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1994 CIA World Factbook United States Central Intelligence Agency
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The Project Gutenberg EBook of The 1994 CIA World Factbook, by United States Central Intelligence Agency
This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net
Title: The 1994 CIA World Factbook
Author: United States Central Intelligence Agency
Release Date: June 5, 2008 [EBook #180]
*** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE 1994 CIA WORLD FACTBOOK ***
1994 CIA World Factbook
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*The Project Gutenberg Edition of the 1994 CIA World Factbook*
Central Intelligence Agency
The World Factbook 1994
US Government officials should obtain copies of The World Factbook directly from their own organization or through liaison channels from the Central Intelligence Agency. This publication is also available in microfiche, magnetic tape, or diskettes for microcomputers.
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The World Factbook is produced annually by the Central Intelligence Agency for the use of US Government officials, and the style, format, coverage, and content are designed to meet their specific requirements. Information was provided by the Bureau of the Census, Central Intelligence Agency, Defense Intelligence Agency, Defense Nuclear Agency, Department of State, Maritime Administration, National Science Foundation (Polar Information Program), Naval Maritime Intelligence Center, Office of Territorial and International Affairs, US Board on Geographic Names, US Coast Guard, and others.
Comments and queries are welcome and may be addressed to: Central Intelligence Agency Attn.: Office of Public and Agency Information Washington, DC 20505 Telephone: (703) 351-2053
Notes, Definitions, and Abbreviations
A Afghanistan Albania Algeria American Samoa Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Arctic Ocean Argentina Armenia Aruba Ashmore and Cartier Islands Atlantic Ocean Australia Austria Azerbaijan
B Bahamas, The Bahrain Baker Island Bangladesh Barbados Bassas da India Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory British Virgin Islands Brunei Bulgaria Burkina Burma Burundi
C Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China (also see separate Taiwan entry) Christmas Island Clipperton Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Cook Islands Coral Sea Islands Costa Rica Cote d'Ivoire Croatia Cuba Cyprus Czech Republic
D Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic
E Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Europa Island
F Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern and Antarctic Lands
G Gabon Gambia, The Gaza Strip Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Glorioso Islands Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guam Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana
H Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City) Honduras Hong Kong Howland Island Hungary
I Iceland India Indian Ocean Indonesia Iran Iraq Ireland Israel (also see separate Gaza Strip and West Bank entries) Italy
J Jamaica Jan Mayen Japan Jarvis Island Jersey Johnston Atoll Jordan (also see separate West Bank entry) Juan de Nova Island
K Kazakhstan Kenya Kingman Reef Kiribati Korea, North Korea, South Kuwait Kyrgyzstan
L Laos Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg
M Macau Macedonia entry follows Thailand Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Man, Isle of Marshall Islands Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Micronesia, Federated States of Midway Islands Moldova Monaco Mongolia Montserrat Morocco Mozambique
N Namibia Nauru Navassa Island Nepal Netherlands Netherlands Antilles New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Northern Mariana Islands Norway
P Pacific Islands (Palau), Trust Territory of the Pacific Ocean Pakistan Palmyra Atoll Panama Papua New Guinea Paracel Islands Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Islands Poland Portugal Puerto Rico
R Reunion Romania Russia Rwanda
S Saint Helena Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia and Montenegro Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Spain Spratly Islands Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syria
T Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania Thailand The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tromelin Island Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu
U Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan
V Vanuatu Venezuela Vietnam Virgin Islands
W Wake Island Wallis and Futuna West Bank Western Sahara Western Samoa World
Z Zaire Zambia Zimbabwe
Appendixes A: The United Nations System B: Abbreviations for International Organizations and Groups C: International Organizations and Groups D: Abbreviations for Selected International Environmental Agreements E: Selected International Environmental Agreements F: Weights and Measures G: Cross-Reference List of Geographic Names
Reference Maps The World North America Central America and the Caribbean South America Europe Ethnic Groups in Eastern Europe Middle East Africa Asia Commonwealth of Independent States—European States Commonwealth of Independent States—Central Asian States Southeast Asia Oceania Arctic Region Antarctic Region Standard Time Zones of the World
There have been some significant changes in this edition. The format and content of the former entries on the Environment have been changed, and two new appendixes have been added—Appendix D: Abbreviations for Selected International Environmental Agreements and Appendix E: Selected International Environmental Agreements. The name of Macedonia was changed to The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM). The gross domestic product (GDP) of most of the developing countries is now presented on a purchasing power parity (PPP) basis rather than on an exchange rate basis. The electronic files used to produce the Factbook have been restructured into a database. As a result, the formats of some entries in this edition have been changed. Additional changes will occur in the 1995 Factbook.
Abbreviations: (see Appendix B for abbreviations for international organizations and groups and Appendix D for abbreviations for international environmental agreements)
avdp. — avoirdupois
c.i.f. — cost, insurance, and freight
CY — calendar year
DWT — deadweight ton
est. — estimate
Ex-Im — Export-Import Bank of the United States
f.o.b. — free on board
FRG — Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany); used for information dated before 3 October 1990 or CY91
FSU — former Soviet Union
FY — fiscal year
FYROM — The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
GDP — gross domestic product
GDR — German Democratic Republic (East Germany); used for information dated before 3 October 1990 or CY91
GNP — gross national product
GRT — gross register ton
GWP — gross world product
km — kilometer
kW — kilowatt
kWh — kilowatt hour
m — meter
NA — not available
NEGL — negligible
nm — nautical mile
NZ — New Zealand
ODA — official development assistance
OOF — other official flows
PDRY — People's Democratic Republic of Yemen [Yemen (Aden) or South Yemen]; used for information dated before 22 May 1990 or CY91
sq km — square kilometer
sq mi — square mile
UAE — United Arab Emirates
UK — United Kingdom
US — United States
USSR — Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Soviet Union); used for information dated before 25 December 1991
YAR — Yemen Arab Republic [Yemen (Sanaa) or North Yemen]; used for information dated before 22 May 1990 or CY91
Administrative divisions: The numbers, designatory terms, and first-order administrative divisions are generally those approved by the US Board on Geographic Names (BGN). Changes that have been reported but not yet acted on by BGN are noted.
Area: Total area is the sum of all land and water areas delimited by international boundaries and/or coastlines. Land area is the aggregate of all surfaces delimited by international boundaries and/or coastlines, excluding inland water bodies (lakes, reservoirs, rivers). Comparative areas are based on total area equivalents. Most entities are compared with the entire US or one of the 50 states. The smaller entities are compared with Washington, DC (178 sq km, 69 sq mi) or The Mall in Washington, DC (0.59 sq km, 0.23 sq mi, 146 acres).
Birth rate: The average annual number of births during a year per 1,000 population at midyear; also known as crude birth rate.
Dates of information: In general, information available as of 1 January 1994 was used in the preparation of this edition. Population figures are estimates for 1 July 1994, with population growth rates estimated for calendar year 1994. Major political events have been updated through May 1994.
Death rate: The average annual number of deaths during a year per l,000 population at midyear; also known as crude death rate.
Digraphs: The digraph is a two-letter "country code" that precisely identifies every entity without overlap, duplication, or omission. AF, for example, is the digraph for Afghanistan. It is a standardized geopolitical data element promulgated in the Federal Information Processing Standards Publication (FIPS) 10-3 by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (US Department of Commerce) and maintained by the Office of the Geographer (US Department of State). The digraph is used to eliminate confusion and incompatibility in the collection, processing, and dissemination of area-specific data and is particularly useful for interchanging data between databases.
Diplomatic representation: The US Government has diplomatic relations with 183 nations, including 177 of the 184 UN members (excluded UN members are Bhutan, Cuba, Iran, Iraq, North Korea, Vietnam, and former Yugoslavia). In addition, the US has diplomatic relations with 6 nations that are not in the UN - Holy See, Kiribati, Nauru, Switzerland, Tonga, and Tuvalu.
Economic aid: This entry refers to bilateral commitments of official development assistance (ODA) and other official flows (OOF). ODA is defined as financial assistance which is concessional in character, has the main objective to promote economic development and welfare of LDCs. and contains a grant element of at least 25%. OOF transactions are also official government assistance, but with a main objective other than development and with a grant element less than 25%. OOF transactions include official export credits (such as Ex-Im Bank credits), official equity and portfolio investment, and debt reorganization by the official sector that does not meet concessional terms. Aid is considered to have been committed when agreements are initialed by the parties involved and constitute a formal declaration of intent.
Entities: Some of the nations, dependent areas, areas of special sovereignty, and governments included in this publication are not independent, and others are not officially recognized by the US Government. "Nation" refers to a people politically organized into a sovereign state with a definite territory. "Dependent area" refers to a broad category of political entities that are associated in some way with a nation. Names used for page headings are usually the short-form names as approved by the US Board on Geographic Names. There are 266 entities in The World Factbook that may be categorized as follows:
183 — UN members (excluding both the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia; membership status in the UN is still to be determined)
7 — nations that are not members of the UN—Holy See, Kiribati, Nauru, Serbia and Montenegro, Switzerland, Tonga, Tuvalu
1 — Taiwan
6 — Australia—Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Coral Sea Islands, Heard Island and McDonald Islands, Norfolk Island
2 — Denmark—Faroe Islands, Greenland
16 — France—Bassas da India, Clipperton Island, Europa Island, French Guiana, French Polynesia, French Southern and Antarctic Lands, Glorioso Islands, Guadeloupe, Juan de Nova Island, Martinique, Mayotte, New Caledonia, Reunion, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Tromelin Island, Wallis and Futuna
2 — Netherlands—Aruba, Netherlands Antilles
3 — New Zealand—Cook Islands, Niue, Tokelau
3 — Norway—Bouvet Island, Jan Mayen, Svalbard
1 — Portugal—Macau
16 — United Kingdom—Anguilla, Bermuda, British Indian Ocean Territory, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Falkland Islands, Gibraltar, Guernsey, Hong Kong, Jersey, Isle of Man, Montserrat, Pitcairn Islands, Saint Helena, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Turks and Caicos Islands
15 — United States—American Samoa, Baker Island, Guam, Howland Island, Jarvis Island, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Midway Islands, Navassa Island, Northern Mariana Islands, Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (Palau), Palmyra Atoll, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, Wake Island
6 — Antarctica, Gaza Strip, Paracel Islands, Spratly Islands, West Bank, Western Sahara
4 — oceans—Arctic Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean, Pacific Ocean
1 — World
266 — total
Exchange rate: The value of a nation's monetary unit at a given date or over a given period of time, as expressed in units of local currency per US dollar and as determined by international market forces or official fiat.
Gross domestic product (GDP): The value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year.
Gross national product (GNP): The value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year, plus income earned abroad, minus income earned by foreigners from domestic production.
Gross world product (GWP): The aggregate value of all goods and services produced worldwide in a given year.
GNP/GDP methodology: In the "Economy" section, GNP/GDP dollar estimates for the great majority of countries are derived from purchasing power parity (PPP) calculations rather than from conversions at official currency exchange rates. The PPP method normally involves the use of international dollar price weights, which are applied to the quantities of goods and services produced in a given economy. In addition to the lack of reliable data from the majority of countries, the statistician faces a major difficulty in specifying, identifying, and allowing for the quality of goods and services. The division of a GNP/GDP estimate in local currency by the corresponding PPP estimate in dollars gives the PPP conversion rate. On average, one thousand dollars will buy the same market basket of goods in the US as one thousand dollars—converted to the local currency at the PPP conversion rate—will buy in the other country. Whereas PPP estimates for OECD countries are quite reliable, PPP estimates for developing countries are often rough approximations. The latter estimates are based on extrapolation of numbers published by the UN International Comparison Program and by Professors Robert Summers and Alan Heston of the University of Pennsylvania and their colleagues. Because currency exchange rates depend on a variety of international and domestic financial forces that often have little relation to domestic output, use of these rates is less satisfactory for calculating GNP/GDP than the PPP method. In developing countries with weak currencies the exchange rate estimate of GNP/GDP in dollars is typically one- fourth to one-half the PPP estimate. Furthermore, exchange rates may suddenly go up or down by 10% or more because of market forces or official fiat whereas real output has remained unchanged. On 12 January 1994, for example, the 14 countries of the African Financial Community (whose currencies are tied to the French franc) devalued their currencies by 50%. This move, of course, did not cut the real output of these countries by half. One additional caution: the proportion of, say, defense expenditures as a percent of GNP/GDP in local currency accounts may differ substantially from the proportion when GNP/GDP accounts are expressed in PPP terms, as, for example, when an observer estimates the dollar level of Russian or Japanese military expenditures;
Growth rate (population): The annual percent change in the population, resulting from a surplus (or deficit) of births over deaths and the balance of migrants entering and leaving a country. The rate may be positive or negative.
Illicit drugs: There are five categories of illicit drugs—narcotics, stimulants, depressants (sedatives), hallucinogens, and cannabis. These categories include many drugs legally produced and prescribed by doctors as well as those illegally produced and sold outside medical channels.
Cannabis (Cannabis sativa) is the common hemp plant, which provides hallucinogens with some sedative properties, and includes marijuana (pot, Acapulco gold, grass, reefer), tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, Marinol), hashish (hash), and hashish oil (hash oil).
Coca (Erythroxylon coca) is a bush, and the leaves contain the stimulant cocaine. Coca is not to be confused with cocoa, which comes from cacao seeds and is used in making chocolate, cocoa, and cocoa butter.
Cocaine is a stimulant derived from the leaves of the coca bush.
Depressants (sedatives) are drugs that reduce tension and anxiety and include chloral hydrate, barbiturates (Amytal, Nembutal, Seconal, phenobarbital), benzodiazepines (Librium, Valium), methaqualone (Quaalude), glutethimide (Doriden), and others (Equanil, Placidyl, Valmid).
Drugs are any chemical substances that effect a physical, mental, emotional, or behavioral change in an individual.
Drug abuse is the use of any licit or illicit chemical substance that results in physical, mental, emotional, or behavioral impairment in an individual.
Hallucinogens are drugs that affect sensation, thinking, self-awareness, and emotion. Hallucinogens include LSD (acid, microdot), mescaline and peyote (mexc, buttons, cactus), amphetamine variants (PMA, STP, DOB), phencyclidine (PCP, angel dust, hog), phencyclidine analogues (PCE, PCPy, TCP), and others (psilocybin, psilocyn).
Hashish is the resinous exudate of the cannabis or hemp plant (Cannabis sativa).
Heroin is a semisynthetic derivative of morphine.
Mandrax is a synthetic chemical depressant, the same as, or similar to Quaalude.
Marijuana is the dried leaves of the cannabis or hemp plant (Cannabis sativa).
Narcotics are drugs that relieve pain, often induce sleep, and refer to opium, opium derivatives, and synthetic substitutes. Natural narcotics include opium (paregoric, parepectolin), morphine (MS-Contin, Roxanol), codeine (Tylenol with codeine, Empirin with codeine, Robitussan AC), and thebaine. Semisynthetic narcotics include heroin (horse, smack), and hydromorphone (Dilaudid). Synthetic narcotics include meperidine or Pethidine (Demerol, Mepergan), methadone (Dolophine, Methadose), and others (Darvon, Lomotil).
Opium is the milky exudate of the incised, unripe seedpod of the opium poppy.
Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) is the source for many natural and semisynthetic narcotics.
Poppy straw concentrate is the alkaloid derived from the mature dried opium poppy.
Qat (kat, khat) is a stimulant from the buds or leaves of catha edulis that is chewed or drunk as tea.
Stimulants are drugs that relieve mild depression, increase energy and activity, and include cocaine (coke, snow, crack), amphetamines (Desoxyn, Dexedrine), phenmetrazine (Preludin), methylphenidate (Ritalin), and others (Cylert, Sanorex, Tenuate).
Infant mortality rate: The number of deaths to infants under one year old in a given year per l,000 live births occurring in the same year.
International disputes: This category includes a wide variety of situations that range from traditional bilateral boundary disputes to unilateral claims of one sort or another. Information regarding disputes over international boundaries and maritime boundaries has been reviewed by the Department of State. References to other situations involving borders or frontiers may also be included, such as resource disputes, geopolitical questions, or irredentist issues. However, inclusion does not necessarily constitute official acceptance or recognition by the US Government.
Irrigated land: The figure refers to the land area that is artificially supplied with water.
Land use: Human use of the land surface is categorized as arable land—land cultivated for crops that are replanted after each harvest (wheat, maize, rice); permanent crops—land cultivated for crops that are not replanted after each harvest (citrus, coffee, rubber); meadows and pastures—land permanently used for herbaceous forage crops; forest and woodland—under dense or open stands of trees; and other—any land type not specifically mentioned above (urban areas, roads, desert).
Leaders: The chief of state is the titular leader of the country who represents the state at official and ceremonial functions but is not involved with the day- to-day activities of the government. The head of government is the administrative leader who manages the day-to-day activities of the government. In the UK, the monarch is the chief of state, and the Prime Minister is the head of government. In the US, the President is both the chief of state and the head of government.
Life expectancy at birth: The average number of years to be lived by a group of people all born in the same year, if mortality at each age remains constant in the future.
Literacy: There are no universal definitions and standards of literacy. Unless otherwise noted, all rates are based on the most common definition—the ability to read and write at a specified age. Detailing the standards that individual countries use to assess the ability to read and write is beyond the scope of this publication.
Maritime claims: The proximity of neighboring states may prevent some national claims from being extended the full distance.
Merchant marine: All ships engaged in the carriage of goods. All commercial vessels (as opposed to all nonmilitary ships), which excludes tugs, fishing vessels, offshore oil rigs, etc.; also, a grouping of merchant ships by nationality or register.
Captive register—A register of ships maintained by a territory, possession, or colony primarily or exclusively for the use of ships owned in the parent country; also referred to as an offshore register, the offshore equivalent of an internal register. Ships on a captive register will fly the same flag as the parent country, or a local variant of it, but will be subject to the maritime laws and taxation rules of the offshore territory. Although the nature of a captive register makes it especially desirable for ships owned in the parent country, just as in the internal register, the ships may also be owned abroad. The captive register then acts as a flag of convenience register, except that it is not the register of an independent state.
Flag of convenience register—A national register offering registration to a merchant ship not owned in the flag state. The major flags of convenience (FOC) attract ships to their register by virtue of low fees, low or nonexistent taxation of profits, and liberal manning requirements. True FOC registers are characterized by having relatively few of the ships registered actually owned in the flag state. Thus, while virtually any flag can be used for ships under a given set of circumstances, an FOC register is one where the majority of the merchant fleet is owned abroad. It is also referred to as an open register.
Flag state—The nation in which a ship is registered and which holds legal jurisdiction over operation of the ship, whether at home or abroad. Differences in flag state maritime legislation determine how a ship is manned and taxed and whether a foreign-owned ship may be placed on the register.
Internal register—A register of ships maintained as a subset of a national register. Ships on the internal register fly the national flag and have that nationality but are subject to a separate set of maritime rules from those on the main national register. These differences usually include lower taxation of profits, manning by foreign nationals, and, usually, ownership outside the flag state (when it functions as an FOC register). The Norwegian International Ship Register and Danish International Ship Register are the most notable examples of an internal register. Both have been instrumental in stemming flight from the national flag to flags of convenience and in attracting foreign owned ships to the Norwegian and Danish flags.
Merchant ship—A vessel that carries goods against payment of freight; commonly used to denote any nonmilitary ship but accurately restricted to commercial vessels only.
Register—The record of a ship's ownership and nationality as listed with the maritime authorities of a country; also, the compendium of such individual ships' registrations. Registration of a ship provides it with a nationality and makes it subject to the laws of the country in which registered (the flag state) regardless of the nationality of the ship's ultimate owner.
Money figures: All money figures are expressed in contemporaneous US dollars unless otherwise indicated.
National product: The total output of goods and services in a country in a given year. See Gross domestic product (GDP), Gross national product (GNP), and GNP/GDP methodology.
Net migration rate: The balance between the number of persons entering and leaving a country during the year per 1,000 persons (based on midyear population). An excess of persons entering the country is referred to as net immigration (3.56 migrants/1,000 population); an excess of persons leaving the country as net emigration (-9.26 migrants/1,000 population).
Population: Figures are estimates from the Bureau of the Census based on statistics from population censuses, vital statistics registration systems, or sample surveys pertaining to the recent past, and on assumptions about future trends. Starting with the 1993 Factbook demographic estimates for some countries (mostly African) have taken into account the effects of the growing incidence of AIDS infections; in 1993 these countries were Burkina, Burundi, Central African Republic, Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Haiti, Kenya, Malawi, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Thailand, and Brazil.
Total fertility rate: The average number of children that would be born per woman if all women lived to the end of their childbearing years and bore children according to a given fertility rate at each age.
Years: All year references are for the calendar year (CY) unless indicated as fiscal year (FY).
Note: Information for the US and US dependencies was compiled from material in the public domain and does not represent Intelligence Community estimates. The Handbook of International Economic Statistics, published annually in September by the Central Intelligence Agency, contains detailed economic information for the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries, Eastern Europe, the newly independent republics of the former nations of Yugoslavia and the Soviet Union, and selected other countries. The Handbook can be obtained wherever The World Factbook is available.
Location: Southern Asia, between Iran and Pakistan Map references: Asia, Middle East, Standard Time Zones of the World Area: total area: 647,500 sq km land area: 647,500 sq km comparative area: slightly smaller than Texas Land boundaries: total 5,529 km, China 76 km, Iran 936 km, Pakistan 2,430 km, Tajikistan 1,206 km, Turkmenistan 744 km, Uzbekistan 137 km Coastline: 0 km (landlocked) Maritime claims: none; landlocked International disputes: periodic disputes with Iran over Helmand water rights; Iran supports clients in country, private Pakistani and Saudi sources also are active; power struggles among various groups for control of Kabul, regional rivalries among emerging warlords, traditional tribal disputes continue; support to Islamic fighters in Tajikistan's civil war; border dispute with Pakistan (Durand Line); support to Islamic militants worldwide by some factions Climate: arid to semiarid; cold winters and hot summers Terrain: mostly rugged mountains; plains in north and southwest Natural resources: natural gas, petroleum, coal, copper, talc, barites, sulphur, lead, zinc, iron ore, salt, precious and semiprecious stones Land use: arable land: 12% permanent crops: 0% meadows and pastures: 46% forest and woodland: 3% other: 39% Irrigated land: 26,600 sq km (1989 est.) Environment: current issues: soil degradation; overgrazing; deforestation (much of the remaining forests are being cut down for fuel and building materials); desertification natural hazards: damaging earthquakes occur in Hindu Kush mountains (one measured 6.8 on the Richter scale in 1991); flooding international agreements: party to - Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation Note: landlocked
Population: 16,903,400 (July 1994 est.) Population growth rate: 2.45% (1994 est.) Birth rate: 43.46 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) Death rate: 18.94 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) Infant mortality rate: 155.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) Life expectancy at birth: total population: 44.89 years male: 45.53 years female: 44.21 years (1994 est.) Total fertility rate: 6.27 children born/woman (1994 est.) Nationality: noun: Afghan(s) adjective: Afghan Ethnic divisions: Pashtun 38%, Tajik 25%, Uzbek 6%, Hazara 19%, minor ethnic groups (Chahar Aimaks, Turkmen, Baloch, and others) Religions: Sunni Muslim 84%, Shi'a Muslim 15%, other 1% Languages: Pashtu 35%, Afghan Persian (Dari) 50%, Turkic languages (primarily Uzbek and Turkmen) 11%, 30 minor languages (primarily Balochi and Pashai) 4%, much bilingualism Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.) total population: 29% male: 44% female: 14% Labor force: 4.98 million by occupation: agriculture and animal husbandry 67.8%, industry 10.2%, construction 6.3%, commerce 5.0%, services and other 10.7% (1980 est.)
Railroads: 9.6 km (single track) 1.524-meter gauge from Gushgy (formerly Kushka) (Turkmenistan) to Towraghondi and 15.0 km from Termiz (Uzbekistan) to Kheyrabad transshipment point on south bank of Amu Darya Highways: total: 21,000 km paved: 2,800 km unpaved: gravel 1,650 km; earth 16,550 km (1984) Inland waterways: total navigability 1,200 km; chiefly Amu Darya, which handles vessels up to about 500 metric tons Pipelines: petroleum products - Uzbekistan to Bagram and Turkmenistan to Shindand; natural gas 180 km Ports: Shir Khan and Kheyrabad (river ports) Airports: total: 42 usable: 35 with permanent-surface runways: 9 with runways over 3,659 m: 0 with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 10 with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 17 Telecommunications: limited telephone, telegraph, and radiobroadcast services; television introduced in 1980; 31,200 telephones; numerous cellular telephones; broadcast stations - 5 AM, no FM, 1 TV; 1 satellite earth station
@Afghanistan, Defense Forces
Branches: the military still does not yet exist on a national scale; some elements of the former Army, Air and Air Defense Forces, National Guard, Border Guard Forces, National Police Force (Sarandoi), and tribal militias remain intact but are factionalized among the various mujahedin and former regime leaders Manpower availability: males age 15-49 4,188,036; fit for military service 2,245,196; reach military age (22) annually 158,335 (1994 est.) Defense expenditures: the new government has not yet adopted a defense budget
Location: Balkan State, Southeastern Europe, on the Balkan Peninsula between Serbia and Montenegro and Greece Map references: Africa, Ethnic Groups in Eastern Europe, Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World Area: total area: 28,750 sq km land area: 27,400 sq km comparative area: slightly larger than Maryland Land boundaries: total 720 km, Greece 282 km, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 151 km, Serbia and Montenegro 287 km (114 km with Serbia, 173 km with Montenegro) Coastline: 362 km Maritime claims: continental shelf: not specified territorial sea: 12 nm International disputes: Albanian majority in Kosovo seeks independence from Serbia and Montenegro, and the Albanian Government supports the Kosovo position politically Climate: mild temperate; cool, cloudy, wet winters; hot, clear, dry summers; interior is cooler and wetter Terrain: mostly mountains and hills; small plains along coast Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, coal, chromium, copper, timber, nickel Land use: arable land: 21% permanent crops: 4% meadows and pastures: 15% forest and woodland: 38% other: 22% Irrigated land: 4,230 sq km (1989) Environment: current issues: deforestation natural hazards: subject to destructive earthquakes; tsunami occur along southwestern coast international agreements: party to - Biodiversity Note: strategic location along Strait of Otranto (links Adriatic Sea to Ionian Sea and Mediterranean Sea)
Population: 3,374,085 (July 1994 est.) note: IMF, working with Albanian government figures estimates the population at 3,120,000 in 1993 and that the population has fallen since 1990 Population growth rate: 1.19% (1994 est.) Birth rate: 22.46 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) Death rate: 5.32 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) Net migration rate: -5.27 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) Infant mortality rate: 30 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) Life expectancy at birth: total population: 73.4 years male: 70.42 years female: 76.61 years (1994 est.) Total fertility rate: 2.78 children born/woman (1994 est.) Nationality: noun: Albanian(s) adjective: Albanian Ethnic divisions: Albanian 95%, Greeks 3%, other 2% (Vlachs, Gypsies, Serbs, and Bulgarians) (1989 est.) Religions: Muslim 70%, Greek Orthodox 20%, Roman Catholic 10% note: all mosques and churches were closed in 1967 and religious observances prohibited; in November 1990, Albania began allowing private religious practice Languages: Albanian (Tosk is the official dialect), Greek Literacy: age 9 and over can read and write (1955) total population: 72% male: 80% female: 63% Labor force: 1.5 million (1987) by occupation: agriculture 60%, industry and commerce 40% (1986)
Names: conventional long form: Republic of Albania conventional short form: Albania local long form: Republika e Shqiperise local short form: Shqiperia former: People's Socialist Republic of Albania Digraph: AL Type: nascent democracy Capital: Tirane Administrative divisions: 26 districts (rrethe, singular - rreth); Berat, Dibre, Durres, Elbasan, Fier, Gjirokaster, Gramsh, Kolonje, Korce, Kruje, Kukes, Lezhe, Librazhd, Lushnje, Mat, Mirdite, Permet, Pogradec, Puke, Sarande, Shkoder, Skrapar, Tepelene, Tirane, Tropoje, Vlore Independence: 28 November 1912 (from Ottoman Empire) National holiday: Liberation Day, 28 November (1944; changed by decree on 12 November 1993) Constitution: an interim basic law was approved by the People's Assembly on 29 April 1991; a new constitution was to be drafted for adoption in 1992, but is still in process Legal system: has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction Suffrage: 18 years of age, universal and compulsory Executive branch: chief of state: President of the Republic Sali BERISHA (since 9 April 1992) head of government: Prime Minister of the Council of Ministers Aleksander Gabriel MEKSI (since 10 April 1992) Cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by the president Legislative branch: unicameral People's Assembly (Kuvendi Popullor): elections last held 22 March 1992; results - DP 62.29%, ASP 25.57%, SDP 4.33%, RP 3.15%, UHP 2.92%, other 1.74%; seats - (140 total) DP 92, ASP 38, SDP 7, RP 1, UHP 2 Judicial branch: Supreme Court Political parties and leaders: there are at least 18 political parties; most prominent are the Albanian Socialist Party (ASP; formerly the Albania Workers Party), Fatos NANO, first secretary; Democratic Party (DP), Eduard SELAMI, chairman; Albanian Republican Party (RP), Sabri GODO; Omonia (Greek minority party), leader NA (ran in 1992 election as Unity for Human Rights Party (UHP)); Social Democratic Party (SDP), Skender GJINUSHI; Democratic Alliance Party (DAP), Spartak NGJELA, chairman Member of: BSEC, CCC, CE (guest), CSCE, EBRD, ECE, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LORCS, NACC, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Lublin Hasan DILJA chancery: Suite 1010, 1511 K Street NW, Washington, DC 20005 telephone: (202) 223-4942, 8187 FAX: (202) 628-7342 US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador William E. RYERSON embassy: Rruga E. Elbansanit 103, Tirane mailing address: PSC 59, Box 100 (A), APO AE 09624 telephone: 355-42-32875, 33520 FAX: 355-42-32222 Flag: red with a black two-headed eagle in the center
Railroads: 543 km total; 509 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, single track and 34 km narrow gauge, single track (1990); line connecting Titograd (Serbia and Montenegro) and Shkoder (Albania) completed August 1986 Highways: total: 16,700 km paved: 6,700 km unpaved: earth 10,000 km (1990) Inland waterways: 43 km plus Albanian sections of Lake Scutari, Lake Ohrid, and Lake Prespa (1990) Pipelines: crude oil 145 km; petroleum products 55 km; natural gas 64 km (1991) Ports: Durres, Sarande, Vlore Merchant marine: 11 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 52,967 GRT/76,887 DWT Airports: total: 12 usable: 10 with permanent-surface runways: 3 with runways over 3,659 m: 0 with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 6 with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 4 Telecommunications: inadequate service; 15,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 13 AM, 1 TV; 514,000 radios, 255,000 TVs (1987 est.)
@Albania, Defense Forces
Branches: Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, Interior Ministry Troops Manpower availability: males age 15-49 906,938; fit for military service 746,945; reach military age (19) annually 33,184 (1994 est.) Defense expenditures: 215 million leke, NA% of GNP (1993 est.); note - conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using the current exchange rate could produce misleading results
Location: Northern Africa, along the Mediterranean Sea, between Morocco and Tunisia Map references: Africa, Europe Area: total area: 2,381,740 sq km land area: 2,381,740 sq km comparative area: slightly less than 3.5 times the size of Texas Land boundaries: total 6,343 km, Libya 982 km, Mali 1,376 km, Mauritania 463 km, Morocco 1,559 km, Niger 956 km, Tunisia 965 km, Western Sahara 42 km Coastline: 998 km Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm International disputes: Libya claims part of southeastern Algeria; land boundary dispute with Tunisia settled in 1993 Climate: arid to semiarid; mild, wet winters with hot, dry summers along coast; drier with cold winters and hot summers on high plateau; sirocco is a hot, dust/sand-laden wind especially common in summer Terrain: mostly high plateau and desert; some mountains; narrow, discontinuous coastal plain Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, uranium, lead, zinc Land use: arable land: 3% permanent crops: 0% meadows and pastures: 13% forest and woodland: 2% other: 82% Irrigated land: 3,360 sq km (1989 est.) Environment: current issues: soil erosion from overgrazing and other poor farming practices; desertification; dumping of untreated sewage, petroleum refining wastes, and other industrial effluents is leading to the pollution of rivers and coastal waters; Mediterranean Sea, in particular, becoming polluted from oil wastes, soil erosion, and fertilizer runoff; limited supply of potable water natural hazards: mountainous areas subject to severe earthquakes international agreements: party to - Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban Note: second-largest country in Africa (after Sudan)
Population: 27,895,068 (July 1994 est.) Population growth rate: 2.29% (1994 est.) Birth rate: 29.71 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) Death rate: 6.22 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) Net migration rate: -0.58 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) Infant mortality rate: 52.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) Life expectancy at birth: total population: 67.68 years male: 66.63 years female: 68.77 years (1994 est.) Total fertility rate: 3.83 children born/woman (1994 est.) Nationality: noun: Algerian(s) adjective: Algerian Ethnic divisions: Arab-Berber 99%, European less than 1% Religions: Sunni Muslim (state religion) 99%, Christian and Jewish 1% Languages: Arabic (official), French, Berber dialects Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.) total population: 57% male: 70% female: 46% Labor force: 6.2 million (1992 est.) by occupation: government 29.5%, agriculture 22%, construction and public works 16.2%, industry 13.6%, commerce and services 13.5%, transportation and communication 5.2% (1989)
Names: conventional long form: Democratic and Popular Republic of Algeria conventional short form: Algeria local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Jaza'iriyah ad Dimuqratiyah ash Shabiyah local short form: Al Jaza'ir Digraph: AG Type: republic Capital: Algiers Administrative divisions: 48 provinces (wilayast, singular - wilaya); Adrar, Ain Defla, Ain Temouchent, Alger, Annaba, Batna, Bechar, Bejaia, Biskra, Blida, Bordj Bou Arreridj, Bouira, Boumerdes, Chlef, Constantine, Djelfa, El Bayadh, El Oued, El Tarf, Ghardaia, Guelma, Illizi, Jijel, Khenchela, Laghouat, Mascara, Medea, Mila, Mostaganem, M'Sila, Naama, Oran, Ouargla, Oum el Bouaghi, Relizane, Saida, Setif, Sidi Bel Abbes, Skikda, Souk Ahras, Tamanghasset, Tebessa, Tiaret, Tindouf, Tipaza, Tissemsilt, Tizi Ouzou, Tlemcen Independence: 5 July 1962 (from France) National holiday: Anniversary of the Revolution, 1 November (1954) Constitution: 19 November 1976, effective 22 November 1976; revised 3 November 1988 and 23 February 1989 Legal system: socialist, based on French and Islamic law; judicial review of legislative acts in ad hoc Constitutional Council composed of various public officials, including several Supreme Court justices; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal Executive branch: chief of state: President Lamine ZEROUAL (since 31 January 1994); next election to be held after a three-year transition period which began on 31 January 1994 head of government: Prime Minister Mokdad SIFI (since 11 April 1994) cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by the prime minister Legislative branch: unicameral National People's Assembly (Al-Majlis Ech-Chaabi Al-Watani): elections first round held on 26 December 1991 (second round canceled by the military after President BENDJEDID resigned 11 January 1992, effectively suspending the Assembly); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (281 total); the fundamentalist FIS won 188 of the 231 seats contested in the first round; note - elections (municipal and wilaya) were held in June 1990, the first in Algerian history; results - FIS 55%, FLN 27.5%, other 17.5%, with 65% of the voters participating Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme) Political parties and leaders: Islamic Salvation Front (FIS, outlawed April 1992), Ali BELHADJ, Dr. Abassi MADANI, Abdelkader HACHANI (all under arrest), Rabeh KEBIR (self-exile in Germany); National Liberation Front (FLN), Abdelhamid MEHRI, Secretary General; Socialist Forces Front (FFS), Hocine Ait AHMED, Secretary General note: the government established a multiparty system in September 1989 and, as of 31 December 1990, over 50 legal parties existed Member of: ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, AMU, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAPEC, OAS (observer), OAU, OIC, OPEC, UN, UNAVEM II, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNTAC, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Nourredine Yazid ZERHOUNI chancery: 2118 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: (202) 265-2800 US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador Mary Ann CASEY embassy: 4 Chemin Cheikh Bachir El-Ibrahimi, Algiers mailing address: B. P. Box 549, Alger-Gare, 16000 Algiers telephone:  (2) 601-425, 255, 186 FAX:  (2) 603979 consulate(s): Oran Flag: two equal vertical bands of green (hoist side) and white with a red five-pointed star within a red crescent; the crescent, star, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam (the state religion)
Railroads: 4,060 km total; 2,616 km standard gauge (1.435 m), 1,188 km 1.055-meter gauge, 256 km 1.000-meter gauge; 300 km electrified; 215 km double track Highways: total: 90,031 km paved: concrete, bituminous 58,868 km unpaved: gravel, crushed stone, earth 31,163 km (1990) Pipelines: crude oil 6,612 km; petroleum products 298 km; natural gas 2,948 km Ports: Algiers, Annaba, Arzew, Bejaia, Djendjene, Ghazaouet, Jijel, Mers el Kebir, Mostaganem, Oran, Skikda Merchant marine: 75 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 903,179 GRT/1,064,211 DWT, bulk 9, cargo 27, chemical tanker 7, liquefied gas 9, oil tanker 5, roll-on/roll-off cargo 12, short-sea passenger 5, specialized tanker 1 Airports: total: 140 usable: 124 with permanent-surface runways: 53 with runways over 3,659 m: 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 32 with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 65 Telecommunications: excellent domestic and international service in the north, sparse in the south; 822,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 26 AM, no FM, 18 TV; 1,600,000 TV sets; 5,200,000 radios; 5 submarine cables; microwave radio relay to Italy, France, Spain, Morocco, and Tunisia; coaxial cable to Morocco and Tunisia; satellite earth stations - 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Intersputnik, l ARABSAT, and 12 domestic; 20 additional satellite earth stations are planned
@Algeria, Defense Forces
Branches: National Popular Army, Navy, Air Force, Territorial Air Defense Manpower availability: males age 15-49 6,863,378; fit for military service 4,215,767; reach military age (19) annually 301,945 (1994 est.) Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $1.36 billion, 2.5% of GDP (1993 est.)
Affiliation: (territory of the US)
@American Samoa, Geography
Location: Oceania, Polynesia, in the South Pacific Ocean, 3,700 km south-southwest of Honolulu, about halfway between Hawaii and New Zealand Map references: Oceania Area: total area: 199 sq km land area: 199 sq km comparative area: slightly larger than Washington, DC note: includes Rose Island and Swains Island Land boundaries: 0 km Coastline: 116 km Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 nm continental shelf: 200-m depth or to depth of exploitation exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm International disputes: none Climate: tropical marine, moderated by southeast trade winds; annual rainfall averages 124 inches; rainy season from November to April, dry season from May to October; little seasonal temperature variation Terrain: five volcanic islands with rugged peaks and limited coastal plains, two coral atolls (Rose Island, Swains Island) Natural resources: pumice, pumicite Land use: arable land: 10% permanent crops: 5% meadows and pastures: 0% forest and woodland: 75% other: 10% Irrigated land: NA sq km Environment: rent issues: NA ural hazards: typhoons common from December to March ernational agreements: NA Note: Pago Pago has one of the best natural deepwater harbors in the South Pacific Ocean, sheltered by shape from rough seas and protected by peripheral mountains from high winds; strategic location in the South Pacific Ocean
@American Samoa, People
Population: 55,223 (July 1994 est.) Population growth rate: 3.86% (1994 est.) Birth rate: 36.63 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) Death rate: 4.01 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) Net migration rate: 6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) Infant mortality rate: 18.78 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) Life expectancy at birth: Total population: 72.91 years male: 71.03 years female: 74.85 years (1994 est.) Total fertility rate: 4.36 children born/woman (1994 est.) Nationality: noun: American Samoan(s) adjective: American Samoan Ethnic divisions: Samoan (Polynesian) 89%, Caucasian 2%, Tongan 4%, other 5% Religions: Christian Congregationalist 50%, Roman Catholic 20%, Protestant denominations and other 30% Languages: Samoan (closely related to Hawaiian and other Polynesian languages), English; most people are bilingual Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1980) total population: 97% male: 97% female: 97% Labor force: 14,400 (1990) by occupation: government 33%, tuna canneries 34%, other 33% (1990)
@American Samoa, Government
Names: conventional long form: Territory of American Samoa conventional short form: American Samoa Abbreviation: AS Digraph: AQ Type: unincorporated and unorganized territory of the US; administered by the US Department of Interior, Office of Territorial and International Affairs Capital: Pago Pago Administrative divisions: none (territory of the US) Independence: none (territory of the US) National holiday: Territorial Flag Day, 17 April (1900) Constitution: ratified 1966, in effect 1967 Legal system: NA Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal Executive branch: chief of state: President William Jefferson CLINTON (since 20 January 1993); Vice President Albert GORE, Jr. (since 20 January 1993) head of government: Governor A. P. LUTALI (since 3 January 1993); Lieutenant Governor Tauese P. SUNIA (since 3 January 1993); election last held 3 November 1992 (next to be held NA November 1996); results - A. P. LUTALI (Democrat) 53%, Peter Tali COLEMAN (Republican) 36% Legislative branch: bicameral Legislative Assembly (Fono) House of Representatives: elections last held 3 November 1992 (next to be held NA November 1994); results - representatives popularly elected from 17 house districts; seats - (21 total, 20 elected, and 1 nonvoting delegate from Swains Island) Senate: elections last held 3 November 1992 (next to be held NA November 1996); results - senators elected by village chiefs from 12 senate districts; seats - (18 total) number of seats by party NA US House of Representatives: elections last held 3 November 1992 (next to be held NA November 1994); results - Eni R. F. H. FALEOMAVAEGA reelected as delegate Judicial branch: High Court Political parties and leaders: NA Member of: ESCAP (associate), INTERPOL (subbureau), IOC, SPC Diplomatic representation in US: none (territory of the US) US diplomatic representation: none (territory of the US) Flag: blue with a white triangle edged in red that is based on the fly side and extends to the hoist side; a brown and white American bald eagle flying toward the hoist side is carrying two traditional Samoan symbols of authority, a staff and a war club
@American Samoa, Economy
@American Samoa, Communications
Railroads: none Highways: total: 350 km paved: 150 km unpaved: 200 km Ports: Pago Pago, Ta'u, Ofu, Auasi, Aanu'u (new construction), Faleosao Airports: total: 4 usable: 4 with permanent-surface runways: 2 with runways over 3,659 m: 0 with runways 2,440 to 3,659 m: 1 (international airport at Tafuna) with runways 1,200 to 2,439 m: 0 note: small airstrips on Fituita and Ofu Telecommunications: 8,399 telephones; broadcast stations - 1 AM, 1 FM, 1 TV; good telex, telegraph, and facsimile services; 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth station, 1 COMSAT earth station
@American Samoa, Defense Forces
Note: defense is the responsibility of the US
Location: Southwestern Europe, between France and Spain Map references: Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World Area: total area: 450 sq km land area: 450 sq km comparative area: slightly more than 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC Land boundaries: total 125 km, France 60 km, Spain 65 km Coastline: 0 km (landlocked) Maritime claims: none; landlocked International disputes: none Climate: temperate; snowy, cold winters and cool, dry summers Terrain: rugged mountains dissected by narrow valleys Natural resources: hydropower, mineral water, timber, iron ore, lead Land use: arable land: 2% permanent crops: 0% meadows and pastures: 56% forest and woodland: 22% other: 20% Irrigated land: NA sq km Environment: current issues: deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion natural hazards: NA international agreements: NA Note: landlocked
Population: 63,930 (July 1994 est.) Population growth rate: 2.99% (1994 est.) Birth rate: 13.34 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) Death rate: 7.12 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) Net migration rate: 23.65 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) Infant mortality rate: 7.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) Life expectancy at birth: total population: 78.37 years male: 75.5 years female: 81.5 years (1994 est.) Total fertility rate: 1.73 children born/woman (1994 est.) Nationality: noun: Andorran(s) adjective: Andorran Ethnic divisions: Spanish 61%, Andorran 30%, French 6%, other 3% Religions: Roman Catholic (predominant) Languages: Catalan (official), French, Castilian Literacy: total population: NA% male: NA% female: NA% Labor force: NA
Names: conventional long form: Principality of Andorra conventional short form: Andorra local long form: Principat d'Andorra local short form: Andorra Digraph: AN Type: parliamentary democracy (since March 1993) that retains as its heads of state a co-principality; the two princes are the president of France and Spanish bishop of Seo de Urgel, who are represented locally by officials called veguers Capital: Andorra la Vella Administrative divisions: 7 parishes (parroquies, singular - parroquia); Andorra, Canillo, Encamp, La Massana, Les Escaldes, Ordino, Sant Julia de Loria Independence: 1278 National holiday: Mare de Deu de Meritxell, 8 September Constitution: Andorra's first written constitution was drafted in 1991; adopted 14 March 1993 Legal system:
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