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Robinson Crusoe /ˌrɒbɪnsən ˈkruːsoʊ/ is a novel by Daniel Defoe that was first published in 1719. Epistolary, confessional, and didactic in form, the book is a fictional autobiography of the title character—a castaway who spends 28 years on a remote tropical island near Trinidad, encountering cannibals, captives, and mutineers before being rescued.The story was perhaps influenced by Alexander Selkirk, a Scottish castaway who lived for four years on the Pacific island called "Más a Tierra" (in 1966 its name was changed to Robinson Crusoe Island), Chile. The details of Crusoe's island were probably based on the Caribbean island of Tobago, since that island lies a short distance north of the Venezuelan coast near the mouth of the Orinoco river, in sight of Trinidad. It is also likely that Defoe was inspired by the Latin or English translations of Ibn Tufail's Hayy ibn Yaqdhan, an earlier novel also set on a desert island. Another source for Defoe's novel may have been Robert Knox's account of his abduction by the King of Ceylon in 1659 in "An Historical Account of the Island Ceylon," Glasgow: James MacLehose and Sons (Publishers to the University), 1911. Although inspired by a real life event, it was the first notable work of literature where the story was independent of mythology, history, legends, or previous literature.
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First digital edition 2017 by Anna Ruggieri
CHAPTER I—START IN LIFE
CHAPTER II—SLAVERY AND ESCAPE
CHAPTER III—WRECKED ON A DESERT ISLAND
CHAPTER IV—FIRST WEEKS ON THE ISLAND
CHAPTER V—BUILDS A HOUSE—THE JOURNAL
CHAPTER VI—ILL AND CONSCIENCE-STRICKEN
CHAPTER VII—AGRICULTURAL EXPERIENCE
CHAPTER VIII—SURVEYS HIS POSITION
CHAPTER IX—A BOAT
CHAPTER X—TAMES GOATS
CHAPTER XI—FINDS PRINT OF MAN’S FOOT ON THE SAND
CHAPTER XII—A CAVE RETREAT
CHAPTER XIII—WRECK OF A SPANISH SHIP
CHAPTER XIV—A DREAM REALISED
CHAPTER XV—FRIDAY’S EDUCATION
CHAPTER XVI—RESCUE OF PRISONERS FROM CANNIBALS
CHAPTER XVII—VISIT OF MUTINEERS
CHAPTER XVIII—THE SHIP RECOVERED
CHAPTER XIX—RETURN TO ENGLAND
CHAPTER XX—FIGHT BETWEEN FRIDAY AND A BEAR
I was born in the year 1632, in the city of York, of a good family, though not of that country, my father being a foreigner of Bremen, who settled first at Hull. He got a good estate by merchandise, and leaving off his trade, lived afterwards at York, from whence he had married my mother, whose relations were named Robinson, a very good family in that country, and from whom I was called Robinson Kreutznaer; but, by the usual corruption of words in England, we are now called—nay we call ourselves and write our name—Crusoe; and so my companions always called me.
I had two elder brothers, one of whom was lieutenant-colonel to an English regiment of foot in Flanders, formerly commanded by the famous Colonel Lockhart, and was killed at the battle near Dunkirk against the Spaniards. What became of my second brother I never knew, any more than my father or mother knew what became of me.
Being the third son of thefamily and not bred to any trade, my head began to be filled very early with rambling thoughts. My father, who was very ancient, had given me a competent share of learning, as far as house-education and a country free school generally go, and designed mefor the law; but I would be satisfied with nothing but going to sea; and my inclination to this led me so strongly against the will, nay, the commands of my father, and against all the entreaties and persuasions of my mother and other friends, that there seemed to be something fatal in that propensity of nature, tending directly to the life of misery which was to befall me.
My father, a wise and grave man, gave me serious and excellent counsel against what he foresaw was my design. He called me one morninginto his chamber, where he was confined by the gout, and expostulated very warmly with me upon this subject. He asked me what reasons, more than a mere wandering inclination, I had for leaving father’s house and my native country, where I might be well introduced, and had a prospect of raising my fortune by application and industry, with a life of ease and pleasure. He told me it was men of desperate fortunes on one hand, or of aspiring, superior fortunes on the other, who went abroad upon adventures, torise by enterprise, and make themselves famous in undertakings of a nature out of the common road; that these things were all either too far above me or too far below me; that mine was the middle state, or what might be called the upper station of low life, which he had found, by long experience, was the best state in the world, the most suited to human happiness, not exposed to the miseries and hardships, the labour and sufferings of the mechanic part of mankind, and not embarrassed with the pride, luxury, ambition, and envy of the upper part of mankind. He told me I might judge of the happiness of this state by this one thing—viz. that this was the state of life which all other people envied; that kings have frequently lamented the miserable consequenceof being born to great things, and wished they had been placed in the middle of the twoextremes, between the mean and the great; that the wise man gave his testimony to this, as the standard of felicity, when he prayed to have neither poverty nor riches.
He bade me observe it, and I should always find that the calamities of life were shared among the upper and lower part of mankind, but that the middle station had the fewest disasters, and was not exposed to so many vicissitudes as the higher or lower partof mankind; nay, they were not subjected to so many distempers and uneasinesses, either of body or mind, as those were who, by vicious living, luxury, and extravagances on the one hand, or by hard labour, want of necessaries, and mean or insufficient dieton the other hand, bring distemper upon themselves by the natural consequences of their way of living; that the middle station of life was calculated for all kind of virtue and all kind of enjoyments; that peace and plenty were the handmaids of a middle fortune; that temperance, moderation, quietness, health, society, all agreeable diversions, and all desirable pleasures, were the blessings attending the middle station of life; that this way men went silently and smoothly through the world, and comfortablyout of it, not embarrassed with the labours of the hands or of the head, not sold to a life of slavery for daily bread, nor harassed with perplexed circumstances, which rob the soul of peace and the body of rest, nor enraged with the passion of envy, or the secret burning lust of ambition for great things; but, in easy circumstances, sliding gently through the world, and sensibly tasting the sweets of living, without the bitter; feeling that they are happy, and learning by every day’s experience to know itmore sensibly.
After this he pressed me earnestly, and in the most affectionate manner, not to play the young man, nor to precipitate myself into miseries which nature, and the station of life I was born in, seemed to have provided against; that I was under no necessity of seeking my bread; that he would do well for me, and endeavour to enter me fairly into the station of life which he had just been recommending to me; and that if I was not very easy and happy in the world, it must be my mere fate or faultthat must hinder it; and that he should have nothing to answer for, having thus discharged his duty in warning me against measures which he knew would be to my hurt; in a word, that as he would do very kind things for me if I would stay and settle at homeas he directed, so he would not have so much hand in my misfortunes as to give me any encouragement to go away; and to close all, he told me I had my elder brother for an example, to whom he had used the same earnest persuasions to keep him from going into the Low Country wars, but could not prevail, his young desires prompting him to run into the army, where he was killed; and though he said he would not cease to pray for me, yet he would venture to say to me, that if I did take this foolish step, God would not bless me, and I should have leisure hereafter to reflect upon having neglected his counsel when there might be none to assist in my recovery.
I observed in this last part of his discourse, which was truly prophetic, though I suppose my father did not know it to be so himself—I say, I observed the tears run down his face very plentifully, especially when he spoke of my brother who was killed: and that when he spoke of my having leisure to repent, and none to assist me, he was so moved that he broke off the discourse, and told me his heart was so full he could say no more to me.
I was sincerely affected with this discourse, and, indeed, who could be otherwise? and I resolved not to think of going abroad any more, but to settle at home according to myfather’s desire. But alas! a few days wore it all off; and, in short, to prevent any of my father’s further importunities, in a few weeks after I resolved to run quite away from him. However, I did not act quite so hastily as the first heat of my resolution prompted; but I took my mother at a time when I thought her a little more pleasant than ordinary, and told her that my thoughts were so entirely bent upon seeing the world that I should never settle to anything with resolution enough to go through withit, and my father had better give me his consent than force me to go without it; that I was now eighteen years old, which was too late to go apprentice to a trade or clerk to an attorney; that I was sure if I did I should never serve out my time, but I should certainly run away from my master before my time was out, and go to sea; and if she would speak to my father to let me go one voyage abroad, if I came home again, and did not like it, I would go no more; and I would promise, by a double diligence, torecover the time that I had lost.
This put my mother into a great passion; she told me she knew it would be to no purpose to speak to my father upon any such subject; that he knew too well what was my interest to give his consent to anything so much for myhurt; and that she wondered how I could think of any such thing after the discourse I had had with my father, and such kind and tender expressions as she knew my father had used to me; and that, in short, if I would ruin myself, there was no help for me;but I might depend I should never have their consent to it; that for her part she would not have so much hand in my destruction; and I should never have it to say that my mother was willing when my father was not.
Though my mother refused to move it to myfather, yet I heard afterwards that she reported all the discourse to him, and that my father, after showing a great concern at it, said to her, with a sigh, “That boy might be happy if he would stay at home; but if he goes abroad, he will be the most miserable wretch that ever was born: I can give no consent to it.”
It was not till almost a year after this that I broke loose, though, in the meantime, I continued obstinately deaf to all proposals of settling to business, and frequently expostulated with myfather and mother about their being so positively determined against what they knew my inclinations prompted me to. But being one day at Hull, where I went casually, and without any purpose of making an elopement at that time; but, I say, being there, andone of my companions being about to sail to London in his father’s ship, and prompting me to go with them with the common allurement of seafaring men, that it should cost me nothing for my passage, I consulted neither father nor mother any more, nor so much as sent them word of it; but leaving them to hear of it as they might, without asking God’s blessing or my father’s, without any consideration of circumstances or consequences, and in an ill hour, God knows, on the 1st of September 1651, I went on boarda ship bound for London. Never any young adventurer’s misfortunes, I believe, began sooner, or continued longer than mine. The ship was no sooner out of the Humber than the wind began to blow and the sea to rise in a most frightful manner; and, as I hadnever been at sea before, I was most inexpressibly sick in body and terrified in mind. I began now seriously to reflect upon what I had done, and how justly I was overtaken by the judgmentof Heaven for my wicked leaving my father’s house, and abandoningmy duty. All the good counsels of my parents, my father’s tears and my mother’s entreaties, came now fresh into my mind; and my conscience, which was not yet come to the pitch of hardness to which it has since, reproached me with the contempt of advice,and the breach of my duty to God and my father.
All this while the storm increased, and the sea went very high, though nothing like what I have seen many times since; no, nor what I saw a few days after; but it was enough to affect me then, who was but a young sailor, and had never known anything of the matter. I expected every wave would have swallowed us up, and that every time the ship fell down, as I thought it did, in the trough or hollow of the sea, we should never rise more; in this agony of mind, Imade many vows and resolutions that if it would please God to spare my life in this one voyage, if ever I got once my foot upon dry land again, I would go directly home to my father, and never set it into a ship again while I lived; that I would take hisadvice, and never run myself into such miseries as these any more. Now I saw plainly the goodness of his observations about the middle station of life, how easy, how comfortably he had lived all his days, and never had been exposed to tempests at sea or troubles on shore; and I resolved that I would, like a true repenting prodigal, go home to my father.
These wise and sober thoughts continued all the while the storm lasted, and indeed some time after; but the next day the wind was abated, and the sea calmer, and I began to be a little inured to it; however, I was very grave for all that day, being also a little sea-sick still; but towards night the weather cleared up, the wind was quite over, and a charming fine evening followed; the sun went down perfectlyclear, and rose so the next morning; and having little or no wind, and a smooth sea, the sun shining upon it, the sight was, as I thought, the most delightful that ever I saw.
I had slept well in the night, and was now no more sea-sick, but very cheerful,looking with wonder upon the sea that was so rough and terrible the day before, and could be so calm and so pleasant in so little a time after. And now, lest my good resolutions should continue, my companion, who had enticed me away, comes to me; “Well,Bob,” says he, clapping me upon the shoulder, “how do you do after it? I warrant you were frighted, wer’n’t you, last night, when it blew but a capful of wind?” “A capful d’you call it?” said I; “’twas a terrible storm.” “A storm, you fool you,” replieshe; “do you call that a storm? why, it was nothing at all; give us but a good ship and sea-room, and we think nothing of such a squall of wind as that; but you’re but a fresh-water sailor, Bob. Come, let us make a bowl of punch, and we’ll forget all that; d’ye see what charming weather ’tis now?” To make short this sad part of my story, we went the way of all sailors; the punch was made and I was made half drunk with it: and in that one night’s wickedness I drowned all my repentance, all my reflections upon my past conduct, all my resolutions for the future. In a word, as the sea was returned to its smoothness of surface and settled calmness by the abatement of that storm, so the hurry of my thoughts being over, my fears and apprehensions of being swallowed up by the sea being forgotten, and the current of my former desires returned, I entirely forgot the vows and promises that I made in my distress. I found, indeed, some intervals of reflection; and the serious thoughts did, as it were, endeavour to return again sometimes; but I shook them off, and roused myself from them as it were from a distemper, and applying myself todrinking and company, soon mastered the return of those fits—for so I called them; and I had in five or six days got as complete a victory over conscience as any young fellow that resolved not to be troubled with it could desire. But I was to have another trial for it still; and Providence, as in such cases generally it does, resolved to leave me entirely without excuse; for if I wouldnot take this for a deliverance, the next was to be such a one as the worst and most hardened wretch among us would confess both the danger and the mercy of.
The sixth day of our being at sea we came into Yarmouth Roads; the wind having been contrary andthe weather calm, we had made but little way since the storm. Here we were obliged to come to an anchor, and here we lay, the wind continuing contrary—viz. at south-west—for seven or eight days, during which time a great many ships from Newcastle came into the same Roads, as the common harbour where the ships might wait for a wind for the river.
We had not, however, rid here so long but we should have tided it up the river, but that the wind blew too fresh, and after we had lain four or five days, blew very hard. However, the Roads being reckoned as good as a harbour, the anchorage good, and our ground-tackle very strong, our men were unconcerned, and not in the least apprehensive of danger, but spent the time in rest and mirth, after the manner of the sea; but the eighth day, in the morning, the wind increased, and we had all hands at work to strike our topmasts, and make everything snug and close, that the ship might ride as easy as possible. By noon the sea went very high indeed, and our ship rode forecastle in, shipped several seas, and we thought once or twice our anchor had come home; upon which our master ordered out the sheet-anchor, so that we rode with two anchors ahead, and the cables veered out to the bitter end.
By this time it blew a terriblestorm indeed; and now I began to see terror and amazement in the faces even of the seamen themselves. The master, though vigilant in the business of preserving the ship, yet as he went in and out of his cabin by me, I could hear him softly to himself say,several times, “Lord be merciful to us! we shall be all lost! we shall be all undone!” and the like. During these first hurries I was stupid, lying still in my cabin, which was in the steerage, and cannot describe my temper: I could ill resume the firstpenitence which I had so apparently trampled upon and hardened myself against: I thought the bitterness of death had been past, and that this would be nothing like the first; but when the master himself came by me, as I said just now, and said we should beall lost, I was dreadfully frighted. I got up out of my cabin and looked out; but such a dismal sight I never saw: the sea ran mountains high, and broke upon us every three or four minutes; when I could look about, I could see nothing but distress roundus; two ships that rode near us, we found, had cut their masts by the board, being deep laden; and our men cried out that a ship which rode about a mile ahead of us was foundered. Two more ships, being driven from their anchors, were run out of the Roadsto sea, at all adventures, and that with not a mast standing. The light ships fared the best, as not so much labouring in the sea; but two or three of them drove, and came close by us, running away with only their spritsail out before the wind.
Towards evening the mate and boatswain begged the master of our ship to let them cut away the fore-mast, which he was very unwilling to do; but the boatswain protesting to him that if he did not the ship would founder, he consented; and when they had cut away the fore-mast, the main-mast stood so loose, and shook the ship so much, they were obliged to cut that away also, and make a clear deck.
Any one may judge what a condition I must be in at all this, who was but a young sailor, and who had been in such a fright before at but a little. But if I can express at this distance the thoughts I had about me at that time, I was in tenfold more horror of mind upon account of my former convictions, and the having returned from them to the resolutions I had wickedly taken atfirst, than I was at death itself; and these, added to the terror of the storm, put me into such a condition that I can by no words describe it. But the worst was not come yet; the storm continued with such fury that the seamen themselves acknowledged they had never seen a worse. We had a good ship, but she was deep laden, and wallowed in the sea, so that the seamen every now and then cried out she would founder. It was my advantage in one respect, that I did not know what they meant byfoundertill I inquired. However, the storm was so violent that I saw, what is not often seen, the master, the boatswain, and some others more sensible than the rest, at their prayers, and expecting every moment when the ship would go to the bottom. In the middle of thenight, and under all the rest of our distresses, one of the men that had been down to see cried out we had sprung a leak; another said there was four feet water in the hold. Then all hands were called to the pump. At that word, my heart, as I thought, died within me: and I fell backwards upon the side of my bed where I sat, into the cabin. However, the men roused me, and told me that I, that was able to do nothing before, was as well able to pump as another; at which I stirred up and went to the pump, and worked very heartily. While this was doing the master, seeing some light colliers, who, not able to ride out the storm were obliged to slip and run away to sea, and would come near us, ordered to fire a gun as a signal of distress. I, who knew nothingwhat they meant, thought the ship had broken, or some dreadful thing happened. In a word, I was so surprised that I fell down in a swoon. As this was a time when everybody had his own life to think of, nobody minded me, or what was become of me; but another man stepped up to the pump, and thrusting me aside with his foot, let me lie, thinking I had been dead; and it was a great while before I came to myself.
We worked on; but the water increasing in the hold, it was apparent that the ship would founder; and though the storm began to abate a little, yet it was not possible she could swim till we might run into any port; so the master continued firing guns for help; and a light ship, who had rid it out just ahead of us, ventured a boat out to help us. It was with the utmost hazard the boat came near us; but it was impossible for us to get on board, or for the boat to lie near the ship’s side, till at last the men rowing very heartily, and venturing their lives to save ours, our men cast them a rope over thestern with a buoy to it, and then veered it out a great length, which they, after much labour and hazard, took hold of, and we hauled them close under our stern, and got all into their boat. It was to no purpose for them or us, after we were in the boat,to think of reaching their own ship; so all agreed to let her drive, and only to pull her in towards shore as much as we could; and ourmaster promised them, that if the boat was staved upon shore, he would make it good to their master: so partly rowing and partly driving, our boat went away to the northward, sloping towards the shore almost as far as Winterton Ness.
We were not much more than a quarter of an hour out of our ship till we saw her sink, and then I understood for the first time what was meantby a ship foundering in the sea. I must acknowledge I had hardly eyes to look up when the seamen told me she was sinking; for from the moment that they rather put me into the boat than that I might be said to go in, my heart was, as it were, dead within me, partly with fright, partly with horror of mind, and the thoughts of what was yet before me.
While we were in this condition—the men yet labouring at the oar to bring the boat near the shore—we could see (when, our boat mounting the waves, we were able to see the shore) a great many people running along the strand to assist us when we should come near; but we made but slow way towards the shore; nor were we able to reach the shore till, being past the lighthouse at Winterton, the shore falls off to the westward towards Cromer, and so the land broke off a little the violence of the wind. Here we got in, and though not without much difficulty, got all safe on shore, and walked afterwards on foot to Yarmouth, where, as unfortunate men, we were used with great humanity, as well by the magistrates of the town, who assigned us good quarters, as by particular merchants and owners of ships, and had money given us sufficient to carry us either to London or back to Hull as we thought fit.
Had I now had the sense tohave gone back to Hull, and have gone home, I had been happy, and my father, as in our blessed Saviour’s parable, had even killed the fatted calf for me; for hearing the ship I went away in was cast away in Yarmouth Roads, it was a great while before he had any assurances that I was not drowned.
But my ill fate pushed me on now with an obstinacy that nothing could resist; and though I had several times loud calls from my reason and my more composed judgment to go home, yet I had no power to do it. I knownot what to call this, nor will I urge that it is a secret overruling decree, that hurries us on to be the instruments of our own destruction, even though it be before us, and that we rush upon it with our eyes open. Certainly, nothing but some such decreed unavoidable misery, which it was impossible for me to escape, could have pushed me forward against the calm reasonings and persuasions of my most retired thoughts, and against two such visible instructions as I had met with in my first attempt.
My comrade, who had helped to harden me before, and who was the master’s son, was now less forward than I. The first time he spoke to me after we were at Yarmouth, which was not till two or three days, for we were separated in the town to several quarters; I say,the first time he saw me, it appeared his tone was altered; and, looking very melancholy, and shaking his head, he asked me how I did, and telling his father who I was, and how I had come this voyage only for a trial, in order to go further abroad, his father, turning to me with a very grave and concerned tone “Young man,” says he, “you ought never to go to sea any more; you ought to take this for a plain and visible token that you are not to be a seafaring man.” “Why, sir,” said I, “will you go to sea nomore?” “That is another case,” saidhe; “it is my calling, and therefore my duty; but as you made this voyage on trial, you see what a taste Heaven has given you of what you are to expect if you persist. Perhaps this has all befallen us on your account,like Jonah in the ship of Tarshish. Pray,” continues he, “what are you; and on what account did you go to sea?” Upon that I told him some of my story; at the end of which he burst out into a strange kind of passion: “What had I done,” says he, “that such an unhappy wretch should come into my ship? I would not set my foot in the same ship with thee again for a thousand pounds.” This indeed was, as I said, an excursion of his spirits, which were yet agitated by the sense of his loss, and was farther thanhe could have authority to go. However, he afterwards talked very gravely to me, exhorting me to go back to my father, and not tempt Providence to my ruin, telling me I might see a visible hand of Heaven against me. “And, young man,” said he, “depend upon it, if you do not go back, wherever you go, you will meet with nothing but disasters and disappointments, till your father’s words are fulfilled upon you.”
We parted soon after; for I made him little answer, and I saw him no more; which way he went I knew not. As for me, having some money in my pocket, I travelled to London by land; and there, as well as on the road, had many struggles with myself what course of life I should take, and whether I should go home or to sea.
As to going home, shame opposedthe best motions that offered to my thoughts, and it immediately occurred to me how I should be laughed at among the neighbours, and should be ashamed to see, not my father and mother only, but even everybody else; from whence I have since often observed,how incongruous and irrational the common temper of mankind is, especially of youth, to that reason which ought to guide them in such cases—viz. that they are not ashamed to sin, and yet are ashamed to repent; not ashamed of the action for which they oughtjustly to be esteemed fools, but are ashamed of the returning, which only can make them be esteemed wise men.
In this state of life, however, I remained some time, uncertain what measures to take, and what course of life to lead. An irresistible reluctance continued to going home; and as I stayed away a while, the remembrance of the distress I had been in wore off, and as that abated, the little motion I had in my desires to return wore off with it, till at last I quite laid aside the thoughts of it, andlooked out for a voyage.
That evil influence which carried me first away from myfather’s house—which hurried me into the wild andindigested notion of raising my fortune, and that impressed thoseconceits so forcibly upon meas to make me deaf to all good advice,and to the entreaties and even the commands of my father—Isay, the same influence, whatever it was, presented the mostunfortunate of all enterprises to my view; and I went on board avessel bound to the coast of Africa; or, as our sailors vulgarlycalled it, a voyage to Guinea.
It was my great misfortune that in all these adventures I didnot ship myself as a sailor; when, though I might indeed haveworked a little harder than ordinary, yet at the same time Ishouldhave learnt the duty and office of a fore-mast man, and intime might have qualified myself for a mate or lieutenant, if notfor a master. But as it was always my fate to choose for theworse, so I did here; for having money in my pocket and goodclothesupon my back, I would always go on board in the habit of agentleman; and so I neither had any business in the ship, norlearned to do any.
It was my lot first of all to fall into pretty good company inLondon, which does not always happen to such loose and misguidedyoung fellows as I then was; the devil generally not omitting tolay some snare for them very early; but it was not so withme. I first got acquainted with the master of a ship who hadbeen on the coast of Guinea; and who, having had very good successthere, was resolved to go again. This captain taking a fancyto my conversation, which was not at all disagreeable at that time,hearing me say I had a mind to see the world, told me if I would gothe voyage with him I should be at no expense; Ishould be hismessmate and his companion; and if I could carry anything with me,I should have all the advantage of it that the trade would admit;and perhaps I might meet with some encouragement.
I embraced the offer; and entering into a strict friendship withthis captain, who was an honest, plain-dealing man, I went thevoyage with him, and carried a small adventure with me, which, bythe disinterested honesty of my friend the captain, I increasedvery considerably; for I carried about £40 in such toysandtrifles as the captain directed me to buy. These £40 Ihad mustered together by the assistance of some of my relationswhom I corresponded with; and who, I believe, got my father, or atleast my mother, to contribute so much as that to my firstadventure.
This was the only voyage which I may say was successful in allmy adventures, which I owe to the integrity and honesty of myfriend the captain; under whom also I got a competent knowledge ofthe mathematics and the rules of navigation, learned how tokeep anaccount of the ship’s course, take an observation, and, inshort, to understand some things that were needful to be understoodby a sailor; for, as he took delight to instruct me, I took delightto learn; and, in a word, this voyage made me both asailor and amerchant; for I broughthome five pounds nine ounces of gold-dustfor my adventure, which yielded me in London, at my return, almost£300; and this filled me with those aspiring thoughts whichhave since so completed my ruin.
Yet even in thisvoyage I had my misfortunes too; particularly,that I was continually sick, being thrown into a violent calentureby the excessive heat of the climate; our principal trading beingupon the coast, from latitude of 15 degrees north even to the lineitself.
I was now set up for a Guinea trader; and my friend, to my greatmisfortune, dying soon after his arrival, I resolved to go the samevoyage again, and I embarked in the same vessel with one who washis mate in the former voyage, and had now got the commandof theship. This was the unhappiest voyage that ever man made; forthough I did not carry quite £100 of my new-gained wealth, sothat I had £200 left, which I had lodged with myfriend’s widow, who was very just to me, yet I fell intoterrible misfortunes. The first was this: our ship making hercourse towards the Canary Islands, or rather between those islandsand the African shore, was surprised in the grey of the morning bya Turkish rover of Sallee, who gave chase to us with all the sailshe could make. We crowded also as much canvas as our yardswould spread, or our masts carry, to get clear; but finding thepirate gained upon us, and would certainly come up with us in a fewhours, we prepared to fight; our ship having twelve guns, and therogue eighteen. About three in the afternoon he came up withus, and bringing to, by mistake, just athwart our quarter, insteadof athwart our stern, as he intended, we brought eight of our gunsto bear on that side, and poured in a broadside upon him, whichmadehim sheer off again, after returning our fire, and pouring inalso his small shot from near two hundred men which he had onboard. However, we had not a man touched, all our men keepingclose. He prepared to attack us again, and we to defendourselves. But laying us on board the next time upon our otherquarter, he entered sixty men upon our decks, who immediately fellto cutting and hacking the sails and rigging. We plied themwith small shot, half-pikes, powder-chests, and such like, andcleared ourdeck of them twice. However, to cut short thismelancholy part of our story, our ship being disabled, and three ofour men killed, and eight wounded, we were obliged to yield, andwere carried all prisoners into Sallee, a port belonging to theMoors.
Theusage I had there was not so dreadful as at first Iapprehended; nor was I carried up the country to theemperor’s court, as the rest of our men were, but was kept bythe captain of the rover as his proper prize, and made his slave,being young and nimble,and fit for his business. At thissurprising change of my circumstances, from a merchant to amiserable slave, I was perfectly overwhelmed; and now I looked backupon my father’s prophetic discourse to me, that I should bemiserable and have none to relieve me, which I thought was now soeffectually brought to pass that I could not be worse; for now thehand of Heaven had overtaken me, and I was undone withoutredemption; but, alas! this was but a taste of the misery I was togo through, as will appear inthe sequel of this story.
As my new patron, or master, had taken me home to his house, soI was in hopes that he would take me with him when he went to seaagain, believing that it would some time or other be his fate to betaken by a Spanish or Portugalman-of-war; and that then I should beset at liberty. But this hope of mine was soon taken away;for when he went to sea, he leftme on shore to look after hislittle garden, and do the common drudgery of slaves about hishouse; and when he came home again from his cruise, he ordered meto lie in the cabin to look after the ship.
Here I meditated nothing but my escape, and what method I mighttake to effect it, but found no way that had the least probabilityin it; nothing presented to make the suppositionof it rational; forI had nobody to communicate it to that would embark withme—no fellow-slave, no Englishman, Irishman, or Scotchmanthere but myself; so that for two years, though I often pleasedmyself with the imagination, yet I never had the least encouragingprospect of putting it in practice.
After about two years, an odd circumstance presented itself,which put the old thought of making some attempt for my libertyagain in my head. My patron lying at home longer than usualwithout fitting out hisship, which, as I heard, was for want ofmoney, he used constantly, once or twice a week, sometimes oftenerif the weather was fair, to take the ship’s pinnace and goout into the road a-fishing; and as he always took me and youngMaresco with him to rowthe boat, we made him very merry, and Iproved very dexterous in catching fish; insomuch that sometimes hewould send me with a Moor, one of his kinsmen, and theyouth—the Maresco, as they called him—to catch a dishof fish for him.
It happened one time, that going a-fishing in a calm morning, afog rose so thick that, though we were not half a league from theshore, we lost sight of it; and rowing we knew not whither or whichway, we laboured all day, and all the next night; and when themorning came we found we had pulled off to sea instead of pullingin for the shore; and that we were at least two leagues from theshore. However, we got well in again, though with a greatdeal of labour and some danger; for the wind began to blow prettyfresh in the morning; but we were all very hungry.
But our patron, warned by this disaster, resolved to take morecare of himself for the future; and having lying by him thelongboat of our English ship that he had taken, he resolved hewould not go a-fishing any more without a compass and someprovision; so he ordered the carpenter of his ship, who also was anEnglish slave, to build a little state-room, or cabin, in themiddle of the long-boat, like that of a barge, with a place tostand behind it to steer, and haul home the main-sheet; the roombefore for a hand or two to stand and work the sails. Shesailed with what we call a shoulder-of-mutton sail; and the boomjibed over the top of the cabin, which lay very snug and low, andhad in it room for him to lie, with a slave or two, and a table toeat on, with some small lockers to put in some bottles of suchliquor as he thought fit to drink; and his bread, rice, andcoffee.
We went frequently out with this boat a-fishing; and as I wasmost dexterous to catch fish for him,he never went withoutme. It happened that he had appointed to go out in this boat,either for pleasure or for fish, with two or three Moors of somedistinction in that place, and for whom he had providedextraordinarily, and had, therefore, sent on boardthe boatovernight a larger store of provisions than ordinary; and hadordered me to get ready three fusees with powder and shot, whichwere on board his ship, for that they designed some sport offowling as well as fishing.
I got all things ready as he had directed, and waited the nextmorning with the boat washed clean, her ancient and pendants out,and everything to accommodate his guests; when by-and-by my patroncame on board alone, and told me his guests had put off going fromsome business that fellout, and ordered me, with the man and boy,as usual, to go out with the boat and catch them some fish, forthat his friends were to sup at his house, and commanded that assoon as I got some fish I should bring it home to his house; allwhich I prepared to do.
This moment my former notions of deliverance darted into mythoughts, for now I found I was likely to have a little ship at mycommand; and my master being gone, I prepared to furnish myself,not for fishing business, but for a voyage; though I knewnot,neither did I so much as consider, whither I shouldsteer—anywhere to get out of that place was my desire.
My first contrivance was to make a pretence to speak to thisMoor, to get something for our subsistence on board; for I told himwe must not presume to eat of our patron’s bread. Hesaid that was true; so he brought a large basket of rusk orbiscuit, and three jars of fresh water, into the boat. I knewwhere my patron’s case of bottles stood, which it wasevident, by the make, were taken out ofsome English prize, and Iconveyed them into the boat while the Moor was on shore, as if theyhad been there before for our master. I conveyed also a greatlump of beeswax into the boat, which weighed about half ahundred-weight, with a parcel of twine orthread, a hatchet, a saw,and a hammer, all of which were of great use to us afterwards,especially the wax, to make candles. Another trick I triedupon him, which he innocently came into also: his name was Ismael,which they call Muley, or Moely; so I called tohim—“Moely,” said I, “our patron’sguns are on board the boat; can you not get a little powder andshot? It may be we may kill some alcamies (a fowl like ourcurlews) for ourselves, for I know he keeps the gunner’sstores in the ship.” “Yes,” says he,“I’ll bring some;” and accordingly he brought agreat leather pouch, which held a pound and a half of powder, orrather more; and another with shot, that had five or six pounds,with some bullets, and put all into the boat. At the sametime I had found some powder of my master’s in the greatcabin, with which I filled one of the large bottles in the case,which was almost empty, pouring what was in it into another; andthus furnished with everything needful, we sailed out of the portto fish. The castle, which is at the entrance of the port,knew who we were, and took no notice of us; and we were not above amile out of the port before we hauled in our sail and set us downto fish. The wind blew from the N.N.E., which was contrary tomy desire, forhad it blown southerly I had been sure to have madethe coast of Spain, and at least reached to the bay of Cadiz; butmy resolutions were, blow which way it would, I would be gone fromthat horrid place where I was, and leave the rest to fate.
After we had fished some time and caught nothing—for whenI had fish on my hook I would not pull them up, that he might notsee them—I said to the Moor, “This will not do; ourmaster will not be thus served; we must stand fartheroff.” He, thinking no harm, agreed,and being in thehead of the boat, set the sails; and, as I had the helm, I ran theboat out near a league farther, and then brought her to, as if Iwould fish; when, giving the boy the helm, I stepped forward towhere the Moor was, and making as if I stooped for something behindhim, I took him by surprise with my arm under his waist, and tossedhim clear overboard into the sea. He rose immediately, for heswam like a cork, and called tome, begged to be taken in, told mehe would go all over the world with me. He swam so strongafter the boat that he would have reached me very quickly, therebeing but little wind; upon which I stepped into the cabin, andfetching one of the fowling-pieces, I presented it at him, and toldhim I had done him no hurt, and if he would be quiet I would do himnone. “But,” said I, “you swim well enoughto reach to the shore, and the sea is calm; make the best of yourway to shore, and I will do you no harm; but if you come near theboat I’ll shoot you through the head, for I am resolved tohave my liberty;” so he turned himself about, and swam forthe shore, and I make no doubt but he reached it with ease, for hewas an excellent swimmer.
I could have been content to have taken this Moor with me, andhave drowned the boy, but there was no venturing to trusthim. When he was gone, I turned to the boy, whom they calledXury, and said to him, “Xury, if you will be faithful to me,I’ll make you a great man; but if you will not stroke yourface to be true to me”—that is, swear by Mahomet andhis father’s beard—“I must throw you into the seatoo.” The boy smiled in my face, and spoke soinnocently that I could not distrust him, and swore to be faithfulto me, and go all over the world with me.
While I was in view of the Moor that wasswimming, I stood outdirectly to sea with the boat, rather stretching to windward, thatthey might think me gone towards the Straits’ mouth (asindeed any one that had been in their wits must have been supposedto do): for who would have supposed we weresailed on to thesouthward, to the truly Barbarian coast, where whole nations ofnegroes were sure to surround us with their canoes and destroy us;where we could not go on shore but we should be devoured by savagebeasts, or more merciless savages of human kind.
But as soon as it grew dusk in the evening, I changed my course,and steered directly south and by east, bending my course a littletowards the east, that I might keep in with the shore; and having afair, fresh gale of wind, and a smooth, quiet sea, I made such sailthat I believe by the next day, at three o’clock in theafternoon, when I first made the land, I could not be less than onehundred and fifty miles south of Sallee; quite beyond the Emperorof Morocco’s dominions, or indeed of any other kingthereabouts, for we saw no people.
Yet such was the fright I had taken of the Moors, and thedreadful apprehensions I had of falling into their hands, that Iwould not stop, or go on shore, or come to an anchor; the windcontinuing fair till I hadsailed in that manner five days; and thenthe wind shifting to the southward, I concluded also that if any ofour vessels were in chase of me, they also would now give over; soI ventured to make to the coast, and came to an anchor in the mouthof a littleriver, I knew not what, nor where, neither whatlatitude, what country, what nation, or what river. I neithersaw, nor desired to see any people; the principal thing I wantedwas fresh water. We came into this creek in the evening,resolving to swim onshore as soon as it was dark, and discover thecountry; but as soon as it was quite dark, we heard such dreadfulnoises of the barking, roaring, and howling of wild creatures, ofwe knew not what kinds, that the poor boy was ready to die withfear, and begged of me not to go on shore till day. “Well, Xury,” said I, “then I won’t; but itmay be that we may see men by day, who will be as bad to us asthose lions.” “Then we give them the shootgun,” saysXury, laughing, “make them runwey.” Such English Xury spoke by conversing among usslaves. However, I was glad to see the boy so cheerful, and Igave him a dram (out of our patron’s case of bottles) tocheer him up. After all, Xury’s advice was good, and Itook it; we dropped our little anchor, and lay still all night; Isay still, for we slept none; for in two or three hours we saw vastgreat creatures (we knew not what to call them) of many sorts, comedown to the sea-shore and run into the water, wallowing and washingthemselves for the pleasure of cooling themselves; and they madesuch hideous howlings and yellings, that I never indeed heard thelike.
Xury was dreadfully frighted, and indeed so was I too; but wewere both more frighted when we heard one of these mighty creaturescome swimming towards our boat; we could not see him, but we mighthear him by his blowing to be a monstrous huge and furiousbeast. Xury said it was a lion, and it might be so for aughtI know; but poor Xury cried to me to weigh the anchor and row away;“No,” says I, “Xury; wecan slip our cable, withthe buoy to it, and go off to sea; they cannot follow usfar.” I had no sooner said so, but I perceived thecreature (whatever it was) within two oars’ length, whichsomething surprised me; however, I immediately stepped to the cabindoor, and taking up my gun, fired at him; upon which he immediatelyturned about and swam towards the shore again.
But it is impossible to describe the horrid noises, and hideouscries and howlings that were raised, as well upon the edge of theshore as higher within the country, upon the noise or report of thegun, a thing I have some reason to believe those creatures hadnever heard before: this convinced me that there was no going onshore for us in the night on that coast, and how to venture onshore in the day was another question too; for to have fallen intothe hands of any of the savages had been as bad as to have falleninto the hands of the lions and tigers; at least we were equallyapprehensive of the danger of it.
Be that as it would, we wereobliged to go on shore somewhere orother for water, for we had not a pint left in the boat; when andwhere to get to it was the point. Xury said, if I would lethim go on shore with one of the jars, he would find if there wasany water, and bring some to me. I asked him why he would go?why I should not go, and he stay in the boat? The boyanswered with so much affection as made me love him everafter. Says he, “If wild mans come, they eat me, you gowey.” “Well, Xury,” said I, “we willboth go and if the wild mans come, we will kill them, they shalleat neither of us.” So I gave Xury a piece of ruskbread to eat, and a dram out of our patron’s case of bottleswhich I mentioned before; and we hauled the boat in as near theshore as we thought was proper, and so waded on shore, carryingnothing but our arms and two jars for water.
I did not care to go out of sight of the boat, fearing thecoming of canoes with savages down the river; but the boy seeing alow place about a mile up the country, rambled to it, and by-and-byI saw him come running towards me. I thought he was pursuedby some savage, or frighted with some wild beast, and I ran forwardtowards him to help him; but when I came nearer to him I sawsomething hanging over his shoulders, which was a creature that hehad shot, like a hare, but different in colour, and longer legs;however, we were very glad of it, and it was very good meat; butthe great joy that poor Xury came with, was to tell me he had foundgood water and seen no wild mans.
Butwe found afterwards that we need not take such pains forwater, for a little higher up the creek where we were we found thewater fresh when the tide was out, which flowed but a little wayup; so we filled our jars, and feasted on the hare he hadkilled,and prepared to go on our way, having seen no footsteps ofany human creature in that part of the country.
As I had been one voyage to this coast before, I knew very wellthat the islands of the Canaries, and the Cape de Verde Islandsalso, lay not far offfrom the coast. But as I had noinstruments to take an observation to know what latitude we werein, and not exactly knowing, or at least remembering, what latitudethey were in, I knew not where to look for them, or when to standoff to sea towards them; otherwise I might now easily have foundsome of these islands. But my hope was, that if I stood alongthis coast till I came to that part where the English traded, Ishould find some of their vessels upon their usual design of trade,that would relieveand take us in.
By the best of my calculation, that place where I now was mustbe that country which, lying between the Emperor of Morocco’sdominions and the negroes, lies waste and uninhabited, except bywild beasts; the negroes having abandoned it and gone farther southfor fear of the Moors, and the Moors not thinking it worthinhabiting by reason of its barrenness; and indeed, both forsakingit because of the prodigious number of tigers, lions, leopards, andother furious creatures which harbour there;so that the Moors useit for their hunting only, where they go like an army, two or threethousand men at a time; and indeed for near a hundred milestogether upon this coast we saw nothing but a waste, uninhabitedcountry by day, and heard nothing but howlings and roaring of wildbeasts by night.
Once or twice in the daytime I thought I saw the Pico ofTeneriffe, being the high top of the Mountain Teneriffe in theCanaries, and had a great mind to venture out, in hopes of reachingthither; but having tried twice, I was forced in again by contrarywinds, the sea also going too high for my little vessel; so, Iresolved to pursue my first design, and keep along the shore.
Several times I was obliged to land for fresh water, after wehad left this place; and once in particular, being early inmorning, we came to an anchor under a little point of land, whichwas pretty high; and the tide beginning to flow, we lay still to gofarther in. Xury, whose eyes were more about him than itseems mine were, calls softlyto me, and tells me that we had bestgo farther off the shore; “For,” says he, “look,yonder lies a dreadful monster on the side of that hillock, fastasleep.” I looked where he pointed, and saw a dreadfulmonster indeed, for it was a terrible, great lionthat lay on theside of the shore, under the shade of a piece of the hill that hungas it were a little over him. “Xury,” says I,“you shall on shore and kill him.” Xury, lookedfrighted, and said, “Me kill! he eat me at onemouth!”—one mouthful he meant. However, I said nomore to the boy, but bade him lie still, and I took our biggestgun, which was almost musket-bore, and loaded it with a good chargeof powder, and with two slugs, and laid it down; then I loadedanother gun with two bullets; and thethird (for we had threepieces) I loaded with five smaller bullets. I took the bestaim I could with the first piece to have shot him in the head, buthe lay so with his leg raised a little above his nose, that theslugs hit his leg about the knee and broke the bone. Hestarted up, growlingat first, but finding his leg broken, fell downagain; and then got upon three legs, and gave the most hideous roarthat ever I heard. I was a little surprised that I had nothit him on the head; however, I took up the second pieceimmediately, and though he began to move off, fired again, and shothim in the head, and had the pleasure to see him drop and make butlittle noise, but lie struggling for life. Then Xury tookheart, and would have me let him go on shore. “Well,go,” said I: so the boy jumped into the water and taking alittle gun in one hand, swam to shore with the other hand, andcoming close to the creature, put the muzzle of the piece to hisear, and shot him in the head again, which despatched himquite.
This was game indeed to us, but this was no food; and I was verysorry to lose three charges of powder and shot upon a creature thatwas good for nothing to us. However, Xury said he would havesome of him; so he comes on board, and asked me to give him thehatchet. “For what, Xury?” said I. “Me cut off his head,” said he. However, Xurycould not cut off his head, but he cut off a foot, and brought itwith him, and it was a monstrous great one.
I bethought myself, however, that, perhaps the skin of himmight, one way or other, be of some value to us; and I resolved totake off his skin if I could. So Xury and I went to work withhim; but Xury was much the better workman at it, for I knew veryill how to do it. Indeed, it took us both up the whole day,but at last we got off the hide of him, and spreading it on the topof our cabin, the sun effectually dried it in two days’ time,and it afterwards served me to lie upon.
After this stop, we made on to the southward continually for tenor twelve days, living very sparingly on our provisions, whichbegan to abate very much, and going no oftener to the shore than wewere obliged to for fresh water. My design in this was tomake the river Gambia or Senegal, that is to say anywhere about theCape de Verde, where I was in hopes to meet with some Europeanship; and if I did not, I knew not what course I had to take, butto seek for the islands, or perish there among the negroes. Iknew that all the ships from Europe, which sailed either to thecoast of Guinea or to Brazil, or to the East Indies, made thiscape, or those islands; and, in a word, I put the whole of myfortune upon this single point, either that I must meet with someship or must perish.
When I had pursuedthis resolution about ten days longer, as Ihave said, I began to see that the land was inhabited; and in twoor three places, as we sailed by, we saw people stand upon theshore to look at us; we could also perceive they were quite blackand naked. I wasonce inclined to have gone on shore to them;but Xury was my better counsellor, and said to me, “No go, nogo.” However, I hauled in nearer the shore that I mighttalk to them, and I found they ran along the shore by me a goodway. I observed they had no weapons in their hand, exceptone, who had a long slender stick, which Xury said was a lance, andthat they could throw them a great way with good aim; so I kept ata distance, but talked with them by signs as well as I could; andparticularly made signsfor something to eat: they beckoned to me tostop my boat, and they would fetch me some meat. Upon this Ilowered the top of my sail and lay by, and two of them ran up intothe country, and in less than half-an-hour came back, and broughtwith them two pieces of dried flesh and some corn, such as is theproduce of their country; but we neither knew what the one or theother was; however, we were willing to accept it, but how to comeat it was our next dispute, for I would not venture on shore tothem, andthey were as much afraid of us; but they took a safe wayfor us all, for they brought it to the shore and laid it down, andwent and stood a great way off till we fetched it on board, andthen came close to us again.
We made signs of thanks to them, for we had nothing to make themamends; but an opportunity offered that very instant to oblige themwonderfully; for while we were lying by the shore came two mightycreatures, one pursuing the other (as we took it) with great furyfrom the mountains towards the sea; whether it was the malepursuing the female, or whether they were in sport or in rage, wecould not tell, any more than we could tell whether it was usual orstrange, but I believe it was the latter; because, in the firstplace, those ravenous creatures seldom appear but in the night;and, in the second place, we found the people terribly frighted,especially the women. The man that had the lance or dart didnot fly from them, but the rest did; however, as the two creaturesran directly into the water, they did not offer to fall upon any ofthe negroes, but plunged themselves into the sea, and swam about,as if they had come for their diversion; at last one of thembeganto come nearer our boat than at first I expected; but I layready for him, for Ihad loaded my gun with all possible expedition,and bade Xury load both the others. As soon as he came fairlywithin my reach, I fired, and shot him directly in the head;immediately he sank down into the water, but rose instantly, andplunged up and down, as if he were struggling for life, and soindeed he was; he immediately made to the shore; but between thewound, which was his mortal hurt, and the strangling of the water,he died just before he reached the shore.
It is impossible to express the astonishment of these poorcreatures at the noise and fire of my gun: some of them were evenready to die for fear, and fell down as dead with the very terror;but when they saw the creature dead, and sunk in the water, andthat I made signs to them to come tothe shore, they took heart andcame, and began to search for the creature. I found him byhis blood staining the water; and by the help of a rope, which Islung round him, and gave the negroes to haul, they dragged him onshore, and found that it was a most curious leopard, spotted, andfine to an admirable degree; and the negroes held up their handswith admiration, to think what it was I had killed him with.
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