hide of Bruin. It only irritated him; and as the brown bear will often do, he sprang savagely upon his assailant, and with his huge paw gave the prince such a "pat" upon the shoulder, as not only sent the spear shivering from his grasp, but stretched his royal highness at full length upon the grass.
Following up his advantage, the bear had bounded forward upon the prostrate body; and, no doubt, in the twinkling of a bedpost would have made a corpse of it--either squeezing the breath out of it by one of his formidable "hugs," or tearing it to pieces with his trenchant teeth. In another moment the hope of Russia would have been extinguished; but, just at this crisis, a third figure appeared upon the scene--in the person of a young hunter--a real one--who had already been in pursuit of the bear, and had tracked him up to the spot.
On coming upon the ground, the hunter fired his gun; but, seeing that the shot was insufficient, he drew his knife and rushed upon the bear. A desperate struggle ensued, in which, as may be already anticipated, the young hunter proved victorious--having succeeded in sheathing his blade in the heart of the bear, and causing the savage quadruped to "bite the dust."
Neither the prince nor the peasant came scathless out of the encounter. Both were well scratched; but neither had received any wound of a serious nature; and the amateur hunter rose once more to his feet, conscious of having made a very narrow escape.
I need not add that the prince was profuse in his expressions of gratitude to him who had saved his life. The young hunter was not one of his own party, but a stranger to him, whose home was in the forest where the incident occurred. But their acquaintance did not end with the adventure. The prince became an emperor--the peasant hunter a lieutenant in the Imperial Guard, afterwards a captain, a colonel, a general, and finally a baron of the empire!
Grodonoff,--he in whose palace hangs the picture we have described.
THE BARON GRODONOFF.
In one of the apartments of the palace Grodonoff, behold its proprietor, the baron himself! He is seated in an old oak chair, with a heavy table of the same material in front of him. On the table is spread out a map of the world; and by the side of the chair stands a large terrestrial globe. Several shelves standing against the wails contain books; and yet the apartment is not a library in the proper sense of the word: rather is it a large oblong saloon; having three of its sides occupied by spacious glass cases, in which are exhibited objects of natural history,--birds, quadrupeds, reptiles, and insects,--all mounted in proper form and arranged in due order. It is, in fact, a museum,--a private collection--made by the baron himself; and the books that fill the shelves are works relating to natural history alone.
In a man of military aspect--an old veteran with snow-white hair, and grand moustaches of like hue--such as he who is seated at the table--you would scarce expect to meet the lover of a study so pacific in its character as that of natural history? Rather would you look to find him pouring over plans of fortifications, with the pages of Yauban spread open before him; or some history detailing the campaigns of Suwarrow, Diebitsch, Paskiewitch or Potemkin? In this instance, however, appearances were deceptive. Though the baron had proved an excellent military officer, and seen service, he was a student of Nature. His early years, spent as a hunter, had begot within him a taste for natural history; which, as soon as the opportunity offered, had become developed by study and research. It was now no longer a predilection, but a passion; and in his retirement nearly the whole of his time was devoted to his favourite study. A vast fortune, which his grateful sovereign had bestowed upon him, enabled him to command the means for gratifying his taste; and the magnificent collection by which he was surrounded gave evidence that no expense was spared in its gratification.
It was a map and globe of the world that now occupied his attention. Could these have reference to a question of natural history?
In an indirect manner they had,--and what follows will account for their presence.
A hand-bell stood upon the table. The baron rang it; and before its tingling had ceased, the door opened, and a servant entered the apartment.
"Summon my sons to attend me!"
The servant bowed, and retired.
A few minutes after, two youths entered the apartment. They appeared to be of the respective ages of sixteen and eighteen. One, the elder and taller, was of a darkish complexion, with brown waving hair, and hazel eyes. The expression of his countenance was that of a youth of firm and rather serious character; while the style of his dress, or rather his manner of wearing it, showed that he was altogether without vanity in matters of personal appearance. He was handsome withal, having that aristocratic air common to the nobility of Russia. This was Alexis.
The younger brother differed from him as much as if no kinship existed between them. He was more the son of his mother, the baroness; while Alexis inherited the features and a good deal of the disposition of his father. Ivan was a fair-haired lad, with golden locks curling over a forehead of bright blonde complexion, and cheeks that exhibited the hue of the rose. His eyes were of a deep azure-blue--such as is often seen among the Sclavonic races--and their quick sparkle told that in the breast of Ivan there beat a heart brimming with bright thoughts, and ever ready for mischief and merriment, but without any admixture of malice.
Both approached their father with a serious expression of countenance. That of Alexis bespoke sincerity; while Ivan stole forward with the air of one who had been recently engaged in some sly mischief, and who was assuming a demure deportment with the design of concealing it.
A word about these two youths, and the object for which their father had summoned them into his presence. They had now been each of them more than ten years engaged in the study of books, under some of the ablest teachers that Russia could furnish. Their father himself had given much time to their instruction; and, of course, an inclination to their minds similar to that which characterised his own, but chiefly to the mind of Alexis.
The latter had imbibed a fondness for the study of nature, while Ivan was more given to admire the records of stirring events, with a strong penchant for the splendours of the world, in which he felt longing to bear a part. The nature of the books which had passed through their hands--a great number of them being books of travel--had begotten within these youths a wish to see the world, which, increasing each day, had grown into an eager desire. This desire had been often expressed in hints to their father; but at length, in a more formal manner, by means of a written petition, which the boys, after much deliberation, had drawn up and presented to him, and which was now seen lying open before him upon the table.
The petition was simply their united request, that their father would be so good as to allow them to travel and see foreign countries--where, and how, to be left to his wise guidance and discretion.
It was to receive an answer to this petition, that his sons were now summoned into his presence.
THE SEALED ORDERS.
"So, my youngsters!" said the baron, directing his glance upon them, "you have a desire to to travel? You wish to see the world, do you?"
"True, papa!" modestly answered Alexis; "our tutor tells us that we are sufficiently educated to go abroad; and, if you have no objection, we should very much like to make a tour."
"What! before going to the University!"
"Why, papa! I thought you were not going to send us to the University for some time to come? Did you not say, that a year of travelling was worth ten at a University?"
"Perhaps I may have said so; but that depends upon how one travels. If you travel merely to amuse yourselves, you may go over all the world, and come back no wiser than when you started! I have known many a man return from a circumnavigation of the globe, without bringing with him the knowledge of a single fact that he might not have obtained at home. You would expect to travel in snug railway-carriages, and comfortable steam-ships, and sleep in splendid hotels--is that your expectation?"
"Oh no, papa! whatever way you may direct, that will be agreeable to me," said Alexis.
"As for me," rejoined Ivan, "I'm not particular. I can rough it, I'm sure."
There was a little flavour of bravado in the manner of Ivan's speech, that showed he was scarce inclined to the roughing system, and that he merely assumed the swaggering air, because he had no belief that he would be called upon to make trial of it.
"If I permit you to travel," continued the baron, "where would you like to go? You, Alexis! to what part of the world would your inclination lead you?"
"I should like to see the new world of America--its noble rivers, and forests, and mountains. I should certainly visit America, if it were left to my choice; but I shall be guided by you, papa, and do as you direct."
"Paris, for me, of all places in the world!" replied Ivan, without any suspicion that the answer would be displeasing to the father.
"I might have known so," muttered the baron, with a slight frown clouding his forehead.
"O papa!" added Ivan, noticing the shade of displeasure which his answer had produced; "I don't care particularly about Paris. I'll go anywhere--to America, if Alexis likes it best--all round the world for that matter."
"Ha! ha! ha!" laughed the baron; "that sounds better, Ivan; and, since you offer no objection to it, all round the world you shall go."
"Indeed? I'm glad to hear it," said Alexis.
"What! visit all the great cities of the world?" exclaimed Ivan, whose mind was evidently occupied with the delights of great cities.
"So" replied his father; "it is just that which I do not intend you shall do. There is a great deal to be learnt in cities, but much that would be better not learnt at all. I have no objection to your passing through cities--for you must needs do so on your journey--but one of the conditions which I shall prescribe is, that you make stay in no city, longer than you can arrange for getting out of it. It is through countries I wish you to travel--amidst the scenes of nature--and not in towns and cities, where you would see very little more than you can in Saint Petersburg itself. It is Nature I wish you to become acquainted with, and you must see it in its most primitive forms. There only can you appreciate Nature in all its sublimity and grandeur."
"Agreed, papa!" exclaimed both the boys at once. "Which way do you wish us to go?"
"All round the world, as Ivan has suggested."
"Oh, what a long voyage! I suppose we shall cross the Atlantic, and then by the isthmus of Panama to the Pacific; or shall we go as Magellan went, around Cape Horn?"
"Neither way--I wish you to make great journeys by land, rather than voyages by sea. The former will be more instructive, though they may cost more time and toil. Remember, my sons! I do not send you forth to risk your lives without a purpose. I have more than one purpose. First, I wish you to complete your studies of natural science, of which I have taught you the elements. The best school for this is the field of Nature herself, which you shall explore in your travels. Secondly, as you both know, I am fond of all natural objects, but especially those that have life--the beasts of the field and the birds of the air; these you must observe in their native haunts, with their habits and modes of existence. You will keep a journal of all facts and events that may be worth noting down, and write out in detail such adventures as may occur to you upon your route, and you think may prove interesting to me to read on your return. I shall provide you with ample means to accomplish your journey; but no money is to be wasted by idly sojourning in large cities: it must be used only for the necessary expenses of your travels. The emperor has been kind enough to give you a circular letter, which will get you funds and such other assistance as you may require from his agents in all parts of the world."
"We promise, dear father, strictly to adhere to your instructions. But whither do you desire us to go?" Alexis asked the question.
The baron paused for some time before making reply. Then, drawing from his desk a sealed paper, which showed signs of having been but recently folded, he gravely said as he held it towards them--
"In this document you will find the conditions upon which I give you permission to travel. I do not ask you to agree to them, until you have carefully examined and reflected upon them. You will therefore retire to your room, read this document over, and, having given its contents due consideration, return, and signify whether you accept the terms; for if not, there is to be no travelling."
"By the Great Peter!" whispered Ivan to Alexis, "they will be hard indeed if we don't accept them."
Alexis took the paper, and both, bowing to their father, retired to their own apartment.
The seal was immediately broken and not without some surprise did they peruse the contents of the document. It was in the form of an epistle, and ran thus:--
"My sons Alexis and Ivan!--You have expressed a desire to travel, and have requested me to give you my permission. I accede to your request, but only upon the following conditions: You must procure for me a skin of every variety of bear known upon the earth. I do not mean such varieties as are termed `accidental,' arising from albinism or like circumstances, but every species or variety known to naturalists and acknowledged as `permanent.' The bears from which these skins are to be taken must be killed in their native haunts, and by your own hands--with no other assistance than that of an attendant whom I shall appoint to accompany you. In order to accomplish the task which I have imposed upon you, it will be necessary for you to go `round the world;' but I add the further condition, that you are to go only once round it. In latitude, I leave you free to range--from pole to pole, if it so please you [this was a stretch of liberty at which both boys laughed]; but longitudinally, no. You must not cross the same meridian twice before returning to Saint Petersburg. I do not intend this condition to apply to such traverses as you may be compelled to make, while actually engaged in the chase of a bear, or in tracking the animal to his den: only when you are en route upon your journey. You will take your departure from Saint Petersburg, and go east or west, which you please. From the conditions I have imposed upon you, I hope you will have skill enough to discover that a route is traced out for you, and, that, on starting, you can follow it either eastward or westward. This, with all matters relating to your means and mode of travelling, I leave to your own choice; and I trust that the practical education you have received will enable you to make your tour with proper judgment. [`Tour, indeed!' exclaimed Ivan.] Once out of my palace, I take no farther charge of you. You may be some years older before I see you again; but I trust the time will not be mis-spent; and that upon your return you may be able to give a proper account of yourselves, is the earnest hope and wish of your affectionate father, Michael Grodonoff."
DISCUSSING THE CONDITIONS.
The two youths were no little astonished by the contents of this singular epistle; but, for all that, the terms imposed did not seem to them either harsh or unreasonable, and they were only too pleased to accede to them. They partly guessed their father's motive. They knew that he loved both of them with a true paternal love; but his affection was not of that kind to pet and pamper them within the precincts of his luxurious palace. He had a different idea of what would be beneficial to their future interests. He believed in the education which is acquired in the rude school of toil and travel, more than in the book-lore of classic universities; and he was determined that they should have a full measure of this sort of training. He had resolved that they should see the world; not according to the ordinary understanding of this hackneyed phrase--not the world of towns and great cities, with their empty shows and vices--but the world of Nature; and, in order that they should have the opportunity of becoming thoroughly acquainted with this sort of world, he had traced out for them a route that would lead them into its very wildest scenes, and disclose to them its rarest and most primitive forms.
"By my word, brother!" exclaimed Ivan as soon as Alexis had finished reading the letter, "we shall have travelling to our hearts' content. Certainly, papa has adopted a strange plan to keep us out of the walls of great cities."
"Yes," quietly answered Alexis; "there are not many cities where bears abound."
"Such strange conditions!" added Ivan, "I wonder what father can mean by imposing them upon us."
"Indeed, I hardly know myself. One thing only seems to explain it."
"What is that, brother?"
"You are aware, Ivan, of the interest that papa takes in all matters relating to bears. As people say, it is almost a mania with him."
"Oh! the great picture in the gallery will account for that," said Ivan, laughing. "But for a bear, you know, our papa would never have been a baron."
"True: that may have been what first led him to take an interest in these animals."
"And yet to impose upon us these queer conditions!" continued Ivan; "it certainly does seem a little eccentric?"
"No doubt papa has his purpose," said Alexis. "Who knows that he may not be intending to write a monograph of the bears; and it is for this he wishes to have full set of their skins--the complete costume of each individual member of Monsieur Bruin's family? Well, we must do our best, and procure them for him. It is not for us to inquire into the motives of our dear father. It is our duty to obey his orders--even though the task be ever so irksome or difficult."
"Oh, certainly, brother! I admit that; and I am ready to yield obedience and perform any task dear papa may think proper to impose on us."
Certainly there was some reason for the surprise with which the youths had read the letter. Its contents might have appeared still more whimsical to them, had it not been their father that had written it; and, but for the fact that he had already given them a thorough training in the natural sciences, they would have found it difficult, if not altogether impossible, to carry out his instructions. A bear of every known variety was to be killed and skinned--killed, too, in its own haunts and by their own hands; which, of course, meant that they were to visit every country where bears are to be found, and obtain a skin of each kind. Notwithstanding their youth both boys were skilled hunters, and excellent marksmen. Himself brought up to the calling, their father had early initiated them into the hunter's craft; and, in addition to the knowledge of natural history, which he had imparted, he had taught them habits of self-reliance--such as are only acquired by ordinary individuals at the full age of manhood. Both were already inured to such perils and hardships as are incidental to a hunter's life; both could endure to go a day or two without food or drink--could sleep in the open air, with no other tent than the canopy of heaven, and no other couch than the grassy covering of the earth. All this sort of experience they had already gone through, in the cold climate of their own country; and it was not likely they would meet with one much more rigorous anywhere on the earth. The young Grodonoffs had been submitted to a training of almost Spartan severity--a perfect Cyropoedia--and dreaded neither hardships nor dangers. They were just the youths to carry out that singular programme which had been traced for them by the paternal hand.
Was it possible, however to do so? This was their first query. There were some very nice points in that brief chapter of instructions. Latitudinally they might traverse as circumstances required, but not longitudinally. Under these limitations would it be possible to visit the haunts of all the bears,--to cover, as it were, the whole area of Bruin's geographical distribution?
That it was possible might be inferred, from the fact of their father having issued the orders; but it was necessary for the young expeditionists to set out with caution: else might they take a wrong route, and be altogether unable to fulfil his injunctions. They must not twice cross the same meridian. It was this quaint condition that puzzled them, and rendered it necessary to guard against making a false start.
Lucky it was that Alexis was an accomplished zoologist, and thoroughly understood the geographical distribution of the genus ursus. But for this knowledge, they would certainly have been puzzled as to the route they were to take.
"Well, brother Ivan!" said Alexis with a smile, "had these orders been issued when the great Swede published his Systema Naturae, our task would have been easily accomplished. How far do you suppose our travels need to have extended?"
"I don't quite comprehend you, Alexis. How far?"
"Why, simply into the courtyard of our palace. It would have been only necessary to kill and skin one of the great bears chained by the gate, and that would have fulfilled all the conditions papa has imposed upon us."
"And yet, I don't understand you," rejoined Ivan, with a puzzled look.
"How obtuse you are, brother! Read the letter again; note well its terms!"
"Well, I understand them. We are to travel on, and not come home again till we have killed a bear of every variety known."
"There--just so. Of course papa means every variety known to naturalists,--that is, to the `scientific world,' as it is termed. Now you comprehend my meaning?"
"Oh, yes!" answered Ivan; "you mean that when Linnaeus published his `System of Nature,' only our own brown bear of Europe was known to naturalists?"
"Precisely so--only the ursus arctos; and consequently we should have had but a very short journey to make, compared with what is before us now. It is true that previous to his death, the Swedish naturalist had made the acquaintance of the `Polar' bear (ursus maritimus); but, strange enough, he regarded this as a mere variety of the ursus arctos--an error that one may wonder Linnaeus could have made.
"Oh, they are very different. I could tell that myself. To say nothing of the colour, they are unlike in shape; and, as everybody knows, their habits are very dissimilar. Why, one lives in forests, and feeds chiefly upon fruits; while the other dwells amidst fields of snow and ice, and subsists almost exclusively on flesh, or fish. Variety, indeed! no, they are surely different species."
"Undoubtedly," answered Alexis; "but we shall have an opportunity of comparing them hereafter. For the present we must drop the subject, and find out the route of travel which papa has traced out for us."
"But he has not indicated any route--has he? He gives us permission to go where we please, so long as we get the bearskins, and do not return upon our meridian. We are not to take the backtrack--ha! ha! ha!"
"Of course not; but you will find, to avoid doing this, we shall have to go by a definite course, and can take no other."
"By my word! brother, I don't see what you mean. I shall trust all to you: so take me where you please--which way, then?"
"Ah! that has yet to be determined. I cannot tell myself; and it will take me some time before I can make quite sure as to what direction we are to take on starting out--whether east, west, north, or south. It will be necessary for me to examine a map of the world, and trace out the boundaries of the different countries in which King Bruin holds sovereignty."
"Ah! that will be an interesting lesson for me. Here is the map; let me spread it out, and do what I can to assist you in finding our way."
As Ivan said this, he drew a large travelling map of the world from its case, and opening it out, laid it upon the table. Both the youths sat down; and, running their eyes over the chart, proceeded to discuss the direction which, by the conditions imposed upon them, they must necessarily take.
TRACING THE ROUTE.
"In the first place," said Alexis, "there is the brown bear (ursus arctos). Him we might find in many parts of our own country--since he is emphatically our `Russian bear'; but there is also a black bear, which some naturalists say is a variety of the ursus arctos, while others believe it to be a separate species, having given to it the specific name of ursus niger--ursus ator it is sometimes called. Now, whether it be a species or only a variety, we must get a skin of it all the same--since papa has definitely expressed it so."
"This black bear is to be found in our own northern forests, is it not?"
"Yes; it has been observed there; but more frequently in the mountains of Scandinavia: and, as we might wander through all the north of Russia without finding one, our best plan will be to proceed at once to Norway or Lapland. There we shall be certain also of finding the brown bear, and thus kill two birds with one stone."
"Say Lapland: I should like to see the little Laps, but where next? To North America, I suppose?"
"By no means. There is a bear in the Pyrenees, and other mountains of Spain--in the Asturias especially. It is also deemed by most naturalists to be only a variety of the ursus arctos, but it is certainly a distinct species; and papa thinks so. Some naturalists would have it that there are only three or four distinct species in the whole world. They might just as well say there was but one. I think it better to follow papa's views upon this subject, and regard all those bears which have permanent marks of distinction--whether it be in size, colour, or otherwise--as being so many separate species, however much they may approximate in habits or disposition. Why, some naturalists even call the American black bear merely a variety of our brown; and, as I said a moment ago, Linnaeus himself believed the Polar to be the same species. This is now known to be an erroneous theory. Since papa has given as much time to the study of the bears as perhaps any one else, I shall follow his theory, and regard the Spanish bear (ursus pyrenaicus it is called) a distinct species."
"You propose, then, to go next to Spain, and kill the Spanish bear?"
"We must. Having started in a westerly course by going to Lapland, we must keep on in that direction."
"But how about the white bear of the Alps?"
"You mean the ursus albus of Lesson?"
"Yes. To reach the Alps, where it is said to be found, we should have to recross a meridian of longitude?"
"We should, if there were such an animal to be found in the Alps; but there is not. The white bear of Buffon and Lesson (ursus albus) was only a mere accidental variety or albino of the brown bear; and papa does not mean that we should collect the skins of such as these. He has said so. Indeed, Ivan, were that task imposed on us, we should both be old men before we could complete it, and return home again. It is only the skins of the permanent varieties we are to procure, and therefore the ursus albus is scratched out of our list."
"Out with him then! where go we next? To North America, then no doubt?"
"Perhaps to Africa?"
"Are there no bears in Africa?"
"That is a disputed point among writers, and has been so since the days of Pliny. Bears are mentioned as having been exhibited in the Roman circus, under the name of Numidian bears; and Herodotus, Virgil, Juvenal, and Martial all mention Libyan bears in their writings. Pliny, however, stoutly denies that there were any of these animals in Africa; but it must be remembered that he equally denies that stags, goats, and boars existed on the African continent: therefore his statement about the non-existence of the Numidian bears is not worth a straw. Strange enough, the point is as much disputed now as in the days of Pliny. The English traveller Bruce, states positively that there are no bears in Africa. Another English traveller to Abyssinia, Salt, makes no mention of them; while the German, Ehrenberg, says that he has seen them in the mountains of Abyssinia, and heard of them also in Arabia Felix! Several French and English travellers (Dapper, Shaw, Poncet, and Poiret), bear testimony to the existence of bears in different parts of Africa--in Nubia, Babur, and Congo. In the Atlas mountains, between Algiers and Morocco, according to Poiret, bears are common enough; and this writer even gives some details as to their habits. He says that they are exceedingly fierce and carnivorous, and that the Arabs believe they can lift stones in their paws and fling them at those who may be in pursuit of them! He relates that an Arab hunter brought him the skin of one of those bears; and also showed him a wound in his leg, which he had received by the animal having launched a stone at him while he was pursuing it! Monsieur Poiret, however, does not vouch for the truth of the stone-throwing, though he stoutly maintains the existence of African bears."
"What does papa think about it?" inquired Ivan.
"That there are bears in Africa--perhaps in all the mountainous parts of Africa--but certainly in the Atlas and Tetuan ranges. Indeed, an English traveller of veracity has put the question beyond a doubt, by giving some points in the description of these African bears. Naturalists thought that if such an animal existed in Africa, it would be the same species as the Syrian; but although the bears reported in the Arabian and Abyssinian mountains are likely enough to be of that species, those of the Atlas are evidently not only distinct from the Syrian bear, but from all other known kinds. One that was killed near Tetuan, about twenty-five miles from the Atlas mountains, was a female, and less in size than the American black bear. It was black also, or rather brownish black, and without any white marking about the muzzle, but under the belly its fur was of a reddish orange. The hair was shaggy and four or five inches long, while the snout, toes, and claws were all shorter than in the American black bear, and the body was of thicker and stouter make. The Englishman had learnt something of its habits too. The Arabs said it was rarely met with near Tetuan; that it fed on roots, acorns, and fruits, but was only an indifferent climber. Indeed it would be very improbable," continued Alexis, "that the great ranges of the Atlas and Abyssinian mountains should be without these mammalia, since they exist in nearly all the other mountains of the globe. Moreover, it should be remembered that it is only a few years since the bears of the Himalayas, of the Great Andes of America, and those of the East-Indian islands--and even the bear of Mount Lebanon-- became known to the scientific world. Why, then, should there not be a species in Africa--perhaps more than one--though civilised people are yet unacquainted with it?"
"But you say we are not going to Africa?"
"No; our instructions relate only to every variety of bear known to naturalists; and the African bear does not come under this category-- since it has not yet been described by any naturalist. For that reason we shall have no errand into Africa."
"Then, surely North America is our next stage?"
"Certainly not--you are aware that there is a South American bear."
"Yes, the `spectacled bear,' as he is called."
"Just so--the ursus ornatus. I think we shall find two species in South America, though that is also a disputed point."
"Well, brother, what if we should?"
"Why, both will be found in the Andes of Chili and Peru, and not in the eastern parts of South America."
"And how should that affect our route of travel?"
"Very essentially indeed. Were we to go first to North America, we should find no less than five species, or four species and one well-marked variety. To reach the native haunt of one of these--I mean the grizzly (ursus ferox)--we should have to go farther west than any part of the South American Andes: how, then, could we afterwards reach the spectacled bear without doubling back on our meridian?"
"True, brother--I see that, by looking on the map. You propose, then, steering first to South America, and afterwards to the northern division of the American continent?"
"We are compelled to do so, by the very nature of our contract. Having procured the skins of ursus ornatus and another variety we shall find in the Andes, we can then travel almost due north. On the Mississippi we shall be able to pick up a skin of the American black bear (ursus americanus), and by the help of the Hudson's Bay voyageurs we shall reach the shores of the great gulf in which that territory takes its name. There the `polar bear' (ursus maritimus) can be found. Farther westward and northward we may hope to capture the `barren ground bear,' which the English traveller Sir John Richardson thinks is only a variety of our European brown bear, but which papa--and good reasons he has-- believes to be nothing of the kind. Crossing the Rocky Mountains, we shall be able, I hope, to knock over the famed and formidable grizzly (ursus ferox), and in Oregon, or British Columbia, we shall strip his hide from the `cinnamon bear' (ursus cinnamonus), believed to be a variety of the American black. That will finish with the bears of America."
"Asia next, I suppose?"
"Yes, straight across to Kamschatka. There we shall meet with the `Siberian,' or `collared bear' (ursus collaris). Of these, two varieties are said to exist, one of which, specified by the name ursus sibiricus, is also found in Lapland and Siberia."
"Go on, brother! Where next?"
"From Kamschatka we shall make a long traverse to the south-west. Our best hunting-ground will be Borneo."
"Ah! the beautiful little bear with the orange-coloured breast!"
"Yes; that is the `Bornean bear' (ursus euryspilus), or `Bruang,' as he is called by the Malays."
"But there is another Bruang?"
"Yes--the `Malayan sun-bear' (ursus malagenus). This we shall encounter in Sumatra or Java, whichever we choose to visit."
"Well, the list is much larger than I expected; certainly it has been wonderfully lengthened since the days of the good old Linnaeus."
"We have not reached the end yet."
"Where next, brother?"
"Up the Bay of Bengal, and on to the Himalayas. First in the foot-hills of these mountains we shall have to search for the curious `sloth bear,' or `juggler's bear' (ours de jongleurs) as the French writers term him. He is the ursus labiatus of naturalists; and we may find him in the plains of India, before reaching the Himalayas. Having skinned him, we shall proceed to climb the great mountains, and higher up we are certain to come across the `Thibet bear' (ursus thibetanus)--by some very erroneously described as being one of the numerous varieties of the European brown bear! Still higher up we shall, I hope, have the good luck to encounter and kill a specimen of the `Isabella bear' (ursus isabelinus), so called from his colour, but termed by Anglo-Indian sportsmen the `snow bear,' because he frequents the declivities near the snow-line of these stupendous mountains."
"That is all, is it not?"
"No, Ivan--one more, and that will be the last."
"What is he?"
"The `Syrian' (ursus syriacus); and though the last in our catalogue, this is the very first on record: for they were bears of this species that came out of the wood and `tare forty and two' of the mockers of the prophet Elisha. We shall have to visit Syria, to procure a skin of the ursus syriacus."
"Well, I hope their ferociousness has been tamed down since Elisha's time, else we may stand a fair chance of being served in a similar fashion."
"No doubt we shall have many a scratch before we encounter the bears of Mount Lebanon. When we have obtained a robe from one of them, there will be nothing more for us to do but take the most direct route home. We shall then have gone once round the world."
"Ah, that we shall!" said Ivan, laughing; "and all over it too. Great Czar! I think by the time we have captured one of Elisha's bears, we shall have had a surfeit of travel."
"No doubt of it; but now, brother, that we know where we are going, let us waste no more time, but signify our acceptance of the conditions, and be off at once."
"Agreed," said Ivan; and both returning into the presence of the baron, announced their readiness to take the road.
"Are we to travel alone, papa?" inquired Ivan; "I think you spoke of an attendant?"
"Yes, one attendant. You must not be encumbered with too many servants to wait upon you. One will be quite sufficient."
"Who is it to be?" asked Ivan.
The baron rang the bell, and a servant entered.
"Send Corporal Pouchskin to me!"
Shortly after, the door reopened, and a man of about fifty appeared. The tall well-balanced form and erect attitude--the close-cropped hair and enormous grizzled moustache--combined with great gravity of features, denoted a veteran of the Imperial Guard,--one of those grand and redoubtable soldiers who have seen service in the presence of an emperor. Though no longer wearing the military uniform, but dressed somewhat as a park or game keeper, the silent salute and attitude of "attention" were sufficiently indicative of the profession which Pouchskin had followed: for it was the veritable Pouchskin who had entered the apartment. He said not a word, nor did he look either to the right or left,--only directly forward, and at the baron.
"I wish you to make a journey."
"I am ready."
"Not quite, corporal. I will give you an hour to prepare."
"Where does the general wish me to go?"
"Round the world."
"Half an hour will suffice."
"So much the better, then. Prepare to start in half an hour."
Pouchskin bowed and retired.
TO THE TORNEA.
We shall not detail the parting interview between the Baron Grodonoff and his sons; there was the usual interchange of affectionate expressions, with as much feeling as is common on such occasions. Neither need we relate the ordinary incidents of travel which befell our expeditionists, on their way to the mountains of Lapland. Suffice it to say that they journeyed by post from Saint Petersburg direct to Tornea, at the head of the Great Bothnian Gulf. Thence they proceeded northward up this river Tornea--till they had reached the mountainous region in which this stream takes its rise. They were amply furnished with the means of travelling in the most expeditious manner, and were not encumbered with any great amount of luggage. A bag of roubles, which Pouchskin carried in a safe pocket, proved the most convenient article they could have taken along with them; since it enabled them to supply their wants from day to day, without troubling themselves with any cumbersome baggage. There are few parts of the world in which ready money will not command the necessaries of life; and as this was all our hunters cared for, they had no difficulty in obtaining supplies--even in the remote regions of uncivilised Lapland. The wild, half-savage Lap perfectly comprehends the value of a coin; and will exchange for it his reindeer flesh and milk, or anything else that may be asked from him. Our young hunters therefore travelled lightly--with little else in the shape of baggage than a pair of knapsacks which they carried on their backs, and which contained only a change or two of linen, and such toilet articles as were absolutely necessary to their comfort. A knapsack of much larger dimensions formed the chief care of Pouchskin; and although this, with its contents, would have been a heavy load for an ordinary man, the veteran of the Imperial Guard thought no more of it than if it had been a bag of feathers. Each in addition carried an ample fur cloak; which, on the march, was folded up and strapped to their backs on top of the knapsack, but at night was wrapped around their bodies, and served both as bed and bedclothes. All three were armed and equipped, in the most substantial manner. They carried guns, though differing in kind. The piece of Alexis was a handsome Jager rifle; Ivan's was a double-barrelled shot-gun or fowling-piece; while Pouchskin balanced over his shoulder an immense fusil, the bullet of which weighed a good ounce avoirdupois. All were provided with a knife of one fashion or another.
In such guise did our young hunters enter the mountains of Lapland; and commence their search after the "old man in the fur coat," as the Laplanders term the bear.
They had taken proper measures to secure success. They had secured the services of a guide, who engaged to conduct them to a district where bears existed in great plenty, and where he himself lived in a state almost as savage as the bears--for he was a true Laplander and lived in a tent in the very heart of the mountains. He was one of those who had no reindeer; and was therefore forced to depend on the chase for his subsistence. He trapped the ermine and beaver--killed the wild reindeer when he could--spent his whole life in battling with wolves and bears; and with the skins of these animals--which he sold to the fur-traders-- he was able to supply himself with the few necessaries which such a state of existence called for.
Under his tent of coarse wadmal cloth the travellers found shelter, and such rude hospitality as the poor Lap could afford them--in return for which they had to live in the midst of a smoke that nearly put out their eyes. But they knew they had entered upon an expedition, in which many hardships were to be expected; and they bore the inconvenience with becoming fortitude.
It is not my intention to give the details of the everyday life of the young hunters, nor yet an account of the very many curious incidents, which occurred to them during their sojourn in Lapland. Much was noted down in their journal--from which this narrative has been drawn-- interesting only to themselves, or perhaps still more to their father the baron. For him they wrote an account of everything peculiar that they observed--such as the odd customs of the Laplanders--their mode of travelling in sledges with reindeer--their snow-skating on the skidors and skabargers--and, in short, a full account of the habits and manners of these singular people. Especially, however, did Alexis describe the objects of natural history which came under his notice-- giving such details as he drew from personal observation, or derived from the native hunters, many of whom they encountered while engaged in the chase of the bear.
These details, were they given in full, would fill a book of themselves. We must content ourselves, therefore, with relating only the more interesting incidents, and striking adventures which happened to our heroes.
We may here state that it was in the early part of spring that they arrived in Lapland, or rather in the latter part of winter, when the ground is still covered with deep snow. At this season the bears are hidden away in their caves--in crevices of the rocks or hollow trees-- from which they only issue forth when the spring sun makes itself felt, and the snow begins to disappear from the sides of the hills.
Every one has heard of this winter sleep of the bears; and it has been attributed to bears of all species. This, however, is a mistake, as it is only indulged in by a few kinds; and the climate and nature of the country which the bear inhabits has more to do with his hybernation than any natural instinct of the animal: since it has been observed that bears will go to sleep, or hybernate, as it is termed, in one part of a country, while individuals of the same species, in another region, will be found roaming about all the winter through. The state of torpor seems to be voluntary with these animals: since it is generally in districts where food could not be procured, that they submit themselves to this prolonged siesta.
However this may be, the brown bears of Lapland certainly indulge in a period of slumber--during which they are difficult to find. Never issuing from their places of concealment, they make no track in the snow by which they might be followed. At such seasons it is only by accident, or by the aid of his dog, that the Lap hunter chances to discover the retreat of a bear; and, when one is thus discovered, various methods are adopted for securing the valuable skin and carcass of the animal.
It so chanced that, previous to the arrival of the young Russians upon their hunting-ground, there had been a show of spring--that is, a few days of warm sun--but this had been succeeded by a return of the cold weather, with a fresh fall of snow. The spell of warmth, however, had aroused many bears from their lethargy--some of which had ventured out of their caves, and made short excursions among the hills--in search, no doubt, of the berries, that, preserved all winter by the snow, are sweet and mellow at this season, and a favourite food of the bears.
This casual occurrence of the spring having made a promise and not kept it, was just the chance for our hunters; since it enabled them in a very short time to track a bear to his den.
A few days after their arrival upon the hunting-ground, they were able to do this--having come upon the footmarks of a bear, that, followed for a mile or so through the snow, led them to the animal's lair. It led them also to an adventure, which was the first they had yet encountered; and which came very near being the last that Pouchskin was ever to have in the world. Pouchskin was certainly in great peril; and how he escaped from it will be learnt, by reading an account of the adventure.
It was early in the morning, shortly after leaving the tent of the Laplander, they had chanced upon the track of the bear.
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