The Arcane Teachings (Complete Collection) - William Walker Atkinson - ebook

The Arcane Teachings (Complete Collection) ebook

William Walker Atkinson



The Arcane Teaching has come down to the present age through the corridors of time, from the dim ages of past eras, races, and schools of thought. In the Arcane Lessons you will see that the individual is but a Centre of Consciousness and Force in the great Life Principle, Cosmic Will or Spirit. In the Arcane Teaching, the term "Vril" indicates the universal principle of vital-energy, life-force, or vital magnetism, as it is sometimes called. The term itself is believed to have had its origin in the language of ancient Atlantis, tradition holding that the Atlantean root vri, meaning life, is the source of the word Vril, the latter expressing the idea of vital principle or life-energy. The Arcane Teachings Collection contains three books: The Arcane Teachings, The Arcane Formulas; or, Mental Alchemy & Vril; or, Vital Magnetism. William Walker Atkinson (1862-1932) was a prolific writer. His works treat themes related to the mental world, occultism, divination, psychic reality, and mankind's nature. They constitute a basis for what Atkinson called "New Psychology" or "New Thought".

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William Walker Atkinson

The Arcane Teachings

(Complete Collection)

Mental Alchemy, The Arcane Teachings & Vital Magnetism

Published by


- Advanced Digital Solutions & High-Quality eBook Formatting -
2017 OK Publishing
ISBN 978-80-7583-972-5

Table of Contents

The Arcane Teachings
The Arcane Formulas, or Mental Alchemy
Vril, or Vital Magnetism

The Arcane Teachings

Table of Content
Part I. Fundamental Principles.
Part II. The Cosmos.
Part III. The Life of the Ego.
Part IV. Fate or Freedom?
Part V. The Astral Plane.
Part VI. Occult Forces.
Part VII. Arcane Secrets.

Part I. Fundamental Principles.

Table of Content
Lesson I. The Arcane Teaching.
Lesson II. Absolute Law.
Lesson III. Infinity of Nothingness.

Lesson I. The Arcane Teaching.

Table of Content

THE ARCANE Teaching has come down to the present age through the corridors of time, from the dim ages of past eras, races, and schools of thought. Even those highest in the councils of "The Custodians of The Scroll," are unable to trace the Teaching, in an unbroken direct line, further back than the time of Pythagoras (about 500 b. c.), and a little later in Ancient Greece, although they find many references to, and extracts from, the teachings of ancient Egypt and Chaldea, which serve to show that the Pythagorean and Ancient Grecian Arcane Schools were founded on occult instruction still more remote, received in a direct line of succession of teachers and pupils extending over centuries. Investigators have found traces of the Arcane Teaching in the records of Persia and Medea, and it is believed that the inspiration for the original philosophical teaching (not the religion or the pessimism, however) of Gautama, the founder of Buddhism, was received from Arcane sources. Traces are also to be found in the Hebrew Esoteric Teachings of the "Kabballah" and the "Zohar."

The Grecian Arcane Teaching was undoubtedly obtained directly from Egyptian sources through Pythagoras, the relation between the early Grecian teaching and philosophies, and the older school of old Egypt, being very close and intimate. Pythagoras is known to have received instruction from Egyptian and Persian hierophants. Besides the traditions of the Arcanes, there is to be found the closest resemblance between the ancient Grecian teachings, and those of the Egyptian Esoteric Fraternities. Some of the Teachers, however, hold that the Grecian and Egyptian schools, respectively, were but two separate off-shoots of an original and older Teaching which had its origin in the lost continent of Atlantis. There are many Arcane traditions connecting the Teaching with Atlantis, and it is possible that both Egypt and Greece received it from this common source, instead of Greece being indebted to Egypt for the line of transmission. But, be this as it may, it is a fact that all of the traces of teaching that the various occult schools gather from the traditions, scraps of doctrine, and legends regarding Atlantis can be reconciled with the Grecian Arcane Teaching. And it is also a fact that the fragments of the Egyptian Esoteric Teachings, many of which are still preserved in an undoubted direct line of succession, are practically identical, in fundamental and basic points with the Grecian Arcane Teaching. And, as we have said, the Persian, Medean, and Chaldean legends and traditions, and scraps of teaching, show a common source of origin with that of ancient Greece.

We are speaking now of the historical view of the subject, alone. The traditions of the Arcanes hold that the Teaching, in some form, is as old as the race itself, and that it has been known to the advanced minds of every great civilization of the past, many of which disappeared thousands upon thousands of years ago, all traces of them having been lost to the present sub-race. The traditions hold that the Teaching was handed down from the Elder Brethren of the race—certain advanced souls who appeared in the earliest days, in order to plant the seeds of Truth, so that they would grow, blossom and bear fruit throughout the ages to follow. We do not ask you to accept this statement—it is not material—the Teaching bears the evidence of its own truth within itself, without needing the belief in any such authority. It agrees with the highest reason, and intuition of man, and to those who are ready to receive it, it shows itself as true. We mention the ancient traditions only that you may know what is accepted as truth by those high in authority among the Arcanes.

The word "Arcane" is derived from the Latin word, "arcanus," meaning "shut up, closed, hidden, away," being derived from "arca," meaning "a treasure chest." The English word means: "Hidden; concealed; secret; esoteric; mystic;" etc. So, the term "The Arcane Teaching." means "The Secret Doctrine."

The Arcanes are a loosely organized body of men, who have lived in all countries, in all times, since the days of the Ancient Greece, and probably for thousands of years before. They keep alive the old Teaching, traditions, legends, and instruction, and give the same to the few whom they meet who are deemed ready to receive the same. The innermost Teaching is never written or printed, and is passed from mouth to ear—from teacher to student—from hierophant to neophyte—as in the old days. Much of this inner Teaching is of a nature that renders it most advisable that it be reserved for the few, for it contains instruction of a nature that would cause it to be most dangerous were it to fall into unworthy hands. Even as it is, bits of it have leaked out, from time to time, and falling into the hands of unworthy persons have been used improperly. Every student of occultism is aware of the danger of which we speak. But the general principles of the Arcane Teachings have always been offered freely to those who felt attracted to them, and by them. Portions of them may be found in the various schools of the Hermetic Philosophy, and among the Rosicrucian and similar teachings. In Freemasonry, there are hints of the ancient teachings, carefully disguised and unrecognized by the ordinary members of the order.

The exception to the rule regarding written or printed Teaching, is to be found in what the Arcanes know as "The Arcane Scroll," which contains many Arcane Aphorisms, or statements of Teaching, and which are written and renewed from time to time. The authorized copies are in the hands of special persons, high in the Arcane councils, who are known as "The Custodians of The Scroll," and who are to be found in every country of the globe, unknown and working silently. These persons belong to all walks of life, and society, and carefully avoid notoriety or public attention, in order to escape the sensational exploitation of the press, and the idle curiosity of the "wonder-seekers" who are to be found everywhere. While many of these Arcane Aphorisms have to do with the special branches of the Teachings, and are not allowed to be printed and distributed generally, still the Custodians have always been willing that the fundamental Aphorisms be quoted from in writings and books on the subject. Accordingly we shall embody a number of the Arcane Aphorisms in this series of lessons, always quoting them as such, and printing them in darker type, that they may be distinguished from our own comments and explanations and personal interpretations. These Aphorisms contain the highest occult truths, and principles, and we are very glad to have been accorded the privilege of presenting them to our students.

The Arcane Teaching is based upon the fundamental principle of the existence of an Absolute Supreme Power, which is the Cause and Reason of the Cosmos and all the manifestations contained therein—all that men call "the universe." This Absolute Supreme Power is known in the Arcane Teaching as "THE LAW," and is represented in the symbols by the word "Lex."

The Law is regarded as an Abstract Principle of Power, impossible of being represented by words or even by symbols. It is not a Pantheistic Deity, or Being—It is an Absolute Principle, beyond definition or description. It does not manifest Itself in a universe of shapes and forms, by separating Itself into the Many as the Pantheistic Being is held to do in certain philosophies. Instead of this It causes Universal Being to proceed from Infinite Not-Being— causes the Cosmos to arise from Chaos—causes Manifestation to arise from the Unmanifest—causes Everything to arise from Infinite Nothing. The Law is not Being—but the Cause of Being. It cannot be said to "Be," in the ordinary sense—It causes the verb "To Be" to have a meaning.

The Arcane Teaching is not Pantheism, either expressed or implied— either frankly stated, or subtly concealed behind words. The Absolute can never become the Relative. The Law can never separate Itself into bits of "You and I." Nor is the Cosmos to be regarded as a nightmare dream; meditation; illusion; delusion; or imagination; of the Absolute, as some of the philosophical schools of India, and the pessimistic schools of the West, would have men believe, against all the natural intuition of the race. The Law does not dream, meditate, imagine, or "think"—neither is it deluded, or subject to illusion, delusion or "ignorance," as some have taught. These are but qualities belonging to beings—the Law is above beings, and even above Being. To hold otherwise is to degrade It, and to deny Its Absoluteness.

The Arcane Teaching holds that other than The Law there is but Infinity, which is Nothingness. The Teaching distinguishes between the Absolute Law and Infinity, in which it differs from the majority of other philosophies which holds them to be identical. But this daring conception is defended and proven to be logical by the Arcane Teachers, and in this teaching is to be found the only rational explanation of the Cause and Manifestation of the Cosmos. The Nothingness of Infinity, is not a condition of "Not-ness," but a condition or state of "No-Thingness." Infinity is an Infinite No-Thing, in which, however, sleeps the latency, possibility, potency, and promise, of Everything, past, present, and future. In its Infinite Nothingness, no thing is in actuality, but every thing is in latency and possibility, under The Law. The Arcane Teaching on the subject of the Infinity of Nothingness, is a startling revelation to those who have been searching for the Truth in other philosophies, but who have found themselves wandering ’round and ’round in a mental circle—never arriving anywhere. The Infinity of Nothingness is capable of logical and rational proof. This doctrine flies squarely in the face of the current philosophical dogmas of "From Nothing, no thing comes," or "Ex Nihilo, nihil fit." On the contrary it boldly asserts "From Nothing, Everything comes," or "Ex Nihilo, Omnis fit." But, it must be remembered, that this Nothing contains within itself the possibility, latency, and promise of Everything. It is a No-Thing, instead of a "Not."

The Arcane Teachings hold that at the expiration of the great cycle of time—after æons of Cosmic Night, or Period of Infinite Nothingness, The Law moves over the emptiness of Infinity, and the first activities of a new Cosmic Day, or Manifest Cosmos, begin to show themselves. The first manifestation is the Cosmic Will, or Life Principle.

This Cosmic Will is the One Life of the Cosmos, which many philosophies mistakenly claim to be the Absolute Itself. It is the Universal Being, but it is under The Law, and relative to It, and is not absolute. From this Cosmic Will, Logos, Demiurge, World-Spirit, or Universal Life Principle, is manifested the Cosmos or Manifested Universe of life, shape and form. The Cosmos is alive in every part, and its real nature vests in the Cosmic Will, which is ever behind, under, and in, all manifestations of the universal activities, from lowest to highest. Here is the World Spirit, or Pantheistic One-All—but it is under The Law!

In the Cosmos is contained "The Three Principles"—of Substance, Motion, and Consciousness; respectively. From the Three Principles arise all the infinite variety of combinations of mind, energy and matter, which go to make up the varieties of manifestation in the universe. The Arcane Teaching includes the doctrine of Perpetual Evolution of Substance, Energy, and Consciousness, respectively, on all the various planes of activity. The Teaching is that there are infinite planes of evolution, in groups of seven, which are sub-divided in seven, and so on.

The Arcane Teaching holds that the Cosmos is regulated by "The Seven Laws," which are superimposed by The Law upon the Cosmic Will, and thus upon all that is manifested. These Seven Cosmic Laws are as follows:

I. The Law of Orderly Trend. Under this law there is always manifested law and order in the Cosmos, from suns to atoms; from highest to lowest; matter, energy, and mind. There is no Disorder, Inharmony, or Chance in the Cosmos.

II. The Law of Analogy. Under this law, there is found a correspondence and agreement between all of the various forms of manifestation. What is true of the atom, is true of the sun. What is true of the amœba is true of man, and beings above man. What is true of matter, is true of energy and mind. To know one is to know all. "As above, so below," as the Hermetists express it. "Ex Uno disce Omnes"—"From One know All," as the Arcane axiom says. This law is applied in studying the higher planes—they may be known by the lower, just as solar systems may be known by studying the atoms and molecules.

III. The Law of Sequence. Under this Law, there is included the activities of what is generally known as "Cause and Effect." Nothing happens by chance. Nothing happens without a precedent manifestation, and a subsequent manifestation. Everything has its "before and after" things. Nothing stands alone, and independent of what has gone before, nor can it escape from acting upon that which comes after. Everything proceeds from something, and is succeeded by something.

IV. The Law of Rhythm. Under this law falls a variety of phenomena, among which is the important phenomenon of Vibration. Everything is in constant vibration—everything material, mental or of energy. Upon this fact depends the variety, degrees, states and conditions of the manifestations of the Cosmos. All is in vibration—physical, mental and spiritual. Vibration is the key of relative power, and relative activities. To control Vibration is to control all forces in the universe. The control of Vibrations forms an important part of the Arcane formulas.

V. The Law of Balance. Under this law there is to be found an explanation for the universal equilibrium, compensation and balance, observed in all of the manifestations of the Cosmos. One thing balances another, in the physical, mental and spiritual. Everything has something set opposite it, to balance it. Everything has its compensation. Everything has its Cosmic price. In an understanding of the Law of Balance, there is to be found the Secret of Power and Poise. The Arcane Teaching contain formulas for Balance.

VI. The Law of Cyclicity. Under this law is found the cyclic, or circular trend of all things, physical, mental and spiritual. Everything moves in circles. The wise and strong convert the circles into spirals. Instead of traveling around in an eternal circle, the wise and strong rise in spirals to attainment and advancement. Worlds and atoms; Cosmos and Man; all are under this law, and move in accordance therewith. To convert the Circle into the Spiral, is one of the Arcane Secrets, conveyed in its formulas.

VII. The Law of Opposites. Under this law is to be found the explanation of that wonderful fact in nature—the fact that everything has its opposite; everything is, and is not, at the same time; everything has its other side; every truth is but a half-truth; everything is a paradox; every thesis has its anti-thesis; every truth contains a bit of untruth, and every untruth a bit of truth; every male contains female—every female contains male. Also the fact that opposite things are alike, in the end; that extremes meet; the contradictions may be reconciled. In this great Cosmic law is found the fact that diametrically opposite things, physical, mental and spiritual, are in reality but the different poles of the same thing. In this law is found the Mystery of Polarity—in it vests the Secret of Sex-Generation and Regeneration—the Arcane Teaching embraces all these.

The Arcane Teaching, as presented in these Lessons, will include the Arcane Formulas whereby the Seven Laws may be applied under the mind and will of the individual, enabling him to take advantage of the flood-tide of Rhythm, and to neutralize the ebb-tide; to enable him to neutralize the Opposites; to find and hold the Balance and Poise; to convert the Cycles into Rising Spirals; to take advantage of the Law of Sequence—thus to Master Fate, instead of being her Slave; to conquer laws by laws; to oppose principle to principle; to acquire the Art of Mental Alchemy, or Transmutation of Mental States and Conditions. These and many other fields of occult knowledge will the Arcane Teaching open out to the earnest seeker. To those who are ready, this Teaching will appeal. Do you feel attracted to it—then follow the leading of your intuition. If not, pass it by for the present, for you are not prepared—instead call the attention of some person more ready, to it, and thus be an instrument of The Law.

Lesson II. Absolute Law.

Table of Content

THE ARCANE Scroll contains the following Aphorisms regarding this Supreme Power, which in the Arcane Teaching is known as "THE LAW."


APHORISM II. "Beyond The Law there IS Not. Higher than The Law there IS Not. Elder than the Law there IS Not."

APHORISM III. "The Law is the Absolute. Existing beyond Time, and Space, and Change; transcending the Three Principles and the Seven Laws; It ever hath been, ever is, and ever shall be. Ever Unique; Unconditioned; Immutable; Self-Existent; Self-Sufficient; Independent; Abstract; It dwelleth Unknowable, Unthinkable, Ineffable."

APHORISM IV. "The Law is the Efficient Reason of All-Things; and is the Supreme Power and Causer."

A consideration of the above four Aphorisms will throw light on the inner meanings contained within them. Let us now consider them in detail:

APHORISM I. "The Law Is." In this Aphorism the word "IS" denotes "present, actual existence." It is as strong a term denoting actual existence as the English language supplies. But, in the ancient Arcane terminology its Grecian equivalent was used in a still stronger sense than the ordinary use of the word "is" indicates. In the English language, the word "is" is used as the third person singular of the verb "Be," in the indicative mood, present tense. But the words "is" and "be" have two entirely different original meanings, particularly when considered from the point of view of the ancient Arcane schools. To explain further: The word "Be" is derived from the Greek word "phuo," meaning: "to bring forth; to produce; to be born;" etc., the original meaning signifying beginning in time; existence of a preceding cause; relativity, etc. And, accordingly, the ancient Greek philosophers, especially those of the Arcane schools, used the term "be" and "being" to denote the relative existence of the phenomenal or manifested universe, and not in the sense of absolute existence. The word "is," on the contrary, is desired from the word, "esti," which in turn was derived from the Sanscrit word "asti," both of which denote "existence," in its absolute sense, without reference to birth, bringing forth, or production. In its true and Arcane significance the word "is" is analogous to "am," which had its origin in the Sanscrit "asmi," signifying absolute existence, which significance was also imparted to analogous words in the Hebrew, Egyptian and other Oriental languages. The word "Is" has the significance of the word "Am" in the following quotation from Exodus, iii. 14, in the Hebrew Sacred Books: "And God said unto Moses, ‘I am That I am’; and he said, Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel: I am hath sent me unto you." This then is the sense in which the Arcane Aphorism employs the term "is"—in the sense of Absolute Existence. We have taken the pains to explain this to you at length, not for the purpose of verbal hair-splitting, but in order to bring out the true occult meaning of the term. This, particularly, because we shall use the term "Being" in its relative sense in connection with the Cosmos, as we proceed. Remember that there is no "is-ness" other than that of The Law—all other "is-ness" is but "Being" which is relative, created, and phenomenal. In the true sense, there is no is other than the existence of The Law. For this reason we shall always print the word in capital letters when we use it in its Arcane significance.

APHORISM II. "Beyond The Law there is Not. Higher than The Law there is Not. Elder than The Law there is Not." In these three sentences is taught the Absolute Omnipresence; the Absolute Supremacy; the Eternity; and the Self-Existence of The Law. There is naught beyond It, for there is no beyond; there is naught elder than It, for it is eternal and self-existent, there being nothing precedent to It to have caused or created It. We must here ask you to consider the fact that the Aphorism uses the term "Not," instead of "Nothing," for the reason that the Arcane meaning of the two terms is different. In the Arcane sense, the word "Not" means absolute negation— that is it denotes the absence of "is-ness," or "am-ness," and also the absence of even relative "being." "Not" means absolute not-ness—a condition of non-existence past, present, or future; absolute or relative. It is a positive denial of any existence whatsoever, of any kind, character, or degree, past, present or future. Further than this, language cannot go. But, the words: "Nothing," and "Nothingness," although generally used as meaning "not-ness" in the sense just mentioned, have an entirely different Arcane significance and meaning. In the Aphorisms, and in all of the Arcane Teaching these words are used in a relative sense, a capital "N" being employed to denote the said use of the word. We shall consider this "‘Nothingness," a little later on.

APHORISM III. The first sentence is: "The Law is Absolute." In this sentence is stated the highest truth capable of being expressed in words. Let us examine the term and see what it really means. "Absolute" means, in its original and essential significance: "Unbound; Free; Unfettered; Unrestrained." There are a number of derivative meanings, but the above definition gives the essential meaning of the term—and that meaning may be reduced to one word: "FREE." In other words, Absoluteness means Perfect Freedom— Sovereignty—Supremacy. There can be nothing higher than Absoluteness. There can be nothing over Absoluteness. There can be no Power beyond Absoluteness. The "Law" of a thing, or things, is the sovereign power that exercises a control over it. And an Absolute Law is the supreme, highest and unqualified Power over all things. Therefore is the Absolute called Law— therefore is The Law called Absolute. The term, Absolute Law is the highest and most positive term in the language, expressing Power and Control. There can be nothing that can oppose such Power; or run contrary to It, or overrule It, or "break" It. It is Power Absolutely Supreme.

The Absolute Law must not only be Self-Governed and Uncontrolled, but must also be Self-Existent and Causeless, for if there were aught else to have created It, or to have caused It to exist, then that "other" would be the Absolute. The very meaning of the term precludes any outside Cause affecting It—It is Causeless; and It exists of, and because of, Itself. To speak of aught causing, governing, or binding the Absolute, is to utter words that have no meaning. And even if we postulate a Supreme Being, governed by the "laws of His own inner nature," then these "inner laws," rather than the Supreme Being are the Absolute. So, you see that at the last the Law and the Absolute must be the one and the same.

The Aphorism continues: Existing beyond, Time, and Space and Change transcending the Three Principles and the Seven Laws; It hath ever been, ever is, and ever shall be. The words: "Is, hath, ever been, and ever shall be," denotes the Eternality of The Law," for a Self-Existent, Causeless, Absolute, must be Eternal—for naught could have caused it, nor could aught ever terminate it. "Beyond Time and Space" expresses Its Omnipresence and Eternality—Time and Space belong to the Infinite Nothingness, which is subject to the Absolute Law. "Transcending the Three Principles and the Seven Laws"—by this is meant the Three Principles of the Cosmos, and the Seven Laws by which The Law manifests Itself through the Cosmos, when the latter emerges in Manifestation from the Unmanifest, Infinity of Nothingness. "Transcending," means, of course: "surpassing; surmounting; being above"; "being beyond"; etc. As the Three Principles are aspects of the Cosmos; and the Seven Laws are caused by The Absolute Law, it follows that the latter is superior and over them. "Ever Unique; Unconditioned; Immutable; Self-Existent; Self-Sufficient; Independent; and Abstract"—let us consider the meaning of each of the words composing this remarkable sentence:

Ever: "Always; forever; continually; without cessation."

Unique: "Without a like or equal; unmatched; Unparalleled; sole."

Unconditioned: "Not subject to conditions or limitations; hence, inconceivable; incognitable."

Immutable: "Unchangeable; invariable; changeless."

Self-Existent: "Free from Cause; existing independent of aught else."

Self-Sufficient: "Sufficient for self, without aid or co-operation."

Independent: "Not dependent; not subject to control; not relying on aught; not subordinate or coordinate."

Abstract: "Apart from aught else; separate from aught else; existing apart and in Itself"; etc.

The above definitions need no further explanation or comment—they tell their own tale, and convey the meaning of the Aphorism clearly, when thus defined. The Aphorism closes with the following words: "It dwelleth Unknowable; Unthinkable; Ineffable." These three words have the following meaning:

Unknowable: "That which cannot be known, being too difficult or subtle for the human intellect"; etc.

Unthinkable: "That which cannot be made an object of thought; incapable of being thought; incognitable; eluding the understanding"; etc.

Ineffable: "Incapable of being expressed in words; inexpressible; indescribable"; etc.

The combined idea of the three terms is well expressed by Herbert Spencer in his famous sentence; "By continually seeking to know, and being continually thrown back with a deepened conviction of the impossibility of knowing, we may keep alive the consciousness that it is alike our highest wisdom and our highest duty to regard that through which all things exist as The Unknowable." Or, as Edwin Arnold in his "Light of Asia" voices the beginning of the teachings of the Buddha:

"Om, Amitaya! measure not with words    Th' Immeasurable: nor sink the string of thought Into the Fathomless, who asks doth err,    Who answers, errs. Say naught!

Shall any gazer see with mortal eyes;    Or any searcher know with mortal mind? Veil after veil will lift—but there must be    Veil upon veil behind."

But, it may be asked: If The Law is Unknowable, Unthinkable, and Ineffable, then why do you attempt to inform us regarding It; why do you attempt to teach us about It? The answer, O Neophyte, is this: We seek not to explain the unexplainable Law to you—we strive not to describe its nature to you, for that would be impossible, there being no words to express It, and no minds capable of understanding It were It explained. The Aphorism expresses this truth fully and emphatically. But we do desire to impress upon your minds and understanding, the fact that It is. Not only do we ask you to believe this because the Arcane Teaching is the repository of the reports of the highest minds of the race—the illumined of all ages—but also because the intellect and intuition of every advanced man reports to him this truth, and informs him that back of, beyond, over and under, and in All, there is the Supreme Law.

No matter what may be his religion, ancient or modern; or his lack of religion—no matter what may be his philosophy, metaphysics or theology, named or unnamed—no matter upon what lines he may have thought, if he has thought at all—Man must ever recognize the report of his reason, and his intuition, which informs him of the existence of a Supreme and Universal Law, governing all things. To deny this, is to deny reason. Faith is not required—reason suffices and fully informs that The Law is. And with that is-ness, the report ceases—the knowledge is then known, to low and high alike. While advanced beings on higher planes have reported great knowledge regarding the Cosmos, they state positively that they know no more regarding the nature of The Law than does the humble thinker on our own plane. But from the highest comes the same report as that which informs the mind of the lowest—The Law is. Therefore in asking you to accept this report of the illumined, the highest of the race, including those whom we call the Elder Brethren, we ask you to accept only that which your own reason informs you to be a basic truth—The Law is.

It is true that the race has built around the conception of the Absolute Law, the varying conceptions of personal deities, and pantheistic beings, but analyze them all and you will find that the reason for the activities of these deities, personal or pantheistic, has been the desire; will; want; inclination or "inner-laws" which are supposed to actuate their manifestations, or incite their activities, either consciously, unconsciously; or according to some of the Hindu schools, because of ignorance, illusion, or self-deception. In short, all of these conceptions of deity are Beings who are actuated by motives, feelings, desires of "inner-laws," just as are men, and other manifested or created things. The anthropomorphic idea is evidenced not only in the crude conceptions of deity held by the savages, but also in the higher concepts; and even in the conceptions of a Pantheistic Being, or Absolute Being held by some of the philosophers and religious teachers of East and West. The pantheistic conception is utterly illogical, for as Schopenhauer says: "When we think of Nature as God, we show God to the door." And as the Arcane Teachers point out, even admitting any of these conceptions of Being, the mind must see that in the "inner law" that moves Being to activity—the Law of Itself—there alone is to be found the Absolute. In such case the Law not the Being, is the Absolute, for it is the causer, and controller, and mover, and reason of the universe.

It is true that some of the philosophers and teachers try to explain away this fact, by saying that "Being and Law" are One. But this is no solution, for even if that be admitted, then the Law within the Being is the Efficient Reason and Causer of Action, and the rest of the Being is controlled, acted upon and moved by the Law within it. The whole idea of Being must be discarded in considering the Absolute. The Absolute is, and can be, only Law. For in all conceptions, The Law is, and must be, seen to be the Ultimate Cause of all activity. The advocates of Absolute Being, object that they are unable to conceive of Law without a Lawgiving Being. But, considering this answer, we soon see that in order for the Lawgiving Being to proceed to give or promulgate Law, it must be moved by some inner law, desire, want, or will of its own nature—and that simply pushes back the question one step further. Try as we may, we cannot escape the conviction that Law is the First, and Last Cause—the Beginning and the Ending—the Efficient Reason of All-Things. Law is not a Being—not a Mind—not a Spirit—not a Thing—It is Law, and naught else. We must accept It as Absolute Power, and as the Aphorisms present It to us. Beyond this we cannot go. Examine the Aphorisms carefully, and you will find that they agree fully with the highest reports of your reason, and in no way run contrary to it.

APHORISM IV. The Law is the Efficient Reason of All-Things, and is the Supreme Power and Causer of the Cosmos.

In this Aphorism is stated plainly and clearly the truth that The Law is the Supreme Power of the Cosmos, and the Causer thereof. The term "Efficient Reason" conveys the entire truth regarding the creation of or evolution of the Cosmos. Let us consider the definition of the two words composing the term, in order to see the meaning still more clearly:

Efficient: "Causing or producing effects or results; acting as the cause of effects; a prime mover; actively operative; etc."

Reason: "An efficient cause; a final cause; explanation; that which explains or accounts for anything; motive of action; etc."

The Cosmos is explainable only by The Law. Without The Law there could be no Cosmos. The Law is the cause of the Cosmos, and of every manifestation within it. The very word "Cosmos" is derived from the Greek word meaning: "the universe as governed by law." Not only the Arcane Teaching, but modern science states as its first axiom: "The Cosmos is Governed by Law." To those who prefer the idea of an anthropomorphic Being, or a World-Spirit, as the Absolute, we have to say that, unfortunately for their idea, the facts of the Cosmos are all against them—Law is everywhere seen to be dominant and sovereign, even in its relative manifestations. We cannot escape it, and should not desire to; and will not desire to, when we understand its meaning. The explanation of this must wait until its proper place in these lessons is reached. Enough for the present to state that in all human ideas of Law there is to be found the correlated ideas of Justice and Equity. Know then that this relative idea, when transformed to the absolute plane, results in the identification of Absolute Justice and Absolute Equity, with the Absolute Law. Could mortal ask more? Has he aught to fear of Absolute Equity and Justice? Can he not postulate in the Absolute all the highest conceptions of Fair Play that he finds in himself? The Cosmos is Governed by Law!

Lesson III. Infinity of Nothingness.

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WE NOW invite you to consider the correlative principle of Truth, in which is set forth the Infinity of Nothingness—Chaos—the Unmanifest; from which, under The Law, emerges Everything—the Cosmos—the Manifest. We have informed you that The Law is not a Pantheistic Being, either breaking Itself into bits, or parts, in order to create Universes; neither does It imagine, mentally create, dream, or meditate into existence a false and fictitious Universe "all in its mind," as pseudo-occultism and pessimistic philosophies would have you believe. Listen to the Aphorism:

APHORISM V. "Other than The Law, there is but Infinity, which is Nothingness. But in that Infinity of Nothingness, there is Unmanifest, the Latency, Possibility, Futurity, Potentiality, and Promise of Manifest Everythingness. It is the Chaos from which, under The Law, emerges the Cosmos. It is the Womb of the Cosmos."

Postponing for the moment the consideration of the distinction between the Absolute and Infinity, which is uncommon in ordinary modern thought, we wish to call your attention to the fact that Infinity is not designated as "Not," or as partaking of "not-ness," but is spoken of as "Nothingness," which is a state of Nothing. In the Arcane Teaching the words: "Nothing" and "Nothingness," signify "No-Thing," and "No-Thingness," respectively. This may seem like metaphysical hair-splitting, but it is not. Not having common words to express uncommon ideas, philosophers must needs split common words into shades of meaning and significance, or else remain silent with their thoughts unexpressed. In order to understand "No-Thingness," and a "No-Thing," you must understand the meaning of the word "Thing" to which these words are opposed. A "Thing" is "whatever exists as a separate object of sense or thought," in the sense of being and having apparent qualities which can be thought of in terms of sense-perception, such as size, shape, form, etc.—something connected directly or indirectly with physical appearance—something of the relative universe—something having a correspondence in experience. And No-thingness must be the opposite of Thingness.

Therefore the Aphorism practically says that Infinity is a "Latency" that is No-Thing in reality, but yet has an existence of some kind, at least potentially. It can contain naught actually apparent to the senses; naught that can be experienced; naught that can be sensed; naught that can be thought of by the intellect, nor pictured in the imagination—in short, nothing that is capable of inducing a mental image in your mind. And yet it exists (if the word can be used) as a state or condition in which all is in Latency, Possibility, Futurity, Potentiality, and Promise. In short, it is The Unmanifest containing All Manifestation within it in latency, possibility and futurity, awaiting the force of The Law to bid it conceive, produce, and bring forth Being. We shall learn about this Infinite Nothingness shortly, in connection with another Aphorism. Enough for the present to realize the words of the Aphorism before us, which informs us that other than The Law there is Not, with the exception of the Infinity of Nothingness which exists in latency. Other than The Law, there is Not in the absolute sense.

Philosophies and schools of metaphysics have generally confused the meaning of the two terms "absolute" and "relative," and have used them as identical in meaning. The Arcane Teaching makes a sharp distinction between the two terms, however—not a difference based upon a metaphysical hair-splitting tendency, but because there are two entirely different ideas which must be expressed in these two words, and, in spite of the customs of the metaphysicians the distinction must be made. We do not wish to lead you into an extended metaphysical discussion, but we think that you should be taught to make this important distinction in the true meaning of these terms.

The term "absolute," in its true sense and essential meaning, implies an apartness; separation; independence; self-existence; self-sufficiency; supreme; unfettered; free. The "essence of the essence" of its meaning is to be found in the words "free, independent, self-sufficient." And when used in connection with the word "law," it represents the Supreme Power, depending upon no other power; its own sovereign; and the ruler of all else, without restriction. This conception we have in The Absolute Law, which is the Independent, Free, Sovereign Lord of All.

The term "infinite" has an entirely different meaning, in its true sense, although the philosophers and metaphysicians often add to it the attributes of the Absolute, which is a mistake. The word "infinite" in its true sense and essential meaning, implies a state of boundlessness; limitlessness; not circumscribed; as to time, space, variety, possibilities, combination, shape, form, etc. Its essence may be understood by referring to the words from which it sprung, i. e., the Latin words "in," meaning "not"; and "finitus" meaning "finished." In short, the word "infinite" means "not finished; not complete; capable of unlimited manifestation, and possibilities." So, you see, while the idea of "Absolute" means fixed, complete independent state or condition; "Infinite" means a state of endless and unlimited possibilities of manifestation and expression.

The true philosophical idea of Infinity, consists of the conception of any sort of mental object as having the quality of quantity which cannot be exhausted by any succession of experiences, however prolonged or extended, in time, space, variety, or number. By holding this idea in mind, you will never make the mistake of confounding infinity with absoluteness, hereafter. The chief cause of the confusion arises from the unauthorized use of the term "infinite" in relation to "power." Power belongs to the Absolute, and is not one of the attributes of Infinity. "Infinite Power" would mean an infinite possibility of the manifestation and expression of unlimited power; while Absolute Power means all the Power there is, fixed, independent and sovereign, unvarying and immutable, and not subject to changes of degree, etc. Absolute Law is not an infinite capacity for expression of power—It is Power-in-Itself.

All the great thinkers of all times, esoteric and exoteric, have agreed in this idea of the Infinite being the Unlimited Possibility. The best of the ancient Greek philosophers, from Aristotle down, held to this idea. As Schopenhauer says: "It is already a doctrine of Aristotle, that Infinity can never be actu (actual, given, fixed) but only potentia (in possibility, latency, promise, potentiality)." And as Lewes says: "If Zero is the sign of a vanished quantity, the Infinite is the sign of continuity." We trust that you now see that the Absolute could never become Relative or Many—and that the Infinite alone is capable of endless changes in shape, form, variety, in time, space, and number; and contains within itself the promise, possibility, latency, and potentiality of Everything.

The Arcane Teachers, in the olden time, illustrated this to their pupils by the following symbols: The figure "1" standing for the Absolute, and being fixed, independent, sovereign, and alone. By itself, and in itself it is incapable of multiplying or dividing—multiply anything by "1"; or divide anything by "1," and the thing remains unchanged. Multiply or divide "1" by itself, and the answer still is "1," showing that the Absolute cannot be increased or divided, even by itself. Subtract "1" from itself, and the result is "0," showing that if the Absolute were subtracted from it would cease to exist, and there would be naught left but the Infinite Nothingness. Then the Teachers called the attention of the pupil to the Zero, or "Infinite Nothing" symbol, i. e., "0." In itself, "0" means Nothing. Multiply or divide anything by "0," and the answer is always "0." Multiply "0" by itself, and "0" remains—the Infinite cannot increase itself, for in its circle it includes All Possibility. But divide "0" by itself— and lo! "0 into 0 goes 1 time": the answer is "1." showing that if the Infinite be divided by itself, the Absolute is found to be at its centre, undisturbed, independent, self-existent. The symbol of Infinity, in mathematics, however, is not "0" or Unmanifest Infinity, but ∞ which indicates Manifest Infinity, the symbol always indicating endless continuation of action.

Now the symbol of the Infinite Nothing, becoming Infinite Everything. Place a string of "0's," as follows: 000,000,000,000,000—you see that they still mean "Nothing." Now place "1" (the symbol of the Absolute), before the string and we have 1,000,000,000,000,000, which we may enlarge to infinite number by the addition of "0's." Or place the Absolute "1," behind the string, and we have .000,000,000.000,000,1, a very small decimal, which may be carried to infinitesimal smallness by the addition of "0's." Thus we see, by symbols, that the action of the Absolute Law on the Infinite Nothingness produces Infinite Greatness, or Infinite Smallness.

Now that you understand that Infinity means the Infinite Possibility of Things, rather than an Infinite Manifest Thing, you may be able to see that the Infinity of Nothingness of the Arcane Teaching is not quite so irrational as it appeared at first sight. In order to realize the truth of the Aphorism still more forcibly, let us consider what Infinity (even in the ordinary use of the term) really is. You will find that all thought if analyzed, implies the Nothingness of Infinity.

Non-Being, or Nothingness, was always regarded by certain schools of the ancient Greek philosophy, as existent in a philosophical sense. Empty space was considered as truly existent as the atoms which afterward appeared in space. Plato regarded Empty Space as the matrix, or mould, in which the universe was formed. He held that there was possible an abstract realization of pure empty space, which is Nothing; the Void, which is the all-containing receptacle of creative energy, and in which being, first distinguished into geometrical figures, becomes the framework of the physical world. Scotus held that since Deity creates the world out of Nothing, then Nothing must exist as an emanation of Deity. Hegel distinguished between a "nicht" or "Not"; and a "nichts," or "Nothing." Theology has always held that Deity "created the universe from Nothing," thereby implying at least a quasi-existence of Infinite Nothingness. Spinoza recognized an "infinitely infinite" which is practically an Infinite Nothing. Plato said that "Space as a Thing is incredible, difficult of explanation, most difficult to comprehend." And Zeno, the Eleatic, said: "If Space is a Thing, it must be in Something, and so in Space; for everything that is, is in Something, and so in Space; and so on ad infinitum. Therefore, Space is not a Thing." So much for the philosophers. Let us see what our own reason informs us.

Let us first examine the idea of Space. Space is the mental symbol for Infinity. Consider yourself as standing at a fixed point in Space—then you must realize that there exists an infinite distance or extension in Space, from that point, in an infinite number of directions. Leaving out of consideration all objects in space—considering Pure Empty Space—and you must see that there is an endless extension possible, in innumerable directions— extension without end. Imagine a number of miles represented in a row of figures extending from earth to the most distant star; then multiply that number by itself; and then the product by itself; and so on, for a time equal to the number of years since the Cosmic Day began. Then you would have a number of miles, the written figures of which would fill all the space that your mind is able of even conceiving. Then think of a Being traveling to the extent of that measurement—would he then be near the end of space? No! the distance traveled by him would be as a mathematical "Nothing" or Zero, compared with Infinite Space. No mathematician could have figured out the infinitesimal smallness of the fraction denoting the comparison, were he to have worked continually since the dawn of the Cosmic day. The calculation would be endless, because the result would be infinitesimal, and at the end, he would have to place the sign of "infinity" back of it. Just think! To be able to travel for all Eternity through Space without coming to an end! You cannot come to an end of Space, even in thought or imagination—try it! You will find that think as far as you will into Space, there must always be Infinite Space beyond that imagined point. There is "no up or down" in Space. Space is something with its centre everywhere, and its circumference nowhere. At the last, philosophy and science are compelled to hold that "Space is merely the possibility of infinite extension; or the infinite possibility of extension"—to the Universal Ether. In the end, Ether is called the Great Mystery of Science. It must be considered as a Nothing that is a Something. A leading scientific lecturer said, and wrote, recently: "The Ether is unconditioned, an entity of no properties but of all possibilities, or, more exactly, not an entity at all, but an infinite possibility." And, so we find, even Matter and Things themselves, arising from and being resolved into an Infinite Nothingness that is also Infinite Possibility.

Now, for a moment, let us endeavor to imagine the condition or state of the Infinity of Nothingness—the Unmanifest Cosmos—during the Cosmic Night, and before the faintest dawn of the new Cosmic Day. The Three Cosmic Principles are resolved into the condition of the Unmanifest, but are not destroyed—there are Nothing, but not "Not!" The Three Cosmic Principles are Substance; Motion; and Consciousness, respectively. Substance has assumed its most subtle form, infinitely rarer and finer than the finest ether— it is practically Nothing, but yet exists in latency, possibility, and promise. Motion has assumed a rate of vibration so high that it is practically at Rest, although not destroyed —it is still Motion in latency. Consciousness has assumed the condition of a deep unconsciousness—a profound dreamless sleep; a swoon following upon the infinite ecstasy of the Supreme Cosmic Consciousness of the previous Cosmic Day. It knows Nothing; is conscious of Nothing—for there is but Nothing of which it could be conscious, or could know, for all manifestation has ceased until the dawn of the new Cosmic Day. It is even unconscious of the presence and power of The Law, although The Law still reigns over it, and will awaken it once more, as it has many times before, in the Eternal Chain of Cosmic Days and Nights.

The Cosmos sleeps in the condition of Infinite Nothingness—the Unmanifest! The Abyssmal Abyss—the Eternal Deep—the Face of the Waters—the Void—the Cosmic Womb! The Mother Sleeps! The Laws of Cyclic Rhythm have brought to Her the Rest of the Cosmic Night! But she will awaken and greet her Supreme Lord at the dawn of the Cosmic Day. From the Cosmic Womb will proceed The Cosmic Will, which will manifest the universe of universes; infinitudes of infinitudes of shape, form, and variety, of things, life, and beings. In her Existence is the Promise of all that Shall Be throughout the Ages and Aeons of Eternities of Eternities. The Mother sleeps, sleeps, sleeps! But, through the Night, as through the Day, The Law is, immutable, unchanged, Absolute.

Part II. The Cosmos.

Table of Content
Lesson IV. The Manifestation.
Lesson V. The Cosmic Will.
Lesson VI. Involution and Evolution.

Lesson IV. The Manifestation.

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THIS IS the Arcane Teaching regarding the process whereby the Unmanifest becomes Manifest; the Latency becomes Activity; the Possibility becomes Actuality; the Potentiality becomes Reality; the Promise becomes Fulfilment. Listen to the Aphorism:

APHORISM VI. "During the aeons of the Cosmic Night, The Law dwells Alone, in solitude; The Cosmos remains resolved into its condition of the Unmanifest—the Infinity of Nothingness. Then comes the dawn, when The Law superimposes the Infinity of Nothingness, and causes the Unmanifest to become Manifest; the Nothing to become Everything; Latency to become Activity; Potentiality to become Reality; Promise to become Fulfilment."

At the extreme swing of the pendulum of Rhythm—at the point of the Cycle in which End fades into Beginning—the climax of the Cosmic Night is reached in the form of Absolute Rest, extending over æons of time. Then after the æons of Absolute Rest come the first activities of the future Cosmic Day. During the Cosmic Night, as the Aphorism states: "The Law dwells Alone, in solitude; The Cosmos remains resolved into its condition of the Unmanifest—the Infinity of Nothingness." Then begin the first stirrings of the birth of the new Cosmic Day, which the Aphorism describes as follows: "Then comes the dawn, when The Law superimposes the Infinity of Nothingness, and causes the Unmanifest to become Manifest; the Nothing to become Everything; Latency to become Reality; Promise to become Fulfilment." Let us consider what is meant by the words of the Aphorism.

The first step of the new activities is indicated by the words: "The Law superimposes the Infinity of Nothingness." These words, at first consideration, would seem to indicate a decided action of The Law in the direction of "superimposing" Infinity. But such is not the Arcane Teaching. The Teachers hold that The Law exerts no different degree or kind of power at the period of dawn, than at the period of dusk; no more at the period of high-noon, than at the period of midnight. During the Cosmic Day and Cosmic Night, The Law is unchangeable and constant in its power and influence. The difference is caused by the Cyclic Swing, or Rhythmic Movement, in the Cosmos itself, Manifest or Unmanifest. The Law is over and above Rhythm or Cyclicity, or any of the Seven Laws, and is Changeless. The Cosmos, on the contrary is under the Seven Laws superimposed by The Law, and is Changeable—Constantly Changing. The difference in the degree of power received from The Law is due to the changing condition of the Cosmos, or Infinity.

In order to understand what has been said, let us imagine a mighty magnet, constant in its power, and invariable in its manifestations of magnetic force upon all within its magnetic field. Then let us imagine an Infinity of infinitessimal particles of steel-filings, separated from the magnet by a glass watch-cover. Let us suppose that owing to the operation of some unknown magnetic law, the receptivity of the steel particles changes in rhythmic periods, or in cyclic recurrence. In that case, it would follow that, although the power of the magnet were unchangeable and its manifestations invariable, still the action of the steel-particles would cause it to appear otherwise. For at times there would be a marked degree of power shown, and at other times a much less degree would be exhibited—but the difference would be in the nature of the steel-particles, and not in that of the magnet.

Or, suppose, that the Earth were to manifest varying degrees of receptivity to the Attraction of Gravitation of the Sun—then while it would seem to be a varying degree of power of the sun, the difference would really be caused by the changes in the Earth, the Sun remaining constant and invariable all the time. In these two examples, may be seen the nature of the action of The Law upon the Cosmos, or Infinity.

Some of the occult schools who have been influenced by the Arcane Teaching, hold that The Law is attracted by Infinity, or the Cosmos, just as the latter is by The Law. In other words, they hold that there is a mutual attraction and effect—an action and a reaction—a reciprocal action. But this is incorrect. The Law is never attracted or affected in any way by the Cosmos, or Infinity. It is Absolute and beyond mutual Relationship. Were the Cosmos and Infinity not to exist, The Law would not vary a particle in any way whatsoever. Its Absoluteness raises it above Relations. But while this is so, the fact of the constant outpouring of the Power of The Law causes the Cosmos to be affected by it, just as are the steel-filings by the Magnet. According to Rhythm, the degree of Power received by the Cosmos must vary—but The Law changes not. In fact, the Seven Laws, themselves, which produce these changes in the Cosmos, are a part of the action and power of The Law, as experienced by the Cosmos—they are superimposed by The Law.

The Aphorism says: "The Law superimposes the Infinity of Nothingness." What is meant by "superimposes"? The word "super" means "over, or above"; and "impose" means "to lay or place upon." "Superimpose" means "to place upon from above," or as used in the Aphorism: "To influence from above." In other words, the Infinity of Nothingness, or Unmanifest Cosmos, owing to the influence of Rhythm and Cyclicity, begins once more to experience the active radiation of the Power of The Law, which serves to vitalize and energize it, and thus begins the dawn of the new Cosmic Day—and the beginnings of the new Universal Life, or Cosmic Will.

In order to understand this awakening, or stirring into activity of the Cosmos, which dwells latent within the Womb of the Infinity of Nothingness, let us consider the Three Principles of the Cosmos, from which all forms, shapes, combinations and varieties of manifestation arise. These "Three Principles" are as follows: (1) The Cosmic Principle of Substance; (2) the Cosmic Principle of Motion; (3) the Cosmic Principle of Consciousness. These Three Principles are Unmanifest during the Cosmic Night, but awaken into nascency and activity with the first thrill of the dawn of the new Cosmic Day. In the end, and at the last, these Three must be considered as phases of One. But that One, in itself, is but the reflection, so to speak, of The Law, although not by any means to be considered as being "qualities" or "phases" of The Law. The Law has no "qualities" or "phases"—it is over and above these things, which are but the aspects of Infinity, or the Cosmos. The Three Principles are fundamental in all manifestations of the Cosmos, from lowest to highest—from the simplest to the most complex. Wherever is found any manifestation of the Cosmos, there is and must be found the presence of the Three Principles in some degree of development or activity. If you prefer, you may think of the Cosmos as consisting of merely these Three Principles, manifest or unmanifest. These Three Principles we can never know of themselves—we know them only through and by their manifestations. Let us consider them in detail, by the light of the Arcane Teaching.

I. The First Principle—Substance. Substance, as the term is used in the Arcane Teaching, means the underlying "body" of things—their material quality. Everything that is manifested in the Cosmos has its "body" or material quality. Substance includes all that we may think of as Matter, in its various degrees of solidity, or lack of solidity—from the hardest steel or granite, to the most rarefied gas or vapor known to science. It includes all that science dares to think of as material body, even in the highest flights of its reason or imagination—and then all that lies beyond those conceptions. The field of substance recognized by science, as compared with the real extent of the Principle of Substance, is as no more than a hair-line drawn across a yard-stick. There are forms of matter as much more solid and dense than steel or granite, as the latter are more solid and dense than hydrogen gas. And at the other end of the scale there are forms of substance that could not be described in words, so near akin to Nothing are they. Between these two extremes there lies a bewildering number of degrees. That which science calls electricity and other subtle forms of energy, are not "energy" at all, but merely energy or motion manifesting through subtle forms of substance, which act as its body. There are forms of substance many times finer and rarer than even these. There are bodies worn by beings on higher planes which are finer and rarer than electricity. Even the ordinary Astral Bodies of beings on our own plane and stage of development, are far rarer and finer than is electricity, or the finest rays of light or magnetism. These bodies are just as real as is the piece of the hardest steel through which they may pass as easily as the X Ray passes through stone. The Universal Ether, which science assumes to be the extreme limit, and infinity, of subtle tenuity and fineness, is solid and compact when compared with many of the higher forms of substance. So much for Manifest Substance.