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POSZERZAJ SŁOWNICTWO – UTRWALAJ – UCZ SIĘ WYMOWY
Wejdź do świata detektywa z Baker Street i rozwiązuj z nim skomplikowane przypadki kryminalne.
W tle przewijają się zło, chciwość, drogocenne klejnoty, zagadkowe morderstwa i żmudne dedukcyjne dochodzenie do prawdy przez Sherlocka Holmesa i doktora Watsona.
Marta Fihel – anglistka, nauczycielka z wieloletnim stażem. Współautorka książek do nauki języka angielskiego i słowników.
Prof. dr hab. Dariusz Jemielniak – wykładowca w Akademii Leona Koźmińskiego, pracował jako tłumacz agencyjny i książkowy, współautor kilkunastu podręczników do nauki języka angielskiego, twórca największego polskiego darmowego słownika internetowego ling.pl.
Grzegorz Komerski – absolwent filozofii, tłumacz, współautor książek do nauki języka angielskiego. Prowadzi blog komerski.pl, poświęcony historii języków i etymologii.
Maciej Polak - z wykształcenia filozof, z zamiłowania historyk obyczajowości i kultury w czasach nowożytnych, prowadzi blog poświęcony historii.
A Christmas Carol Opowieść wigilijna
Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland Alicja w Krainie Czarów
Anne of Green Gables Ania z Zielonego Wzgórza
Fairy Tales by Hans Christian Andersen Baśnie Hansa Christiana Andersena
Peter and Wendy Piotruś Pan
Short Stories by Edgar Allan Poe Opowiadania Allana Edgara Poe
Th Blue Castle Błękitny Zamek
Th Adventures of Sherlock Holmes Part 2 Przygody Sherlocka Holmesa. Ciąg dalszy
Th Great Gatsby Wielki Gatsby
Th Hound of the Baskervilles Pies Baskerville’ów
Th Picture of Dorian Gray Portret Doriana Graya
Th Short Stories of F. Scott Fitzgerald: A Collection Opowiadania autora Wielkiego Gatsby’ego
Th Time Machine Wehikuł czasu
Th Wonderful Wizard of Oz Czarnoksiężnik z Krainy Oz
Thee Men in a Boat (To Say Nothing of the Dog) Trzech panów w łódce (nie licząc psa)
Skład i łamanie
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Sherlock Holmes zobrazowany przez Sidneya Pageta, pierwszego ilustratora tej serii, zmarłego w 1908 roku
Trudno w to uwierzyć, ale od pierwszego pojawienia się drukiem opowieści z udziałem Sherlocka Holmesa minęło już 129 lat, pierwsze bowiem opowiadanie Arthura Conana Doyle’a o tym detektywie zostało opublikowane w „Beeton’s Christmas Annual” w 1887 roku.
W owych czasach powieści w odcinkach cieszyły się sporą popularnością, a przygody Sherlocka Holmesa od samego początku zrobiły furorę i ukazywały się regularnie, m.in. w „The Strand Magazine” w latach 1891–1927.
Doyle usytuował fabułę swoich opowiadań we współczesnych sobie czasach – najstarsza chronologicznie historia ma miejsce w 1875, a ostatnia w 1914 roku. Dzięki temu realia ówczesnej Wielkiej Brytanii oddane są bardzo wiernie i stanowią przebogatą kopalnię wiedzy o ówczesnej kulturze i obyczajach.
Jak w przypadku prawdziwych arcydzieł literatury, także w przypadku Doyle’a opowieść, choć napisana językiem obecnie brzmiącym momentami staroświecko, nadal świetnie się czyta. Bezbłędna angielszczyzna, jaką napisane są opowiadania, do dnia dzisiejszego bywa wykorzystywana jako wzorzec poprawności gramatycznej – choć oczywiście wiele z użytych idiomów brzmi obecnie archaicznie. Opowiadania nadal są jednak bez wątpienia doskonałym, a przy tym wciągającym materiałem edukacyjnym.
Po Przygody Sherlocka Holmesa warto sięgnąć także z innego powodu. Sir Arthur Conan Doyle praktycznie stworzył współczesną powieść detektywistyczną. Choć łatwo wskazać, że poprzedzali go choćby tak wielcy pisarze, jak Edgar Allan Poe, nie sposób wyobrazić sobie, a nawet w pełni zrozumieć twórczości Agaty Christie czy pozornie odległego Raymonda Chandlera bez znajomości dzieł Doyle’a. Niewiele jest postaci w literaturze, które odcisnęłyby takie piętno na różnych gatunkach literackich.
Postać Sherlocka Holmesa jest wzorowana na wykładowcy medycyny, Josephie Bellu, jednym z pionierów medycyny sądowej, który za kluczową umiejętność dobrego lekarza uznawał spostrzegawczość. W swoich naukach bardzo silnie podkreślał konieczność dokładnej obserwacji pacjentów podczas diagnozy. Jedną ze stosowanych przez niego metod dydaktycznych było zapraszanie na zajęcia nieznajomych i odgadywanie ich zawodów oraz zainteresowań. Arthur Conan Doyle pracował jako jego sekretarz w szpitalu królewskim w Edynburgu (najstarszej ochotniczej placówce tego typu w Szkocji) i był pod ogromnym wrażeniem metod Bella – odwzorował je więc w pewnym stopniu w postaci słynnego detektywa, co zresztą było powodem jawnej dumy samego zainteresowanego. Co ciekawe, Bell był też autorem kilku znanych podręczników medycyny, włącznie z „Joseph Bell’s Manual of the Operations of Surgery”, który pojawił się jako prezent gwiazdkowy w jedenastym odcinku piątego sezonu Doktora House’a – ta ostatnia postać z kolei, pod względem stosowanych metod wnioskowania, wzorowana jest na Holmesie.
Doyle stworzył bowiem prawdziwie archetypicznego bohatera – żyjącego poza normami społecznymi geniusza, który dzięki niezwykłej spostrzegawczości i inteligencji rozwiązuje zagadki pozornie nie do rozszyfrowania. Wspiera go, oczywiście mniej utalentowany, ale wierny towarzysz, na którym jednak geniusz może zawsze polegać. Na tym schemacie fabularnym oparto później także wiele innych historii, jak choćby serial o detektywie Monku. Sama postać Holmesa i jego perypetie wciąż inspirują pisarzy, scenarzystów i reżyserów – najlepszym przykładem jest bijący rekordy oglądalności brytyjski serial „Sherlock” stworzony przez Stevena Moffata i Marka Gatissa z Benedictem Cumberbatchem w tytułowej roli.
Jednym z powodów, dla których od ponad stu lat postać Holmesa cieszy się ogromną sympatią Czytelników, jest także to, że, podobnie jak doktor House, Monk i wszyscy inni naśladowcy, oprócz licznych talentów ma również wiele wad. Holmes jest strasznym bałaganiarzem, miesiącami nie otwiera listów, które zalegają u niego na biurku w pozornie chaotycznie rozmieszczonych stosach. Nie rozstaje się z fajką, choć okazjonalnie zastępuje ją cygarami. Regularnie wstrzykuje sobie kokainę, nie stroniąc także od morfiny, należy do bywalców palarni opium. Zdarza mu się kłamać policji, jeżeli uważa to za słuszne. Jego biegłość w sztukach walki (szermierce, walce laską, boksie, a także ówczesnej odmianie MMA, znanej pod nazwą baritsu) nie pochodzi wyłącznie z lekcji – można wywnioskować, że Holmes był kiedyś (w czasach studenckich?) niezłym zabijaką. Czy można go nie lubić?
Sherlock Holmes i doktor Watson w ilustracji Sidneya Pageta
Opracowany przez nas podręcznik oparty na oryginalnym tekście opowiadań został skonstruowany według przejrzystego schematu.
marginesach tekstu podano objaśnienia trudniejszych wyrazów.
zakończony krótkim testem sprawdzającym stopień rozumienia tekstu.
po każdym rozdziale dział O słowach jest poświęcony poszerzeniu słownictwa z danej dziedziny, wyrazom kłopotliwym dla polskich uczniów (tzw.
poświęconym gramatyce omówiono wybrane zagadnienie gramatyczne, ilustrowane fragmentem rozdziału.
dociekliwych został również opracowany komentarz do wybranych tematów związanych z kulturą i historią.
Różnorodne ćwiczenia pozwolą Czytelnikowi powtórzyć i sprawdzić omówione w podręczniku zagadnienia leksykalne i gramatyczne. Alfabetyczny wykaz wyrazów objaśnianych na marginesie tekstu znajduje się w słowniczku. Odpowiedzi do wszystkich zadań zamkniętych są podane w kluczu na końcu książki.
To Sherlock Holmes she is always THE woman. I have seldom heard him mention her under any other name. In his eyes she eclipses andpredominates the whole of her sex. It was not that he felt any emotion akin to love for Irene Adler. All emotions, and that one particularly, were abhorrent to his cold, precise but admirably balanced mind. He was, I take it, the most perfect reasoning and observing machine that the world has seen, but as a lover he would have placed himself in a false position. He never spoke of the softer passions, save with a gibe and a sneer. They were admirable things for the observer--excellent for drawing the veil from men’s motives and actions. But for the trained reasoner to admit such intrusions into his own delicate and finely adjusted temperament was to introduce a distracting factor which might throw a doubt upon all his mental results. Grit in a sensitive instrument, or a crack in one of his own high-power lenses, would not be more disturbing than a strong emotion in a nature such as his. And yet there was but one woman to him, and that woman was the late Irene Adler, of dubious and questionable memory.
I had seen little of Holmes lately. My marriage had drifted us away from each other. My own complete happiness, and the home-centred interests which rise up around the man who first finds himself master of his own establishment, were sufficient to absorb all my attention, while Holmes, who loathed every form of society with his whole Bohemian soul, remained in our lodgings in Baker Street, buried among his old books, and alternating from week to week between cocaine and ambition, the drowsiness of the drug, and the fierce energy of his own keen nature. He was still, as ever, deeply attracted by the study of crime, and occupied his immense faculties and extraordinary powers of observation in following out those clues, and clearing up those mysteries which had been abandoned as hopeless by the official police. From time to time I heard some vague account of his doings: of his summons to Odessa in the case of the Trepoff murder, of his clearing up of the singular tragedy of the Atkinson brothers at Trincomalee, and finally of the mission which he had accomplished so delicately and successfully for the reigning family of Holland. Beyond these signs of his activity, however, which I merely shared with all the readers of the daily press, I knew little of my former friend and companion.
One night--it was on the twentieth of March, 1888--I was returning from a journey to a patient (for I had now returned to civil practice), when my way led me through Baker Street. As I passed the well-remembered door, which must always be associated in my mind with my wooing, and with the dark incidents of the Study in Scarlet, I was seized with a keen desire to see Holmes again, and to know how he was employing his extraordinary powers.
His rooms were brilliantly lit, and, even as I looked up, I saw his tall, spare figure pass twice in a dark silhouette against the blind. He was pacing the room swiftly, eagerly, with his head sunk upon his chest and his hands clasped behind him. To me, who knew his every mood and habit, his attitude and manner told their own story. He was at work again. He had risen out of his drug-created dreams and was hot upon the scent of some new problem. I rang the bell and was shown up to the chamber which had formerly been in part my own.
His manner was not effusive. It seldom was; but he was glad, I think, to see me. With hardly a word spoken, but with a kindly eye, he waved me to an armchair, threw across his case of cigars, and indicated a spirit case and a gasogene in the corner. Then he stood before the fire and looked me over in his singular introspective fashion.
“Wedlock suits you,” he remarked. “I think, Watson, that you have put on seven and a half pounds since I saw you.”
“Seven!” I answered.
“Indeed, I should have thought a little more. Just a trifle more, I fancy, Watson. And in practice again, I observe. You did not tell me that you intended to go into harness.”
“Then, how do you know?”
“I see it, I deduce it. How do I know that you have been getting yourself very wet lately, and that you have a most clumsy and careless servant girl?”
“My dear Holmes,” said I, “this is too much. You would certainly have been burned, had you lived a few centuries ago. It is true that I had a country walk on Thursday and came home in a dreadful mess, but as I have changed my clothes I can’t imagine how you deduce it. As to Mary Jane, she is incorrigible, and my wife has given her notice, but there, again, I fail to see how you work it out.”
He chuckled to himself and rubbed his long, nervous hands together.
“It is simplicity itself,” said he; “my eyes tell me that on the inside of your left shoe, just where the firelight strikes it, the leather is scored by six almost parallel cuts. Obviously they have been caused by someone who has very carelessly scraped round the edges of the sole in order to remove crusted mud from it. Hence, you see, my double deduction that you had been out in vile weather, and that you had a particularly malignant boot-slittingspecimen of the London slavey. As to your practice, if a gentleman walks into my rooms smelling of iodoform, with a black mark of nitrate of silver upon his right forefinger, and a bulge on the right side of his top-hat to show where he has secreted his stethoscope, I must be dull, indeed, if I do not pronounce him to be an active member of the medical profession.”
I could not help laughing at the ease with which he explained his process of deduction. “When I hear you give your reasons,” I remarked, “the thing always appears to me to be so ridiculously simple that I could easily do it myself, though at each successive instance of your reasoning I am baffled until you explain your process. And yet I believe that my eyes are as good as yours.”
“Quite so,” he answered, lighting a cigarette, and throwing himself down into an armchair. “You see, but you do not observe. The distinction is clear. For example, you have frequently seen the steps which lead up from the hall to this room.”
“Well, some hundreds of times.”
“Then how many are there?”
“How many? I don’t know.”
“Quite so! You have not observed. And yet you have seen. That is just my point. Now, I know that there are seventeen steps, because I have both seen and observed. By-the-way, since you are interested in these little problems, and since you are good enough to chronicle one or two of my trifling experiences, you may be interested in this.” He threw over a sheet of thick, pink-tinted note-paper which had been lying open upon the table.
“It came by the last post,” said he. “Read it aloud.”
The note was undated, and without either signature or address.
“There will call upon you to-night, at a quarter to eight o’clock,” it said, “a gentleman who desires to consult you upon a matter of the very deepest moment. Your recent services to one of the royal houses of Europe have shown that you are one who may safely be trusted with matters which are of an importance which can hardly be exaggerated. This account of you we have from all quarters received. Be in your chamber then at that hour, and do not take it amiss if your visitor wear a mask.”
“This is indeed a mystery,” I remarked. “What do you imagine that it means?”
“I have no data yet. It is a capital mistake to theorize before one has data. Insensibly one begins to twist facts to suit theories, instead of theories to suit facts. But the note itself. What do you deduce from it?”
I carefully examined the writing, and the paper upon which it was written.
“The man who wrote it was presumably well to do,” I remarked, endeavouring to imitate my companion’s processes. “Such paper could not be bought under half a crown a packet. It is peculiarly strong and stiff.”
“Peculiar--that is the very word,” said Holmes. “It is not an English paper at all. Hold it up to the light.”
I did so, and saw a large “E” with a small “g,” a “P,” and a large “G” with a small “t” woven into the texture of the paper.
“What do you make of that?” asked Holmes.
“The name of the maker, no doubt; or his monogram, rather.”
“Not at all. The ‘G’ with the small ‘t’ stands for ‘Gesellschaft,’ which is the German for ‘Company.’ It is a customary contraction like our ‘Co.’ ‘P,’ of course, stands for ‘Papier.’ Now for the ‘Eg.’ Let us glance at our Continental Gazetteer.” He took down a heavy brown volume from his shelves. “Eglow, Eglonitz--here we are, Egria. It is in a German-speaking country--in Bohemia, not far from Carlsbad. ‘Remarkable as being the scene of the death of Wallenstein, and for its numerous glass-factories and paper-mills.’ Ha, ha, my boy, what do you make of that?” His eyes sparkled, and he sent up a great blue triumphant cloud from his cigarette.
“The paper was made in Bohemia,” I said.
“Precisely. And the man who wrote the note is a German. Do you note the peculiar construction of the sentence--‘This account of you we have from all quarters received.’ A Frenchman or Russian could not have written that. It is the German who is so uncourteous to his verbs. It only remains, therefore, to discover what is wanted by this German who writes upon Bohemian paper and prefers wearing a mask to showing his face. And here he comes, if I am not mistaken, to resolve all our doubts.”
As he spoke there was the sharp sound of horses’ hoofs and grating wheels against the curb, followed by a sharp pull at the bell. Holmes whistled.
“A pair, by the sound,” said he. “Yes,” he continued, glancing out of the window. “A nice little brougham and a pair of beauties. A hundred and fifty guineas apiece. There’s money in this case, Watson, if there is nothing else.”
“I think that I had better go, Holmes.”
“Not a bit, Doctor. Stay where you are. I am lost without my Boswell. And this promises to be interesting. It would be a pity to miss it.”
“But your client--”
“Never mind him. I may want your help, and so may he. Here he comes. Sit down in that armchair, Doctor, and give us your best attention.”
A slow and heavy step, which had been heard upon the stairs and in the passage, paused immediately outside the door. Then there was a loud and authoritative tap.
“Come in!” said Holmes.
A man entered who could hardly have been less than six feet six inches in height, with the chest and limbs of a Hercules. His dress was rich with a richness which would, in England, be looked upon as akin to bad taste. Heavy bands of astrakhan wereslashed across the sleeves and fronts of his double-breasted coat, while the deep blue cloak which was thrown over his shoulders was lined with flame-coloured silk and secured at the neck with a brooch which consisted of a single flaming beryl. Boots which extended halfway up his calves, and which were trimmed at the tops with rich brown fur, completed the impression of barbaric opulence which was suggested by his whole appearance. He carried a broad-brimmed hat in his hand, while he wore across the upper part of his face, extending down past the cheekbones, a black vizard mask, which he had apparently adjusted that very moment, for his hand was still raised to it as he entered. From the lower part of the face he appeared to be a man of strong character, with a thick, hanging lip, and a long, straight chin suggestive ofresolution pushed to the length of obstinacy.
“You had my note?” he asked with a deep harsh voice and a strongly marked German accent. “I told you that I would call.” He looked from one to the other of us, as if uncertain which to address.
“Pray take a seat,” said Holmes. “This is my friend and colleague, Dr. Watson, who is occasionally good enough to help me in my cases. Whom have I the honour to address?”
“You may address me as the Count Von Kramm, a Bohemian nobleman. I understand that this gentleman, your friend, is a man of honour and discretion, whom I may trust with a matter of the most extreme importance. If not, I should much prefer to communicate with you alone.”
I rose to go, but Holmes caught me by the wrist and pushed me back into my chair. “It is both, or none,” said he. “You may say before this gentleman anything which you may say to me.”
The Count shrugged his broad shoulders. “Then I must begin,” said he, “by binding you both to absolute secrecy for two years; at the end of that time the matter will be of no importance. At present it is not too much to say that it is of such weight it may have an influence upon European history.”
“I promise,” said Holmes.
“You will excuse this mask,” continued our strange visitor. “The august person who employs me wishes his agent to be unknown to you, and I may confess at once that the title by which I have just called myself is not exactly my own.”
“I was aware of it,” said Holmes dryly.
“The circumstances are of great delicacy, and every precaution has to be taken to quench what might grow to be an immense scandal and seriously compromise one of the reigning families of Europe. To speak plainly, the matter implicates the great House of Ormstein, hereditary kings of Bohemia.”
“I was also aware of that,” murmured Holmes, settling himself down in his armchair and closing his eyes.
Our visitor glanced with some apparent surprise at the languid, lounging figure of the man who had been no doubt depicted to him as the most incisive reasoner and most energetic agent in Europe. Holmes slowly reopened his eyes and looked impatiently at his gigantic client.
“If your Majesty would condescend to state your case,” he remarked, “I should be better able to advise you.”
The man sprang from his chair and paced up and down the room in uncontrollable agitation. Then, with a gesture of desperation, he tore the mask from his face and hurled it upon the ground. “You are right,” he cried; “I am the King. Why should I attempt to conceal it?”
“Why, indeed?” murmured Holmes. “Your Majesty had not spoken before I was aware that I was addressing Wilhelm Gottsreich Sigismond von Ormstein, Grand Duke of Cassel-Felstein, and hereditary King of Bohemia.”
“But you can understand,” said our strange visitor, sitting down once more and passing his hand over his high white forehead, “you can understand that I am not accustomed to doing such business in my own person. Yet the matter was so delicate that I could not confide it to an agent without putting myself in his power. I have come incognito from Prague for the purpose of consulting you.”
“Then, pray consult,” said Holmes, shutting his eyes once more.
“The facts are briefly these: Some five years ago, during a lengthy visit to Warsaw, I made the acquaintance of the well-known adventuress, Irene Adler. The name is no doubt familiar to you.”
“Kindly look her up in my index, Doctor,” murmured Holmes without opening his eyes. For many years he had adopted a system of docketing all paragraphs concerning men and things, so that it was difficult to name a subject or a person on which he could not at once furnish information. In this case I found her biography sandwiched in between that of a Hebrew rabbi and that of a staff-commander who had written a monograph upon the deep-sea fishes.
“Let me see!” said Holmes. “Hum! Born in New Jersey in the year 1858. Contralto--hum! La Scala, hum! Prima donna Imperial Opera of Warsaw--yes! Retired from operatic stage--ha! Living in London--quite so! Your Majesty, as I understand, became entangled with this young person, wrote her some compromising letters, and is now desirous of getting those letters back.”
“Precisely so. But how--”
“Was there a secret marriage?”
“No legal papers or certificates?”
“Then I fail to follow your Majesty. If this young person should produce her letters for blackmailing or other purposes, how is she to prove their authenticity?”
“There is the writing.”
“Pooh, pooh! Forgery.”
“My private note-paper.”
“My own seal.”
“We were both in the photograph.”
“Oh, dear! That is very bad! Your Majesty has indeed committed an indiscretion.”
“I was mad--insane.”
“You have compromised yourself seriously.”
“I was only Crown Prince then. I was young. I am but thirty now.”
“It must be recovered.”
“We have tried and failed.”
“Your Majesty must pay. It must be bought.”
“She will not sell.”
“Five attempts have been made. Twice burglars in my pay ransacked her house. Once we diverted her luggage when she travelled. Twice she has been waylaid. There has been no result.”
“No sign of it?”
Holmes laughed. “It is quite a pretty little problem,” said he.
“But a very serious one to me,” returned the King reproachfully.
“Very, indeed. And what does she propose to do with the photograph?”
“To ruin me.”
“I am about to be married.”
“So I have heard.”
“To Clotilde Lothman von Saxe-Meningen, second daughter of the King of Scandinavia. You may know the strict principles of her family. She is herself the very soul of delicacy. A shadow of a doubt as to my conduct would bring the matter to an end.”
“And Irene Adler?”
“Threatens to send them the photograph. And she will do it. I know that she will do it. You do not know her, but she has a soul of steel. She has the face of the most beautiful of women, and the mind of the most resolute of men. Rather than I should marry another woman, there are no lengths to which she would not go--none.”
“You are sure that she has not sent it yet?”
“I am sure.”
“Because she has said that she would send it on the day when the betrothal was publicly proclaimed. That will be next Monday.”
“Oh, then we have three days yet,” said Holmes with a yawn. “That is very fortunate, as I have one or two matters of importance to look into just at present. Your Majesty will, of course, stay in London for the present?”
“Certainly. You will find me at the Langham under the name of the Count Von Kramm.”
“Then I shall drop you a line to let you know how we progress.”
“Pray do so. I shall be all anxiety.”
“Then, as to money?”
“You havecarte blanche.”
“I tell you that I would give one of the provinces of my kingdom to have that photograph.”
“And for present expenses?”
The King took a heavy chamois leather bag from under his cloak and laid it on the table.
“There are three hundred pounds in gold and seven hundred in notes,” he said.
Holmesscribbled a receipt upon a sheet of his note-book and handed it to him.
“And Mademoiselle’s address?” he asked.
“Is Briony Lodge, Serpentine Avenue, St. John’s Wood.”
Holmes took a note of it. “One other question,” said he. “Was the photograph a cabinet?”
“Then, good-night, your Majesty, and I trust that we shall soon have some good news for you. And good-night, Watson,” he added, as the wheels of the royal brougham rolled down the street. “If you will be good enough to call to-morrow afternoon at three o’clock I should like to chat this little matter over with you.”
Zaznacz właściwą odpowiedź (A, B, C lub D).
In the first paragraph, Watson describes Irene Adler as
a perfect woman for Sherlock Holmes.
a person of dubious conduct.
a cold reasoner.
an exceptionally important person for Sherlock Holmes.
Which of the following statements is false?
Watson decided to visit Holmes because he’d heard about an interesting case the detective was involved in.
Watson and Holmes used to share the lodgings.
Watson read about Holmes’s investigations in the newspapers.
When Watson arrived, Holmes was under the influence of drugs.
What does Holmes learn from the note he received?
Nothing, because the data is not sufficient.
The sender’s nationality.
The sender’s nationality and position.
The sender’s profession.
Holmes learns who Irene Adler is
from the King of Bohemia.
from his own archive.
from a newspaper.
from his Boswell.
sent a photograph to Clotilde Lothman von Saxe-Maningen.
demanded one of the Bohemian provinces.
didn’t wish to return the photograph.
demanded money for returning the photograph.
“You did not tell me that you intended to go into harness.”
Rzeczownik harness oznacza uprząż, pasy ze sprzączkami, szelki (np. do mocowania spadochronu). Wyraz ten pojawia się w kilku idiomach, np. to be back in/to harness (wracać do pracy po dłuższej przerwie, wracać do kieratu), np.:
I can’t even think of being back to harness again.
Nie mogę nawet myśleć o tym, że znowu wrócę do kieratu.
Czasownik harness oznacza natomiast okiełznać, zaprzęgać, wykorzystywać, np.:
They aimed at harnessing wind as a source of power.
Ich celem było wykorzystanie wiatru jako źródła energii.
All the dogs he harnessed have become weak.
Wszystkie psy, które zaprzągł, osłabły.
Ten wyraz łatwo pomylić z harass (nękać, dręczyć), np.:
The children were severely punished for harassing the poor animal.
Dzieci zostały surowo ukarane za dręczenie biednego zwierzęcia.
“(…) a distracting factor which might throw a doubt upon all his mental results.”
Rzeczownik doubt (wątpliwość) łączy się z różnymi czasownikami. To cast/throw doubt (on/upon something) oznacza podawać coś w wątpliwość. Oto inne czasowniki występujące w związku z doubt:
Do utartych wyrażeń z tym rzeczownikiem należą również:
an element of doubt
– ziarno wątpliwości, drobna wątpliwość
ponad wszelką wątpliwość
if (you’re) in doubt
– w przypadku wątpliwości, w razie wątpliwości
– utrzymująca się wątpliwość
– z pewnością
– poważne wątpliwości
– bez wątpienia
“To Sherlock Holmes she is always THE woman.”
Czasu teraźniejszego prostego (Present Simple) używamy oczywiście do opisu sytuacji niezmiennych i prawd ogólnych. To zastosowanie doskonale ilustruje nasz pierwszy cytat – Irene Adler zawsze jest dla Holmesa TĄ kobietą. Oto kilka innych przykładów:
Jim and I work together.
Ja i Jim pracujemy razem. (sytuacja stała, niezmienna)
Water boils at 100°C.
Woda wrze w temperaturze at 100°C. (prawda ogólna)
Present Simple opisuje również czynności powtarzalne, zwyczajowe i stanowiące rutynę, np.:
I never get up so early.
Nigdy nie wstaję tak wcześnie.
Sarah practises the piano every day.
Sarah codziennie ćwiczy grę na pianinie.
Czasu tego używamy również w innych sytuacjach. Głównie podczas opowiadania historii czy baśni, streszczania fabuły filmu czy książki, np.:
Snow White wakes up to see the Seven Dwarfs.
Królewna Śnieżka budzi się i widzi Siedmiu Krasnoludków.
Watson visits Holmes at their old lodgings.
Watson odwiedza Holmesa w ich dawnym mieszkaniu.
W ten sposób nie tylko relacjonujemy historie, ale również opowiadamy dowcipy, np.:
Two colleagues leave the office together and meet their boss. One of them says…
Dwóch kolegów wychodzi razem z biura i spotyka szefa. Jeden z nich mówi…
Relacjonując historie zawierające nasze własne doświadczenia, również możemy użyć Present Simple, np.:
So, I open the door and guess who’s there!
Więc otwieram drzwi i zgadnij, kto jest w środku!
Ponadto Present Simple stosuje się we wszelkiego rodzaju instrukcjach, np.:
You turn left and you go straight on.
Skręcasz w lewo i idziesz prosto.
Present Simple używany jest także w nagłówkach prasowych, które nawiązują do nieodległej przeszłości, np.:
President meets victims of disaster.
Prezydent spotyka się z ofiarami katastrofy.
Również komentatorzy sportowi, relacjonując przebieg meczu czy innego wydarzenia sportowego, użyją Present Simple, np.:
Lewandowski scores another goal!
Lewandowski zdobywa kolejną bramkę!
Present Simple używa się także w odniesieniu do przyszłości, ale wyłącznie wtedy, kiedy mowa o wydarzeniach zaplanowanych w ramach jakiegoś harmonogramu (rozkładu jazdy, repertuaru kinowego, planu lekcji itd.), np.:
My class starts at 8.15.
Moja lekcja zaczyna się o 8.15.
What time does the bus arrive?
O której przyjeżdża autobus?
W odniesieniu do innych przyszłych czynności na ogół nie stosujemy tego czasu.
Opera Narodowa im. Stanisława Moniuszki w Warszawie mieści się w budynku zbudowanym w latach 1825–1833 według projektu wybitnego architekta Antonia Corazziego. Pierwsze przedstawienie w teatrze odbyło się w lutym 1833 roku. Należy pamiętać, że w czasach współczesnych Holmesowi Polska znajdowała się pod zaborami, a Warszawa podlegała Rosji.
Mówiąc: „I am lost without my Boswell”, Holmes czyni aluzję do roli kronikarza, jaką Watson odgrywa w jego przygodach. Podobną funkcję pełnił bowiem wspomniany James Boswell (1740–1795). Jego najsłynniejszym dziełem była biografia Samuela Johnsona (1709–1784), poety, eseisty, pisarza, wydawcy, a przede wszystkim autora najważniejszego słownika języka angielskiego swoich czasów (Dictionary of the English Language) wydanego w 1755 roku.
Wracając do samego Boswella, dodajmy, że nazwisko pisarza weszło do języka angielskiego jako termin oznaczający czyjegoś towarzysza i obserwatora. Przymiotnik boswellian odnosi się natomiast do wiernego, ale bezkrytycznego kronikarza.
Problem zaopatrzenia okrętów w słodką, zdatną do picia przez dłuższy czas wodę od zawsze był istotny dla powodzenia wypraw dalekomorskich. Któregoś dnia na początku 1772 roku Joseph Priestley (1733–1804) bawił na obiedzie u Hugh Smithsona. Gospodarz pochwalił się chemikowi, iż prawdopodobnie ma rozwiązanie dla tej ważkiej kwestii i dał mu do posmakowania wody przedestylowanej przy użyciu nowej maszyny filtrującej.
Woda nie przypadła Josephowi do smaku, postanowił przeprowadzić własne eksperymenty z użyciem znanego od dawna dwutlenku węgla; jego powstawanie i właściwości opisał już Johann Baptista van Helmont (1579–1644). Tak powstała pierwsza woda gazowana. Musiało minąć jeszcze trochę czasu, zanim stała się popularnym napojem. Około 1815 roku udało się nasycić wodę pod odpowiednio dużym ciśnieniem i w odpowiednim stężeniu. Wkrótce rozpoczęto produkcję wody gazowanej dla celów orzeźwiająco-leczniczych.
Pierwsze syfony, urządzenia do samodzielnego gazowania wody albo innych płynów, pojawiły się w angielskich domach w połowie XIX wieku. Składały się z dwóch połączonych ze sobą pojemników ze szkła. W jednym była woda bądź inny napój przeznaczony do gazowania, w drugim mieszanina wodorowęglanu sodu i kwasu winowego, wytwarzająca dwutlenek węgla. Całość otoczona była wiklinową siatką dla bezpieczeństwa, gdyż wczesne modele mogły łatwo eksplodować. Z początku wszystkie były produkowane w Paryżu, gdzie podobne urządzenia znano już w latach 90. poprzedniego stulecia.
Połącz wyrazy (1–10) z ich definicjami i synonimami (A–J).
a remark which insults another person
to achieve something
slow, with little energy
to try, to attempt
surprised, unable to understand
with a lot of feeling
impossible to correct or change
to describe, to show
Uzupełnij zdania wyrazami z ramki w odpowiedniej formie.
harness; harass; in; cast; doubt; element; beyond
I felt really happy to be back in …………… after the illness.
If …………… doubt, do not hesitate to contact us.
She’s a gifted musician, no …………… about it.
She’s innocent …………… any doubt.
The girl claimed to have been racially …………… at school.
The witness …………… doubt on the suspect’s alibi.
There was a/an …………… of doubt as to whether the students ought to be punished.
Well, I do have serious …………… about his qualifications.
Wybierz właściwą formę lub wyraz.
at eight – don’t be
The house which belonged to
is sold/will be sold
Susan’s symptoms are suggestive
depression, I’m afraid.
Mike must have
my words amiss if he feels insulted.
her doubts concerning our plans.
George has become entangled
his fiancee’s best friend.
After Monica confided the entire affair
me, I’ve felt bound
A Scandal in Bohemia
Zgromadź informacje dotyczące życia i twórczości Sir Arthura Conana Doyle’a. Przygotuj prezentację multimedialną (około 10 slajdów) poświęconą jego biografii.
At three o’clock precisely I was at Baker Street, but Holmes had not yet returned. The landlady informed me that he had left the house shortly after eight o’clock in the morning. I sat down beside the fire, however, with the intention of awaiting him, however long he might be. I was already deeply interested in his inquiry, for, though it was surrounded by none of the grim and strange features which were associated with the two crimes which I have already recorded, still, the nature of the case and the exalted station of his client gave it a character of its own.
Indeed, apart from the nature of the investigation which my friend had on hand, there was something in his masterlygrasp of a situation, and his keen, incisive reasoning, which made it a pleasure to me to study his system of work, and to follow the quick, subtle methods by which he disentangled the most inextricable mysteries. So accustomed was I to his invariable success that the very possibility of his failing had ceased to enter into my head.
It was close upon four before the door opened, and a drunken-looking groom, ill-kempt and side-whiskered, with an inflamed face and disreputable clothes, walked into the room.
Accustomed as I was to my friend’s amazing powers in the use of disguises, I had to look three times before I was certain that it was indeed he. With a nod he vanished into the bedroom, whence he emerged in five minutes tweed-suited and respectable, as of old.
Putting his hands into his pockets, he stretched out his legs in front of the fire and laughed heartily for some minutes.
“Well, really!” he cried, and then he choked and laughed again until he was obliged to lie back, limp and helpless, in the chair.
“What is it?”
“It’s quite too funny. I am sure you could never guess how I employed my morning, or what I ended by doing.”
“I can’t imagine. I suppose that you have been watching the habits, and perhaps the house, of Miss Irene Adler.”
”Quite so; but the sequel was rather unusual. I will tell you, however. I left the house a little after eight o’clock this morning in the character of a groom out of work. There is a wonderful sympathy and freemasonry among horsey men. Be one of them, and you will know all that there is to know. I soon found Briony Lodge. It is a bijou villa, with a garden at the back, but built out in front right up to the road, two stories. Chubb lock to the door. Large sitting-room on the right side, well furnished, with long windows almost to the floor, and those preposterous English window fasteners which a child could open. Behind there was nothing remarkable, save that the passage window could be reached from the top of the coach-house. I walked round it and examined it closely from every point of view, but without noting anything else of interest.”
“I then lounged down the street and found, as I expected, that there was a mews in a lane which runs down by one wall of the garden. I lent the ostlers a hand in rubbing down their horses, and received in exchange twopence, a glass of half and half, two fills of shag tobacco, and asmuch information as I could desire about Miss Adler, to say nothing of half a dozen other people in the neighbourhood in whom I was not in the least interested, but whose biographies I was compelled to listen to.”
“And what of Irene Adler?” I asked.
“Oh, she has turned all the men’s heads down in that part. She is the daintiest thing under a bonnet on this planet. So say the Serpentine-mews, to a man. She lives quietly, sings at concerts, drives out at five every day, and returns at seven sharp for dinner. Seldom goes out at other times, except when she sings. Has only one male visitor, but a good deal of him. He is dark, handsome, and dashing, never calls less than once a day, and often twice. He is a Mr. Godfrey Norton, of the Inner Temple. See the advantages of a cabman as a confidant. They had driven him home a dozen times from Serpentine-mews, and knew all about him. When I had listened to all they had to tell, I began to walk up and down near Briony Lodge once more, and to think over my plan of campaign.”
“This Godfrey Norton was evidently an important factor in the matter. He was a lawyer. That sounded ominous. What was the relation between them, and what the object of his repeated visits? Was she his client, his friend, or his mistress? If the former, she had probably transferred the photograph to his keeping. If the latter, it was less likely. On the issue of this question depended whether I should continue my work at Briony Lodge, or turn my attention to the gentleman’s chambers in the Temple. It was a delicate point, and it widened the field of my inquiry. I fear that I bore you with these details, but I have to let you see my little difficulties, if you are to understand the situation.”
“I am following you closely,” I answered.
“I was still balancing the matter in my mind when a hansom cab drove up to Briony Lodge, and a gentleman sprang out. He was a remarkably handsome man, dark, aquiline, and moustached-- evidently the man of whom I had heard. He appeared to be in a great hurry, shouted to the cabman to wait, and brushed past the maid who opened the door with the air of a man who was thoroughly at home.”
“He was in the house about half an hour, and I could catch glimpses of him in the windows of the sitting-room, pacing up and down, talking excitedly, and waving his arms. Of her I could see nothing. Presently he emerged, looking even more flurried than before. As he stepped up to the cab, he pulled a gold watch from his pocket and looked at it earnestly, ‘Drive like the devil,’ he shouted, ‘first to Gross & Hankey’s in Regent Street, and then to the Church of St. Monica in the Edgeware Road. Half a guinea if you do it in twenty minutes!’”
“Away they went, and I was just wondering whether I should not do well to follow them when up the lane came a neat little landau, the coachman with his coat only half-buttoned, and his tie under his ear, while all the tags of his harness were sticking out of the buckles. It hadn’t pulled up before she shot out of the hall door and into it. I only caught a glimpse of her at the moment, but she was a lovely woman, with a face that a man might die for.”
“’The Church of St. Monica, John,’ she cried, ‘and half sovereign if you reach it in twenty minutes.’”
“This was quite too good to lose, Watson. I was just balancing whether I should run for it, or whether I should perch behind her landau when a cab came through the street. The driver looked twice at such a shabbyfare, but I jumped in before he could object. ‘The Church of St. Monica,’ said I, ‘and half a sovereign if you reach it in twenty minutes.’ It was twenty-five minutes to twelve, and of course it was clear enough what was in the wind.”
“My cabby drove fast. I don’t think I ever drove faster, but the others were there before us. The cab and the landau with their steaming horses were in front of the door when I arrived. I paid the man and hurried into the church. There was not a soul there save the two whom I had followed and a surpliced clergyman, who seemed to be expostulating with them. They were all three standing in a knot in front of the altar. I lounged up the side aisle like any other idler who has dropped into a church. Suddenly, to my surprise, the three at the altar faced round to me, and Godfrey Norton came running as hard as he could towards me.”
“’Thank God,’ he cried. ‘You’ll do. Come! Come!’
‘What then?’ I asked.
“‘Come, man, come, only three minutes, or it won’t be legal.’”
“I was half-dragged up to the altar, and before I knew where I was I found myself mumbling responses which were whispered in my ear, and vouching for things of which I knew nothing, and generally assisting in the secure tying up of Irene Adler, spinster, to Godfrey Norton, bachelor. It was all done in an instant, and there was the gentleman thanking me on the one side and the lady on the other, while the clergyman beamed on me in front. It was the most preposterous position in which I ever found myself in my life, and it was the thought of it that started me laughing just now. It seems that there had been some informality about their license, that the clergyman absolutely refused to marry them without a witness of some sort, and that my lucky appearance saved the bridegroom from having to sally out into the streets in search of a best man. The bride gave me a sovereign, and I mean to wear it on my watch-chain in memory of the occasion.”
“This is a very unexpected turn of affairs,” said I; “and what then?”
“Well, I found my plans very seriously menaced. It looked as if the pair might take an immediate departure, and so necessitate very prompt and energetic measures on my part. At the church door, however, they separated, he driving back to the Temple, and she to her own house. ‘I shall drive out in the park at five as usual,’ she said as she left him. I heard no more. They drove away in different directions, and I went off to make my own arrangements.”
“Some cold beef and a glass of beer,” he answered, ringing the bell. “I have been too busy to think of food, and I am likely to be busier still this evening. By the way, Doctor, I shall want your co-operation.”
“I shall be delighted.”
“You don’t mind breaking the law?”
“Not in the least.”
“Nor running a chance of arrest?”
“Not in a good cause.”
“Oh, the cause is excellent!”
“Then I am your man.”
“I was sure that I might rely on you.”
“But what is it you wish?”
“When Mrs. Turner has brought in the tray I will make it clear to you. Now,” he said as he turned hungrily on the simple fare that our landlady had provided, “I must discuss it while I eat, for I have not much time. It is nearly five now. In two hours we must be on the scene of action. Miss Irene, or Madame, rather, returns from her drive at seven. We must be at Briony Lodge to meet her.”
“And what then?”
“You must leave that to me. I have already arranged what is to occur. There is only one point on which I must insist. You must not interfere, come what may. You understand?”
“I am to be neutral?”
“To do nothing whatever. There will probably be some small unpleasantness. Do not join in it. It will end in my being conveyed into the house. Four or five minutes afterwards the sitting-room window will open. You are to station yourself close to that open window.”
“You are to watch me, for I will be visible to you.”
“And when I raise my hand--so--you will throw into the room what I give you to throw, and will, at the same time, raise the cry of fire. You quite follow me?”
“It is nothing very formidable,” he said, taking a long cigar – shaped roll from his pocket. “It is an ordinary plumber’s smoke-rocket, fitted with a cap at either end to make it self-lighting.”
Your task is confined to that. When you raise your cry of fire, it will be taken up by quite a number of people. You may then walk to the end of the street, and I will rejoin you in ten minutes. I hope that I have made myself clear?”
“I am to remain neutral, to get near the window, to watch you, and at the signal to throw in this object, then to raise the cry of fire, and to wait you at the corner of the street.”
“Then you may entirely rely on me.”
“That is excellent. I think, perhaps, it is almost time that I prepare for the new role I have to play.”
He disappeared into his bedroom and returned in a few minutes in the character of an amiable and simple-minded Nonconformist clergyman. His broad black hat, his baggy trousers, his white tie, his sympathetic smile, and general look of peering and benevolent curiosity were such as Mr. John Hare alone could have equalled. It was not merely that Holmes changed his costume. His expression, his manner, his very soul seemed to vary with every fresh part that he assumed. The stage lost a fine actor, even as science lost an acute reasoner, when he became a specialist in crime.
It was a quarter past six when we left Baker Street, and it still wanted ten minutes to the hour when we found ourselves in Serpentine Avenue. It was already dusk, and the lamps were just being lighted as we paced up and down in front of Briony Lodge, waiting for the coming of its occupant. The house was just such as I had pictured it from Sherlock Holmes’ succinct description, but the locality appeared to be less private than I expected. On the contrary, for a small street in a quiet neighbourhood, it was remarkably animated. There was a group of shabbily dressed men smoking and laughing in a corner, a scissors-grinder with his wheel, two guardsmen who were flirting with a nurse-girl, and several well-dressed young men who were lounging up and down with cigars in their mouths.
“You see,” remarked Holmes, as we paced to and fro in front of the house, “this marriage rather simplifies matters. The photograph becomes a double-edged weapon now. The chances are that she would be as averse to its being seen by Mr. Godfrey Norton, as our client is to its coming to the eyes of his princess. Now the question is, Where are we to find the photograph?”
“It is most unlikely that she carries it about with her. It is cabinet size. Too large for easy concealment about a woman’s dress. She knows that the King is capable of having her waylaid and searched. Two attempts of the sort have already been made. We may take it, then, that she does not carry it about with her.”
“Her banker or her lawyer. There is that double possibility. But I am inclined to think neither. Women are naturally secretive, and they like to do their own secreting. Why should she hand it over to anyone else? She could trust her own guardianship, but she could not tell what indirect or political influence might be brought to bear upon a business man. Besides, remember that she had resolved to use it within a few days. It must be where she can lay her hands upon it. It must be in her own house.”
“But it has twice been burgled.”
“Pshaw! They did not know how to look.”
“But how will you look?”
“I will not look.”
“I will get her to show me.”
“But she will refuse.”
“She will not be able to. But I hear the rumble of wheels. It is her carriage. Now carry out my orders to the letter.”
As he spoke the gleam of the side-lights of a carriage came round the curve of the avenue. It was a smart little landau which rattled up to the door of Briony Lodge. As it pulled up, one of the loafing men at the corner dashed forward to open the door in the hope of earning a copper, but was elbowed away by another loafer