The Outlaws of the Marsh - Shi Nai'an and Luo Guanzhong - ebook

The legendary account of 108 "Stars from Heaven" who, faced with a corrupt bureaucracy, flee to Liangshan Marsh, from a fortress there thwarting minions of the evil regime while continuing to serve the emperor. In its mix of politics, military tactics, action, martial arts, magic, and even the bawdy (the chapters on Wu Song laying the groundwork for Jin Ping Mei), this beloved novel is an unsurpassed classic in any language.

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Table of Contents
Title Page
Chapter 1
Chapter 2
Chapter 3
Chapter 4
Chapter 5
Chapter 6
Chapter 7
Chapter 8
Chapter 9
Chapter 10
Chapter 11
Chapter 12
Chapter 13
Chapter 14
Chapter 15
Chapter 16
Chapter 17
Chapter 18
Chapter 19
Chapter 20
Chapter 21
Chapter 22
Chapter 23
Chapter 24
Chapter 25
Chapter 26
Chapter 27
Chapter 28
Chapter 29
Chapter 30
Chapter 31
Chapter 32
Chapter 33
Chapter 34
Chapter 35
Chapter 36
Chapter 37
Chapter 38
Chapter 39
Chapter 40
Chapter 41
Chapter 42
Chapter 43
Chapter 44
Chapter 45
Chapter 46
Chapter 47
Chapter 48
Chapter 49
Chapter 50
Chapter 51
Chapter 52
Chapter 53
Chapter 54
Chapter 55
Chapter 56
Chapter 57
Chapter 58
Chapter 59
Chapter 60
Chapter 61
Chapter 62
Chapter 63
Chapter 64
Chapter 65
Chapter 66
Chapter 67
Chapter 68
Chapter 69
Chapter 70
Chapter 71
Chapter 72
Chapter 73
Chapter 74
Chapter 75
Chapter 76
Chapter 77
Chapter 78
Chapter 79
Chapter 80
Chapter 81
Chapter 82
Chapter 83
Chapter 84
Chapter 85
Chapter 86
Chapter 87
Chapter 88
Chapter 89
Chapter 90
Chapter 91
Chapter 92
Chapter 93
Chapter 94
Chapter 95
Chapter 96
Chapter 97
Chapter 98
Chapter 99
Chapter 100

The Outlaws of the Marsh

Shi Nai’an and Luo Guanzhong


Translated by Sidney Shapiro

Chapter 1 Zhang the Divine Teacher Prays to Dispel a Plague Marshal Hong Releases Demons by Mistake


After Five Dynasties’ turmoil and strife,

The clouds dispersed and revealed the sky,

Refreshing rain brought old trees new life,

Culture and learning once again were high.

Ordinary folk in the lanes wore silk,

Music drifted from mansions and towers,

Under the heavens all was serene,

Men dozed off at noon midst gay birds and flowers.


This eight-lined poem was written during the reign of Emperor Shen Zong of the Song Dynasty by a scholar named Shao Yaofu, also known as Master Kang Jie. From the end of the Tang and all through the Five Dynasties, times had been troubled. One short-lived dynasty had ruled after another. How true was the verse:


Zhu, Li, Shi, Liu, Guo founded

Liang, Tang, Jin, Han and Zhou.

Fifteen emperors fifty years in a row,

Bringing hardship, tumult and woe.


In time, the way of Heaven took a new turn. At Jiamaying, Tai Zu, the Emperor of Military Virtue, was born. A red glow suffused the sky when this sage came into the world, and fragrance still filled the air the following morning. He was in fact the God of Thunder descended to earth. Brave and magnanimous, he was superior to any emperor who had ever lived.

With a staff as tall as himself he smote so hard that four hundred prefectures and districts acknowledged his sovereignty. He swept the land clean and pacified the Central Plains. Naming his empire the Great Song, he established his court at Bianliang. Tai Zu was the first of eighteen Song emperors and founder of a dynasty lasting four hundred years.

That is why Master Shao Yaofu said in his praise: The clouds dispersed and revealed the sky. For the people it was indeed like seeing the sun again.

At that time on Huashan, the West Sacred Mountain, lived a Taoist hermit named Chen Tuan. A virtuous man, he could foretell the future by the weather. One day as he was riding his donkey down the mountain towards the county town of Huayin he heard a traveler on the path say: “Emperor Chai Shi Zong has surrendered his throne to Marshal Zhao in the Eastern Capital.”

Chen clapped his hands to his brow and laughed so delightedly that he fell off his donkey. Asked the reason for his joy, he said: “The empire will be firmly settled from now on. For this is in accord with the will of Heaven above, the laws of Earth below, and the hearts of men between.”

Marshal Zhao accepted the abdication in 960 and established his regime. He ruled for seventeen years, and there was peace throughout the land. He was succeeded by his younger brother, Tai Zong, who ruled for twenty-two years. After Tai Zong came Zhen Zong, who was succeeded by Ren Zong.

Emperor Ren Zong was actually a re-incarnation of the Barefoot Immortal. When he came down and was born on earth he cried day and night without cease. The imperial court posted a proclamation, inviting any man who could cure him to come forward. Heaven was touched and sent the Great Star of White Gold in the guise of an old man. Announcing he could cure the prince’s weeping, the old man took down the proclamation. The officer in charge conducted him to the palace, where the emperor directed that he be allowed to see Ren Zong in the inner apartments.

The old man went in, picked up the baby, and whispered eight words into his ear. At once the prince stopped crying. The old man disappeared in a puff of air without even revealing his name. What were the eight words? They were these: “Civil and military affairs, both have their stars.”

The fact was that the Jade Emperor of Heaven had dispatched two stars from the Propitious Constellation to serve the future emperor. The civil affairs star became Bao Zheng, prefect of Kaifeng and a senior member of the Dragon Diagram Academy. The military affairs star became Di Qing, the great general who led an expedition against the Kingdom of Western Xia.

With the help of these two ministers, Ren Zong ruled as emperor for forty-two years, in the course of which he gave special names to nine periods of his reign. During the first nine years, or the Tian Sheng period, all went well. Grain harvests were large; the people were happy at their work; no one kept articles lost by others on the road; doors were left unlocked at night. That was the period of the “First Abundance.”

From the beginning of the Ming Dao period to the third year of Huang You another nine years of prosperity followed. That was the period of “Second Abundance.”

From the fourth year of Huang You to the second year of Jia You, nine years more, the fields continued to flourish. That was the period of the “Third Abundance.”

These three nine-year periods, twenty-seven years in all, were known as the Era of Three Abundances. During that time the people enjoyed great happiness. Who could have foreseen that extreme joy would give birth to sorrow?

In the third year of the Jia You period a plague struck the land. From the south to the two capitals, not a single hamlet escaped the contagion. The imperial court was snowed under with petitions for relief from every district and prefecture.

More than half the soldiers and residents in and around the Eastern Capital died. Bao Zheng, counsellor and prefect of Kaifeng, published the officially approved prescriptions and spent his own money on medicines in an attempt to save the people. But to no avail. The plague grew worse. All the high civil and military officials conferred. The they gathered in the Hall of the Water Clock and waited for daybreak, when court would be held, so that they could appeal to the emperor.

That day, the third day of the third month of the third year of the Jia You period, at the third interval of the fifth watch Emperor Ren Zong mounted his throne in the imperial palace. After the officials had made their obeisances, the chief of ceremonies cried: “If anyone has a petition, let him come forward. If there are none, this court will adjourn.”

Zhao Zhe, the Premier, and Wen Yanbo, his deputy, advanced and said: “The plague is raging unabated in the capital. Victims among the soldiers and the people are many. We hope Your Majesty, in a forgiving and benevolent spirit, will reduce prison sentences and cut taxes, and pray to Heaven that the people be relived of this affliction.”

The emperor at once ordered the Hanlin Academy to draw an edict proclaiming a general amnesty for all prisoners and canceling all taxes. He also directed that every temple and monastery in the capital offer prayers for a termination of the disaster.

But the plague only became worse. The emperor was very disturbed and summoned his officials for a conference. A prominent minister stepped forth and asked to be heard ahead of turn. The emperor saw that it was Fan Zhongyan, his Deputy Premier.

Fan kowtowed, then rose and said: “The plague is decimating our soldiers and citizenry. No one is safe. In my humble opinion if this pestilence is to be ended Your Majesty should summon the Divine Teacher of the Taoists, who comes from a papal line dating back to Han times. Let him travel day and night and rush here to the capital and conduct a great prayer service in the imperial park. In this way the people will be saved.”

Emperor Ren Zong approved Fan’s proposal. He directed the scholars of the Hanlin Academy to draw up an edict, which he signed personally, and issued a bunch of royal incense sticks. He ordered that Marshal Hong Xin go as his emissary to the Dragon and Tiger Mountain in Xinzhou Prefecture of Jiangxi Province and fetch Zhang the Divine Teacher. While incense burned in the imperial hall, the emperor himself placed the edict in Marshal Hong’s hands and told him to set out immediately.

Hong accepted the royal edict and took leave of the emperor. With the edict in a bag on his back and the incense sticks in a golden box, he mounted his horse and left the Eastern Capital, leading a column of several score men. They headed directly for Guixi, a county town in Xinzhou Prefecture.

After a number of days they arrived. Officials, high and low, greeted Marshal Hong. They sent word to the abbot and other Taoists in the Temple of Supreme Purity on the Dragon and Tiger Mountain to get ready to receive the imperial edict.

The next day the officials accompanied Marshal Hong to the foot of the mountain. A procession of Taoists, beating drums and bells, playing saintly music, bearing incense and candles, banners and canopies, came down to receive the imperial envoy. They escorted him to the temple, where he dismounted. All of the Taoists, from the abbot to the lowliest novice, gathered round and led him to the Hall of Three Purities. They asked him to place the royal edict on an altar.

“Where is the Divine Teacher?” Marshal Hong inquired of the abbot.

“You must understand, Marshal,” replied the abbot, “our Teacher is known as ‘Pure Serenity’. He is of a very exalted nature and cannot be bothered with such mundane matters as welcoming and seeing off visitors. He has built a thatched hut on the top of the mountain, and there he meditates and cultivates his spirit.”

“But I have an imperial edict. How can I find him?”

“Leave the edict here in this hall. None of us will dare to unroll it. Please come into the abbey for some tea. We can talk things over there.”

Marshal Hong did as the abbot suggested. When he had seated himself amid his hosts in the abbey, tea and meatless dishes of many varieties were served. After the meal, the marshal said to the abbot: “You say the Divine Teacher is in a thatched hut on the mountain top. Why not ask him to come down and receive the royal edict?”

“He’s up there, all right, keeping himself aloof from the world. But our Divine Teacher has an unusual knowledge of the Way. He can ride the clouds and mists. Nobody knows exactly where he is. We ordinary Taoists are rarely able to see him. How can we ask him to come down?”

“I must meet him. A plague is raging in the capital and the emperor has sent me with an imperial edict and royal incense to invite him to conduct a great prayer service that will dispel the pestilence and save the people. What can I do?”

“You must first prove your piety. Eat no meat, bathe and change into simple cotton garments. With the edict on your back, carry burning incense and travel on foot alone to the summit. There, kowtow, and cry your invitation aloud. Then perhaps you’ll be able to meet the Divine Teacher. But if you’re not sincere your trip will be in vain. You’ll never see him.”

“I’ve eaten nothing but vegetables since I left the capital. Doesn’t that show I’m sincere? I shall do as you say. I’ll start up the mountain the first thing in the morning.”

Everyone retired for the night.

At the fifth watch the following morning the Taoists prepared scented water and a vegetarian meal for the marshal. After bathing in the scented water he dressed in new cotton garments and straw sandals, ate the meatless breakfast, wrapped the imperial edict in a piece of yellow silk and tied it on his back. In a silver censer he carried the smoking incense. Many Taoists escorted him to the mountain behind the temple and pointed out the path.

“You must never retreat, if you are to save the people, Marshal,” said the abbot. “Just push on piously.”

Bidding the Taoists farewell and calling on the Highest Deity for aid, Marshal Hong started up the mountain, alone. He climbed the twisting overgrown path for two or three li, crossing a number of peaks. Soon his feet ached and his legs grew weary. He felt he couldn’t move another step. Though he didn’t say it aloud, he grumbled to himself:

“An important government official like me. When I’m in the capital I lie on double mattresses and dine on banquet dishes. Even then I don’t have much energy. What am I doing here in straw sandals, climbing this mountain path? Who knows where that Divine Teacher is anyhow? Why should I have to endure these torments?”

He was panting hard, his shoulders heaving, before he had gone another fifty paces. A strong wind blew through the hollow. When it had passed, a roar thundered from behind the pines and out leaped a huge tiger, with bulging eyes, a white forehead and striped fur.

“Aiya!” cried the marshal, toppling over backwards in terror.

The tiger, its eyes fixed upon him, circled left and right. Then it roared again and bounded off down the rear slope. Marshal Hong lay beneath a tree, his teeth chattering, his heart clanging like fifteen buckets in a single well. Paralyzed as if suffering a stroke, his legs limper than a defeated cock’s, he could only moan.

Not until the tiger had been gone the time it takes to drink a cup of tea was the marshal able to crawl to his feet. He picked up the censer, re-lit the royal incense and continued up the mountain in search of the Divine Teacher.

The marshal climbed another forty or fifty paces. He sighed. “If the emperor hadn’t set a time limit on my mission, I wouldn’t have had to suffer such a fright.”

Before he finished speaking a strong wind blasted him with foul air. Marshal Hong heard a loud hissing. A big snake, thick as a bucket and dappled with snow-white spots, wriggled out of a grove of bamboo and vines on the mountainside.

“I’m dead man!” exclaimed the marshal. He fell on his back beside a spiral-shaped rock, dropping his censer.

The great snake moved rapidly towards the rock, then twisted itself into coils, its eyes shooting golden sparks. It opened its large mouth, flickering its tongue, and breathed poisonous fumes in the marshal’s face.

So horrified was Marshal Hong that his three souls drifted and his seven spirits departed. The serpent looked at him, then slithered down the mountain and was quickly lost to sight. Only then was the marshal able to haul himself erect.

“Lucky,” he muttered. “That snake nearly scared me to death!” There were goose pimples all over his body. He cursed the abbot: “What rudeness, playing tricks on me and frightening me so. If I don’t find the Divine Teacher on the summit I’ll settle with that abbot when I get down!”

Again he picked up the silver incense burner, straightened his clothes, settled the edict on his back, and adjusted his hat. About to go on, he heard the notes of a flute coming softly from behind the pines. Gradually, the melody drew nearer. A yellow ox plodded over the rise. A boy novice, seated on its back, was smiling as he played a metal flute.

“Where are you from?” called the marshal. “Do you know who I am?”

The boy merely continued playing. Marshal Hong shouted the question several times. The boy laughed and pointed at him with his flute.

“You’ve come looking for the Divine Teacher, haven’t you?” he said.

The marshal was astounded. “You’re just a cowherd. How do you know?”

Smiling, the boy replied: “When I was serving the Divine Teacher in his thatched hut this morning he said: ‘The emperor has sent a Marshal Hong here with royal incense and an imperial edict for me to go to the Eastern Capital and conduct a great prayer service that will drive away the plague. I shall mount a crane and ride the clouds and go there today. He must have left by now. He’s not in the hut. There’s no point in your climbing any higher. The mountain is full of venomous snakes and savage beasts. They’re liable to kill you.”

“Are you telling me the truth?” the marshal demanded.

The novice only laughed, but didn’t reply. He resumed playing his flute and rode off around the bend.

“How could that child know so much?” the marshal wondered. “The Divine Teacher must have told him. That’s it.” He hesitated. “I’ve had those terrible frights and nearly lost my life. Maybe I’d better go back.”

Carrying the censer he returned hastily down the same path he had come. The Taoists received him and invited him to be seated in the abbey.

“Did you meet the Divine Teacher?” the abbot asked.

“I’m a high official of the imperial court. How could you send me up a mountain path and make me suffer such torments? I was nearly killed. First, halfway up, a big tiger with bulging eyes and a white forehead jumped out and scared the wits out of me. Then, before I had passed another gap, a great snake with snow-white spots wriggled from a thicket of bamboo and vines, wrapped itself in coils and blocked my path. If I weren’t lucky, I’d never get back to the capital alive. It’s all the fault of you Taoists. Making sport of me!”

“Would we humble Taoists dare show disrespect to a high minister?” said the abbot. “The Divine Teacher was testing your piety. Although there are snakes and tigers on our mountain, they don’t hurt people.”

“By then I could hardly walk. Just as I was about to continue up the slope, a novice, sitting on a yellow ox and playing a metal flute, came riding over the rise. I asked him: ‘Where are you from? Do you know me?’ He answered: ‘I know all about you.’ He said the Divine Teacher told him he would mount a crane and ride the clouds to the Eastern Capital this morning. That’s why I’ve returned.”

“Too bad,” cried the abbot. “Marshal, you missed your chance. That boy was the Divine Teacher.”

“A rustic-looking fellow like that?”

“The Divine Teacher of this generation is very unusual. Although young in years, he has a remarkable command of the Way. He’s not an ordinary mortal. He can appear in any guise he wishes. People call him the Master of the Way.”

“I saw him and didn’t recognize him! What a shame.”

“Never mind, Marshal. Since the Divine Teacher said he was going, by the time you return to the capital, the great prayer service will be successfully finished.”

On hearing this, the marshal felt better. The abbot ordered that a banquet be prepared for him. At the abbot’s suggestion, the imperial edict was placed in a casket for royal documents, to be retained permanently in the temple; the royal incense was burned in the Hall of Three Purities. A big feast of meatless dishes was spread in the abbey. The diners ate and drank until dark. Then all retired.

After breakfast the next morning, the abbot, priests and abbey superintendents invited the marshal out for a sight-seeing stroll. He accepted with pleasure. Led by two novices they left the abbey, followed by a large entourage. They walked around the temple grounds, enjoying the beautiful scenery.

In the Hall of Three Purities the marshal was shown objects precious beyond words. He visited also the Nine Heavens Hall, the Propitious Star Hall, and the North Pole Hall, beside a covered walk on the left side of the grounds. Along another such walk on the right he inspected the Great Monad Hall, the Three Officials Hall and the Hall for Dispelling Evil.

He was then escorted to the grounds in the rear of the right walk. There he observed a building with walls as red as peppers, and vermilion-colored lattice-work on its two front windows. A lock as thick as a man’s arm clamped together its double doors. A dozen strips of paper, pasted across the crack where the doors met, were stamped with innumerable red seals. Beneath the front eaves was a red plaque inscribed with letters of gold, reading: “Suppression of Demons Hall.”

“What is this place?” asked the marshal.

“A hall where an earlier Divine Teacher imprisoned some demons,” replied the abbot.

“Why are there so? many seals on the doors?”

“A Divine Teacher known as the Royal Master of the Way locked the demons in there in Tang times. Each subsequent Divine Teacher added his own seal, prohibiting any successor from opening the doors. If those demons escaped, it would be awful. Nine generations of Divine Teachers have ruled since then, and they all vowed to keep the hall closed. The lock has been filled with melted bronze. Who knows what’s in there? I’ve been in charge of this temple for thirty years, but I only know what I’ve been told.”

Marshal Hong was surprised. “I certainly would like to see a demon,” he thought. To the abbot he said: “Open the doors. I want to see what a demon looks like.”

“I cannot, Marshal,” the abbot replied. “The early generation Divine Teacher has forbidden it. No one today would dare.”

The marshal laughed. “Nonsense. The story is an invention to delude people. You’ve deliberately prepared this place so that you can say you’ve got demons imprisoned as proof of the power of your Taoist magic. I’ve read many books, but none of them says anything about how to lock up demons. Spirits inhabit only the Nether Regions. I don’t believe you’ve got any demons in there. Open up and let me have a look.”

“This hall mustn’t be opened,” the abbot pleaded. “It would mean disaster.” Marshal Hong grew angry. He pointed his finger at the Taoists and roared: “If you don’t do as I say I’ll report to the court that you prevented me from delivering the imperial edict and refused to let me see the Divine Teacher. I’ll tell how you rigged up this hall and invented the story that you’ve got demons inside in order to fool the public. I’ll have your religious orders cancelled and have you all tattooed with the mark of the criminal and exiled to a wild and distant region!”

The abbot feared the influence of Marshal Hong. He had no choice but to order some blacksmith priests to remove the scales and break the lock. Then the doors were pushed open and everyone entered the hall. It was pitch dark. The marshal called for a dozen torches. When these were brought he saw that the hall was empty except for a stone tablet in the center. About six feet high, it was based on a stone tortoise which was sunk halfway into the damp earthen floor. Hong moved the torches closer to the tablet. The front was inscribed with dragon and phoenix scripts and mystic signs and symbols which no one could understand. Then he looked at the back. There, written large, were four words: “Open when Hong comes.”

The marshal was delighted. “You tried to stop me,” he said to the abbot. “Yet my name was written here hundreds of years ago. ‘Open when Hong comes.’ It’s perfectly plain. What’s wrong if I have a look? I believe the demons are right here beneath this stone. Get a few more men with mattocks and shovels and dig it out.”

The abbot was horrified. “We can’t do that, Marshal. Something terrible may happen. It’s not safe!”

“What do you know, anyway?” the marshal shouted angrily. “It says clearly on the tablet it can be removed when I come. How dare you stop me? Get me those men.”

Four or five times the abbot pleaded: “No good will come of it.” But the marshal wouldn’t listen. The workmen were summoned. After long and strenuous effort they pushed over the tablet and pried the stone tortoise out of the ground.

Then they started shovelling. At four feet they came upon a big stone slab some ten feet square. Marshal Hong directed them to dig it out. “You mustn’t,” begged the abbot, but the marshal ignored him. When the men had removed the slab, a pit one hundred thousand feet deep was revealed. A great ripping sound was heard, and a black cloud shot out of the pit. It tore through half a corner of the roof and zoomed into the sky, where it split into more than a hundred golden rays which shimmered in every direction.

Everyone shouted in fright and threw down their tools. They dashed out of the hall, bowling people over left and right. Marshal Hong goggled and gaped helplessly. His face was the color of earth. He hurried out to the porch, where the abbot was lamenting.

“Who are those demons who escaped?” Hong asked. “Oh, Marshal, you didn’t know,” groaned the abbot. “In this hall the Master of the Way left a written warning. It said: ‘Thirty-six stars of Heavenly spirits and seventy-two stars of Earthly Fiends, a total of one hundred and eight demons, are imprisoned here, held down by a stone tablet inscribed with their names, written in a mystic script that resembles dragons and phoenixes. If they are released on earth they will cause no end of trouble.’ Now you’ve let them out. What are we going to do?”

The marshal trembled and broke into a cold sweat. He hastily collected his luggage, marched down the mountain with his men and headed for the capital. The abbot and the Taoists saw them off, then returned to the temple, where they repaired the roof and re-erected the stone tablet. Of them we’ll say no more.

During the return trip, afraid that the emperor would reproach him, the marshal instructed his men to say nothing about the escape of the demons. The march was uneventful. Travelling day and night, they soon reached Bianliang, the Eastern Capital. On entering the city they were told: “The Divine Teacher held a great prayer service in the Imperial Park for seven days and seven nights and distributed many charms. Now the sick are cured and the plague is completely gone. The Divine Teacher has taken leave of the emperor and returned to the Dragon and Tiger Mountain, astride a crane and riding the clouds.”

At early court the following morning, Marshal Hong reported to the emperor.

“The Divine Teacher mounted a crane and rode the clouds, so he arrived first,” said Hong. “We had to march every stage of the road. That’s why we didn’t get here till now.”

The emperor approved of his report. He rewarded the marshal and ordered him to resume his post. We’ll say no more of this.

Emperor Ren Zong ruled for forty-two years and died without leaving a son. The throne passed to the son of Prince Yun Rang of Puan. A grandson of Tai Zong, he is known by his posthumous title of Ying Zong. After four years of rule, he abdicated in favor of his son, Shen Zong, who reigned for eighteen years and then gave the throne to his son Zhe Zong. During this entire period there was peace throughout the land and no disturbances.

But not so fast. If it were true that nothing happened, what would we have to tell in this book? Reader, don’t be alarmed, for in what follows thirty-six stars of Heavenly Spirits come to earth and seventy-two stars of Earthly Fiends appear among men. Valiants hide in strongholds, heroes gather in the marshes.

Why? Read our next chapter if you would know.

Chapter 2 Arms Instructor Wang Goes Secretly to Yanan Prefecture Nine Dragons Shi Jin Wreaks Havoc in Shi Family Village

During the reign of Emperor Zhe Zong, who ruled a long time after Ren Zong, in Bianliang the Eastern Capital, in Kaifeng Prefecture previously called Xuanwu District, there lived a young scamp named Gao. A second son, he was quite useless. He cared only for jousting with spear and staff, and was an excellent football player. People in the capital were fond of making quips. They dubbed him Gao Qiu, or “Gao the Ball.” Later, when he prospered, he changed “Qiu” to another character with the same sound but with a less inelegant meaning.

In addition to his skill with weapons, Gao Qiu could play musical instruments and sing and dance. He also learned a bit about poetry and versifying. But when it came to virtue and proper behavior, he didn’t know a thing. He spent his time gadding about the city and its environs. Thanks to him, the son of Master Wang, an iron-shop owner, dissipated a considerable sum of money in theaters, gambling dens and brothels.

For this reason the father made a written complaint against Gao to Kaifeng Prefecture. The prefect gave Gao twenty strokes, banished him from the city, and forbade the people of the Eastern Capital from either feeding him or giving him shelter. Gao Qiu’s solution was to proffer his services to one Liu Shiquan, known as Liu the Eldest, who ran a gambling house in Linhuai Prefecture, west of the Huaihe River. Liu surrounded himself with idlers and riffraff from all over.

Gao Qiu remained with Liu for three years. Then Emperor Zhe Zong prayed to Heaven south of the city, and this caused the winds and rains to become very propitious. The emperor was moved to benevolence, and he declared a general amnesty. Gao Qiu was able to return to the capital. Liu the Eldest wrote a letter of introduction to Dong Jiangshi, a relative of his who ran a medicinal herb shop near the Bridge of Golden Girders, gave Gao some travelling money, and told him Dong would take care of him.

Gao said goodbye, shouldered his pack and returned to the city, where he delivered the letter to Dong. The druggist took one look at Gao, then read the letter.

“How can I put this man up in my home?” he mused. “It would be different if he were straight and honest. The children could learn from him. But he’s just a loafer, an untrustworthy fellow who’s been exiled for breaking the law, and not the kind likely to reform. If I keep him here he’s liable to teach the children bad ways. Yet if I don’t I’ll be offending Liu the Eldest.”

He had no choice but to receive Gao into his home with pretended delight. Dong feasted him every day for ten days, then he got an idea. He presented Gao with a suit of clothes and handed him a letter of introduction.

“The light of my household is too feeble,” he said. “It would only be holding you back to keep you here. I’m turning you over to Su Junior, the Court Scholar. With him you’ll be able to make a start. How does that sound?”

Gao thanked him gratefully. Dong had a servant take the letter and escort Gao to the Court Scholar’s residence. There, a gateman reported Gao’s arrival. The Scholar came out and greeted him. He saw from the letter of introduction that Gao was a scamp.

“I can’t take this man in,” thought the Scholar. “As a favor to Dong I’ll send him to Wang Jinqing, the Young Prince Consort, to serve as a retainer. The Young Prince likes that sort of fellow.”

He wrote Dong a reply and let Gao stay the night. The next day he wrote another letter and dispatched it with a steward who took Gao Qiu to the residence of the Young Prince.

Wang had married a younger sister of Emperor Zhe Zong before he took the throne and while Emperor Shen Zong still reigned. The Young Prince was partial to adventurous men, and he staffed his retinue with them. He liked Gao the moment he saw him with the Scholar’s letter-bearing servant. He wrote an immediate reply, accepting him as a retainer. From then on Gao remained with the prince, coming and going like one of the family.

As the old saying has it: “Distant friends grow ever distant, friends at hand grow closer still.” To celebrate his birthday, the Young Prince ordered that a feast be laid, and invited Prince Duan, his wife’s younger brother. Duan had been the eleventh child of Emperor Shen Zong and was a brother of the reigning emperor Zhe Zong. In charge of the imperial equipage, the Ninth Royal Prince, as he was called, was an intelligent, handsome young man, and a skilled dilettante in all forms of amusement. His accomplishments included the lute, chess, calligraphy, painting and football. He was also a good musician, singer and dancer.

That day, Wang the Young Prince spread a banquet of the finest delicacies of land and sea. He seated Duan the Ninth Royal Prince in the central chair or honor and sat down opposite. After several cups of wine and two courses, Prince Duan went out to relieve himself. He stopped by in the library on his return, where the Young Prince joined him. Duan was attracted by a pair of paper-weight lions carved of mutton-fat jade. They were extremely well made, in exquisite detail.

Prince Duan picked them up and couldn’t set them down. “Beautiful,” he murmured.

“The same artisan also made a jade rack carved like a dragon for writing brushes,” said the Young Prince. “I don’t have it handy, but I’ll find it tomorrow and sent it to you together with these paper-weights.”

“That’s awfully kind of you. I’m sure the dragon is carved even more finely than the lions.”

“I’ll send it to the palace tomorrow. You’ll be able to see for yourself.”

Prince Duan thanked him and they went back to the banquet table where they dined until dusk. Both were drunk when they parted. Prince Duan bade the prince consort farewell and returned to his palace.

The next day the Young Prince found the writing-brush rack carved like a dragon. He placed it in a small gold box together with the pair of jade paper-weight lions, wrapped the box in golden silk, wrote a covering letter, and told Gao to deliver the gifts. Gao proceeded directly to Prince Duan’s palace. The gate-keeper reported his arrival to the steward, who came out.

“From which official residence are you?”

Gao Qiu bowed. “Prince Consort Wang has directed me to deliver these jade objects to the Royal Prince.”

“His Highness is in the middle court playing football with some young eunuchs. You may go in.”

“Could I trouble you to show me the way?”

The steward led Gao to the gate of the inner court. Four or five young eunuchs were kicking a ball with Prince Duan. He was wearing a soft Tang style silk hat and a purple robe embroidered with an imperial dragon. The robe was tucked up in front under the prince’s official waist sash. Flying phoenixes embroidered in gold thread decorated his boots.

Gao dared not interrupt. He stood behind some servants and waited. Fortune favored him. The ball sailed past Prince Duan, who couldn’t stop it, and rolled through the crowd to Gao Qiu. In a momentary seizure of boldness, he kicked it back to the prince with a “mandarin duck and drake twist.”

Duan was delighted. “Who are you?” he asked.

Gao fell on his knees, “A retainer of Prince Consort Wang. At my master’s orders I bring Your Highness two jade gifts. I have a letter that goes with them.”

The royal prince smiled. “Brother-in-law is always considerate.”

Gao Qiu produced the letter. Prince Duan opened the box and looked at the jade pieces, the turned them over to his major-domo.

“So you know how to kick a ball,” he said to Gao. “What’s your name?”

Gao crossed his arms before his chest respectfully and dropped again to his knees. “Your servant is called Gao Qiu. I’ve spent a little time with a ball on the field.”

“Good,” said the prince. “Come and join the game.”

“A man of my rank! I wouldn’t dare play with your Highness.”

“Why not? This is the Clouds-High League, known as the Ail-Round Circle. It’s open to anyone.”

Gao Qiu continued to refuse. But when the royal prince insisted, he kowtowed, begged forgiveness for his presumption, and trotted onto the field. He made a few passes with the ball and the prince shouted approval. Gao Qiu was inspired to show everything he had. His movements, his style, were a pleasure to behold. He stayed so close to the ball it seemed glued to his feet.

Prince Duan was enchanted. He wouldn’t let Gao leave, and kept him overnight in the palace. The next day he ordered a feast and sent an invitation to the Young Prince.

When Gao failed to return the night before, the Young Prince began to wonder whether he could be trusted. Now, his gate-keeper announced: “A messenger from the Ninth Royal Prince is here with an invitation for Your Excellency to attend a banquet in the place.” The Young Prince went out and received the messenger and read the invitation. The he got on his horse and rode to the palace. Dismounting, he proceeded directly to Prince Duan.

The Ninth Royal Prince thanked him for the two jade gifts. Together, they entered the dining-room.

“That Gao Qiu of yours plays a good game of football,” said Prince Duan. “I’d like to have him as a retainer. How about it?”

“If he’s of any use to Your Highness, let him serve in the palace, by all means.”

Prince Duan raised his wine cup and thanked the Young Prince. The two chatted and dined until evening. Then the Young Prince returned to his residence. Of him we’ll say no more.

Let us talk rather of Gao Qiu. After he went into the service of Prince Duan he lived and dined in the palace and accompanied the prince every day, never taking so much as a step from his side. Before two months had elapsed, Emperor Zhe Zong died without leaving an heir. All the high civil and military officials conferred and made Prince Duan the emperor. He was known as Emperor Hui Zong and bore the title of High Priest of Jade Purity and Taoist Sovereign of Provident Truth.

Hui Zong assumed the throne and all went well. One day he said to Gao Qiu: “I’d like to raise you in rank, but you’ll have to perform some meritorious deed on the border first. I’ll have the Council of Military Affairs put you down as available for imperial appointment.” Less than half a year later, he was able to make Gao Qiu a marshal commanding the Imperial Guards.

Gao Qiu selected an auspicious day and hour to assume office. All the officers of the Mighty Imperial Guards, both infantry and cavalry, who would be serving under him came to pay their respects. Each showed his identification document and registered. Gao Qiu examined the roster name by name. Only Wang Jin, an arms instructor in the Mighty Imperial Guards, had failed to appear. Half a month previous he had reported ill. Because he had not yet recovered, he hadn’t returned to duty.

Marshal Gao was furious, “Nonsense,” he shouted. “Sheer insubordination! He sent in his identification document, didn’t he? The oaf is just pretending to be sick. Bring him here at once!” Gao dispatched an officer to Wang Jin’s house to arrest him.

Now this Wang Jin had no wife or children, only an aged mother in her sixties. The officer said to him: “Marshal Gao has taken office today. When he checked the roster, you weren’t there. The chief of staff explained that you were sick at home, and that your excuse was properly registered. But Marshal Gao is very impatient. He wouldn’t believe it. He insists that you’re faking and wants you arrested. Please come along with me, Arms Instructor. Otherwise. I’ll be in trouble.”

Wang Jin had no choice but to go to headquarters, sick as he was, and report to the marshal. He kowtowed four times, hailing Gao respectfully, then rose and stood to one side.

“Are you the churl whose father was Wang Sheng, an arms instructor in the district garrison?” Kao demanded.

“I am that humble person,” replied Wang Jin.

“Rogue,” cried Gao. “Your father was only a medicine pedlar who twirled a staff to attract to crowd. What do you know about military arts? The previous commander must have been blind to appoint you arms instructor. How dare you snub me and fail to report for roll call? Whose backing have you got that you can feign illness and loll around at home?”

“Your humble servant would never dare! I really haven’t fully recovered.”

“Criminal! If you’re sick, how could you come?”

“When the marshal summons me, I must obey.”

Gao was enraged. “Guards,” he roared, “seize this fellow and give him a good beating.”

Many of the junior officers were friends of Wang Jin. Together with the chief of staff they pleaded: “Today is the lucky day the marshal is assuming office. Please let the arms instructor off.”

“As a favor to these officers I’ll excuse you today, criminal,” shouted Gao. “I’ll settle with you tomorrow.”

Wang Jin thanked him. Only then did he raise his head and get a good look at Gao Qiu. As he left the gate of the headquarters’ compound, Wang Jin sighed.

“My life is in danger. So that’s our fine Marshal Gao. Loafer and football player, Gao the Second! When he was learning to joust with staves, my father gave him such a drubbing he couldn’t get out of bed for three months. He’s hated us ever since. Now that he’s come up in the world and been appointed commander of the Imperial Guards he’s sure to want revenge. Who would have thought that I’d be under him? As the old saying goes: ‘Fear not officials—except those who officiate over you!’ How can I stand up against him? What am I going to do?”

He returned home very depressed and told his mother about it. The two held their heads and wept.

“My son,” said the mother, ‘“Of all the thirty-six ways to get out of trouble, the best way is—leave.’ Only I’m afraid you have no place to go.”

“You’re right, mother,” said Wang Jin. “I’ve thought it over, and that’s how I feel too. The border garrison of Yanan Prefecture is governed by Old General Zhong. Many of his officers who’ve visited the capital have admired my skill with arms. Why shouldn’t I cast my lot in with them? Yanan’s a place where men are needed. I’d be safe there.”

After talking it over, mother and son agreed.

“We must go secretly, my son,” said the mother. “But what about those two corporals at the door—the orderlies who were sent by headquarters? If they find out, we won’t be able to get away.”

“Don’t worry, mother,” said Wang Jin. “I know how to get rid of them.”

At dusk, he called Corporal Zhang in and said: “First have your dinner. Then I want you to go out and do something for me.”

“Where do you want your humble servant to go, Arms Instructor?”

“Because I was ill a few days ago, I vowed I would burn incense in the Temple of the Sacred Mountain outside Sour Date Gate if I got better. I want to do that first thing tomorrow morning. Tonight you tell the priest in charge of sacrifices to open the temple gate a little earlier tomorrow. I’ll be the first worshipper. I want you to buy me three kinds of sacrificial meat. You can spend the night in the temple and wait for me there.”

Corporal Zhang promised to do as he was bid. He had his dinner, got things ready, and left for the temple.

That night mother and son packed their bedding and clothing, their silks and silver, and placed them in containers to be carried on a shoulder-pole. They also filled two saddle-bags with fodder for the horse.

At the fifth watch before dawn Wang Jin summoned Corporal Li and said: “Take these silver coins to the temple. You and Corporal Zhang buy and cook the three kinds of sacrificial meat, and wait for me. I’ll join you just as soon as I’ve bought some sacrificial paper ingots and candles.”

Corporal Li took the silver and departed for the temple. Wang Jin got the horse ready, loaded on the saddle-bags, tied them firmly in place, led the animal outside the rear gate and helped his mother mount. All the heavier household belongings they left behind. Wang Jin locked the front and rear gates, raised the carrying-pole to his shoulder and walked behind the horse.

It was the fifth watch. Taking advantage of the darkness before dawn, they left the city by the West Gate and set out along the road towards the prefecture of Yanan.

To get back to the two orderlies. They bought the sacrificial meats, had them cooked, and waited in the temple until late morning. But Wang Jin failed to appear. Corporal Li became worried. He returned to the house and found the gates locked. He couldn’t get in, either front or back. Li inquired among the neighbors for several hours but no one had seen the arms instructor. It was getting late. Corporal Zhang in the temple grew suspicious and also hurried to Wang Jin’s home. The two soldiers searched until dusk. But even after dark neither Wang Jin nor his mother returned.

The following day the two corporals inquired about Wang Jin in the homes of his relatives but could not discover any trace of him. Afraid of being implicated, they reported to the Imperial Guards headquarters: “Arms Instructor Wang Jin and his mother have fled. Their destination is unknown.”

Gao Qiu cried angrily: “So the criminal has escaped. We’ll see how far he can get!” He notified every prefecture and district to arrest Wang Jin on sight as a deserter. Since the two corporals had reported the matter voluntarily, they were not charged. Of them we shall say no more.


Let us speak rather of Arms Instructor Wang Jin and his mother. They ate and drank only when hunger and thirst compelled them, stopping at night and travelling on again at dawn. One day towards evening, after more than a month on the road, Wang Jin, who was carrying a laden shoulder-pole behind the horse his mother was riding, said: “Heaven has been merciful. We’ve escaped the danger that was spread like a net over earth and sky. We’re not far from Yanan Prefecture, Even if Marshal Gao sent men to arrest me, they couldn’t catch us now.”

Mother and son, rejoicing, passed an inn without noticing it. There was no village in sight now. Although it was late, they didn’t know where they could spend the night. Just then, they observed a lamp gleaming in a distant grove.

“There’s the answer,” said Wang Jin. “We’ll go there. We can apologize for disturbing them, ask for a place to spend the night, and go on again in the morning.”

Entering the grove, they found a large manor enclosed by an earthen wall. Around the outside of the wall were two or three hundred big willows. Wang Jin knocked on the gate a long time. Finally, a vassal came out. The arms instructor set down his load and greeted him.

“What do you want?” the man asked.

“To tell you the truth,” said Wang Jin, “my mother and I tried to cover too much ground and we passed an inn. There doesn’t seem to be any inns or villages around here. We hope you can put us up for the night. We’ll leave tomorrow morning. We’d be glad to pay whatever is customary for lodgings. Please let us impose on your kindness.”

“Wait a bit,” said the vassal. “I’ll ask the squire. If he agrees, you can come in.”

“Sorry to trouble you, brother.”

Before long the man returned and said: “My master bids you both to enter.”

Wang Jin helped his mother dismount. Carrying his shoulder-pole and leading the horse, he followed the vassal to a threshing-ground. There he set down his burden and tied the horse to a willow tree. Mother and son went to a hall roofed with thatch. The squire was waiting for them.

He was a man over sixty. His hair and beard were white. He wore a hood and a straight-cut loose-fitting gown, tied at the waist by a black silk sash. His feet were shod in tanned leather boots.

Wang Jin kowtowed respectfully.

“That’s not necessary,” the old man said hastily. “You’re travellers who’ve been exposed to the elements. Please be seated.”

Mother and son completed their ceremonial greetings and sat down.

“Where are you from?” asked the squire. “Why have you come here so late in the day?”

“Your humble servant is called Zhang,” said Wang Jin. “We live in the capital. Because we’ve used up our money and cannot carry on our business, we’re going to Yanan Prefecture to join some relatives. On the road today we were too eager to press on, and passed an inn without noticing it. If you’ll permit us to spend the night here we’ll leave in the morning and pay whatever is customary for accommodations.”

“Certainly. Who carries his lodgings with him when he travels? I don’t suppose you and your mother have eaten?” The squire told his vassal to bring food.

Soon a table was set up in the hall and the vassal came in with a tray bearing four vegetable dishes and one of beef. He set these on the table and heated some wine which he served first.

“Our fare is crude here in the country,” said the squire. “I hope you’ll forgive us.”

Wang Jin rose and thanked him. “We’re putting you to too much trouble. We don’t know how to repay you.”

“No need to talk like that,” said the squire. “Let us drink.”

In response to his urging Wang Jin and his mother downed six or seven cups of wine. Then the food was served and they ate. After the bowls and dishes had been cleared away the squire rose and led them to a guest-room.

“Could I trouble you to see to it that the horse my mother rode is stabled and fed?” said Wang Jin. “Of course we’ll pay.”

“That’s easy,” the squire replied. “We have horses and mules here. I’ll tell a vassal to put your horse in our stable and feed it with the other animals.”

Wang Jin thanked him, raised his shoulder-pole and carried his belongings into the guest-room. A vassal lit a lamp and brought in hot water so that the travellers could wash their feet. The squire returned to his own quarters. Wang Jin and his mother thanked the servant, closed the door and retired.

They slept all night. By dawn the following day they still hadn’t emerged from their room, and the squire approached their door. He heard Wang Jin’s mother groaning.

“It’s already dawn, guest,” called the old man. “You’d better rise.”

Wang Jin hurried outside and greeted his host. “I’ve been up for some time,” he said. “We put you to a lot of trouble last night. It really wasn’t right.”

“Who was groaning just now?”

“To tell you the truth, my mother is exhausted from riding. Last night her heart began paining her again.”

“In that case why not stay on here a few more days? Don’t worry. I know a good prescription for pains of the heart. I’ll send a servant to the county town and get some medicine for your mother. Tell her to set her mind at ease and just rest.”

Wang Jin thanked him.

But enough of petty details. Wang Jin and his mother remained at the manor, and the old lady took the medicine. After six or seven days she felt that her illness was cured. Wang Jin packed their belongings and prepared to continue their journey. On his way to the stable to look at his horse he observed in a clearing a young man stripped to the waist with blue dragons tattooed all over his body. His face was as round as a silver platter. About nineteen, he was practising with a staff.

Wang Jin watched for a while, then said without thinking: “Not a bad style, but it has weaknesses. It wouldn’t stop anyone who was really good.”

The young man overheard him. “Who are you to laugh at my skill?” he demanded angrily. “I’ve had eight of the best teachers. Don’t think I can’t knock you down! Do you dare have a go with me?”

As he was speaking, the squire came along. “None of your insolence,” shouted the old man.

“What right has this fellow to laugh at my technique?” the boy asked.

“Do you know how to wield a staff, guest?” queried the squire.

“A little,” replied Wang Jin. “May I presume to ask, sir, what this young man’s relationship is to you?”

“He is my son.”

“Since he is the young master, if he wishes to learn, your humble servant can give him a few pointers. Is that agreeable?”

“Excellent,” said the squire. And he directed the young man: “Kowtow to your teacher.”

But the boy would have none of it. “Don’t be taken in by this varlet’s talk, pa,” he said hotly. “I’ll kowtow to him as my teacher only if he can beat me at staves!”

“If the young master won’t take it seriously,” said Wang Jin, “we can have a bout, just for fun.”

Standing in the center of the clearing the boy whirled his staff over his head like a windmill. “Come on, then,” he exclaimed. “Come at me, if you have the nerve!”

Wang Jin smiled, but he made no move.

“Since you’re willing to teach the boy, guest,” said the squire, “why not joust with him?”

“I’m afraid I’ll hurt the young master,” Wang Jin laughed. “It wouldn’t look nice.”

“That’s all right. If you break his hand or foot he’ll have brought it on himself.”

“Forgive me, then.” Wang Jin selected a staff from a weapons rack, walked into the clearing and struck a stance.

The young man looked him over, then raised his staff and charged. Wang Jin quickly withdrew, trailing his weapon. The boy flourished his staff and gave chase. Suddenly Wang Jin turned and lifted his weapon as if to hack down. His opponent raised his own staff to parry. But Wang Jin swiftly retracted his weapon, then thrust it against his adversary’s chest. The boy fell flat on his back, his staff flying off to the side.

Wang Jin cast his weapon away and hurried to help the young man. “I’m terribly sorry,” he said.

The boy crawled to his feet. He brought over a stool, seated Wang Jin upon it and kowtowed respectfully. “I’ve studied with many instructors,” he said, “but they’ve taught me practically nothing. Teacher, all I can do is beg for your guidance.”

“My mother and I have imposed on your household for several days with no way to show our gratitude. It’s only right that I should do my best.”

The squire was very pleased. He told his son to dress, and all went to a rear hall and sat down. The old man ordered a vassal to slaughter a sheep and prepare wine and food and fruit. Then he invited Wang Jin and his mother to join him in a feast.

When the four were seated at the table the old man poured out the wine. Rising, he toasted Wang Jin. “With your remarkable skill, you must be an arms instructor,” he said. “My son ‘has eyes but didn’t recognize Mount Taishan.’“

Wang Jin laughed. ‘“To a true man, one tells the truth.’ Your servant’s name isn’t Zhang, it’s Wang Jin. I’m an arms instructor in the Eastern Capital’s Mighty Imperial Guards. I play with spears and staves every day. Gao Qiu, who has just been appointed commander of the Imperial Guards, was once beaten by my father. He’s been longing for revenge and wants to take it out on me. Being under his command, I can’t stand up against him. So I’ve run off with my mother. We’re heading for Yanan Prefecture to join the border garrison commanded by Old General Zhong. We never expected that we would come here and be so well treated by you, sir, and your son. You’ve cured my mother’s illness and entertained us for days. We’ve really imposed too much. If your son wants to learn, your servant will gladly teach him with all his heart. What he’s learned so far are a lot of flashy manoeuvres. They look good, but they’re of no use in combat. I’ll teach him from the beginning.”

“My son,” said the squire, “admit your defeat. Kowtow to your teacher once again.” The young man did so.

“Let me tell you, honored teacher,” the old man continued. “My clan has always lived here in Huayin County. There before us is Mount Shaohua. The village is called Shi Family Village. All of the three or four hundred families in it are named Shi. My son, since childhood, has had no interest in farming. He cares only for play with weapons. His mother tried in vain to talk him out of it. She finally died of worry. I had to let him have his way. I don’t know how much money I’ve spent on weapons teachers. I also paid a skilled tattooist to decorate his arms and chest with dragons—nine in all. For that reason he’s known throughout the county as Nine Dragons Shi Jin. It’s good that you’ve come, Instructor, and can complete his training. I’ll reward you handsomely.”

Wang Jin was delighted. “Rest assured, old squire,” he said. “If that is your wish, your servant will teach him well.”

They drank and feasted. From that day on, Wang Jin and his mother remained in the manor. Wang Jin instructed the young man every day, teaching him the use of the eighteen weapons: lance, mallet, long bow, crossbow, jingal, jointed bludgeon, truncheon, sword, chain, hooks, hatchet, axe, trident, halberd, shield, staff, spear and rake. Squire Shi went to the county town of Huayin to serve as a ward chief. Of that we’ll say no more.

The days slipped by. Soon half a year had passed. Shi Jin became adapt at the eighteen weapons. Wang Jin put his heart into teaching, explaining the fine points of each. When the young man had mastered the weapons. Wang Jin thought to himself: “Although it’s very pleasant here, I’m not getting anywhere.” He wanted to continue on to Yanan, but Shi Jin wouldn’t hear of him leaving.

“Stay, teacher,” the young man pleaded. “I’ll support you and your mother the rest of your lives. Won’t that do?”