Surfing - Peter Diel - ebook

Surfing ebook

Peter Diel



Surfing - In Search of the Perfect Wave provides an insight into the fascinating sport. Divided into three parts, the book accompanies the reader along the way to become a genuine surfer. A short summary of the history of riding waves is followed by a beginner's guide, which looks at equipment, preparation and techniques for taking the first steps. The second part of the book is aimed at the more advanced surfer looking for advice on how to improve his Surfing. The book is rounded off with important information concerning the weather and a travel section. Here the reader finds helpful information about spots in Europe, the USA and Hawaii, Australia and the rest of the world.

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To our friend Buje


In Search of the Perfect Wave

Peter Diel & Eric Menges

Meyer & Meyer Sport

Original title:

Surfing – Auf der Suche nach der perfekten Welle

– Aachen: Meyer und Meyer Verlag, 1999

(Adventure Sports)

British Library Cataloguing in Publication DataA catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library

Diel / Menges

Surfing – In Search of the Perfect Wave

Maidenhead: Meyer & Meyer Sport (UK) Ltd., 2008

ISBN: 9781841269801

All rights reserved, especially the right to copy and distribute,including the translation rights. No part of this work may be reproduced—including by photocopy, microfilm or any other means—processed, stored electronically, copied or distributed in any form whatsoeverwithout the written permission of the publisher.

© 2000 by Meyer & Meyer Sport (UK) Ltd.

2nd, revised & updated edition 2008

Aachen, Adelaide, Auckland, Budapest, Cape Town, Graz, Indianapolis,

Maidenhead, New York, Olten (CH), Singapore, Toronto

Member of the World

Sport Publishers’ Association (WSPA)

ISBN: 9781841269801

E-Mail: [email protected]



I     The Origin of Surfing

II    Surfing for Beginners

1           How to Start

1.1        Requirements

1.2        Equipment

1.2.1     The Right Surfboard for the Beginner

1.2.2     The Wetsuit

1.2.3     Wax and Leash

1.3         Preparation

2            The First Wave

2.1         The Right Wave for the Beginner

2.2         Get Ready (on the Beach)

2.3         How Do I Get Out?

2.3.1      Entering the Water

2.3.2      Paddling

2.3.3      Dealing with Broken Waves

2.4         How to ‘Catch’ a Wave

2.4.1      Paddling for a Wave

2.4.2      Catching a Wave   The Prone Position   Standing up

2.5         How Do I Get Back to the Beach?

3            Now Let’s Surf!

3.1         Riding a Wave

3.2         The First Manoeuvres

3.3         General Tips for the Beginner

III    Advanced Surfing

1            What’s Next?

1.1        Requirements for an Advanced Surfer

1.2        Equipment for the Advanced

1.3        The Surf Code

1.4        The Duck Dive

2            How Waves Are Created

2.1        Weather

2.2        How to Read a Surf Spot

3            Let’s Get Serious!

3.1        Surfing Hollow Waves

3.2        Surfing Big Waves

3.3        Manoeuvres for the Advanced

3.4        General Tips for the Advanced

IV    Waves around the World

1            Tips for a Surfari

2            Europe

3            USA and Hawaii

4            Australia

5            South Pacific

6            Indonesia

7            South Africa

8            The Rest of the World

9            Boat Trips

V     Competitive Surfing, Surf Lingo and Information

Competitive Surfing

Surf Lingo



On a trip to the South Pacific, we were surfing with a group of Australians on a remote reef in Fiji. During a wave lull, as we started chatting they asked where we came from. The answer, “… from Europe” caused a few puzzled looks, and we could see big question marks appearing over the heads of the Australians – “do you guys have any waves?”

Of course, these days there are thousands of surfers in Europe. France, Spain, Portugal, UK and even Germany all have professional surfers on the professional surfer circuit. This said, for most people living away from the coast in Europe (like us – the authors), surfing is rather an unusual sport, and there have been many occasions when it has been necessary to start explaining what surfing is all about. “No, not surfing the Internet, (whoever thought up this term should be punished anyway), no we do not use a sail. Yes, exactly that – riding the waves – just like in Hawaii.”

On top of all that, here we are, two landlocked Euros, writing a book about surfing. However, we believe that the experience we have gathered during a long learning process will be useful to surfers and to beginners, who have not grown up by the sea or live there. Indeed, it does require particular effort and, above all, regular travel to become a surfer. But the message we give you is that anyone can learn surfing and have lots of fun doing it.

People are continually discovering this fascinating sport. Although snowboarding (surfing on snow) and skateboarding (surfing on the road) originally evolved as alternatives for surfing, there are today many skate- and snowboarders, who are still only just now discovering surfing as a sport. The characteristics of these sports are very similar and many of the movement sequences resemble each other.

There is the unforgettable and unbelievable kick when you snowboard through untouched powder, get big air in a half pipe, or successfully come out of a tube on a wave.

We have been surfing for about 25 years and have taught many how to surf. “Just do it!” – is definitely the right approach to surfing. Experience has shown, however, that a considerable amount of time, hassle and injury can be saved if some theoretical basework is done before heading out into the ocean. Well, you guessed it. Now is the moment to invest some time and read about the basics of wave riding. We are not going to try and teach you using scientifically proven methods.

On the contrary, we would like to offer some theory, however rather use a few real life experiences, anecdotes and stories from the surfing world to explain what it is all about. This book has been written with the beginner as well as the advanced in mind. The beginner will not have to continually bore the “cool surfers” with basic questions such as “Why do you tie that rope to your foot?” He will not make the whole beach erupt in laughter by waxing the wrong side of the surfboard (the underside). The advanced surfer will find some tips in our book that will help him progress on his way to becoming a genuine hardcore surfer.

A few years ago we decided to live our greatest dream – a journey round the world in search of the perfect wave. Our trip took us from Bali to Australia, New Zealand, Fiji, Tahiti, USA and to Mexico. Believe us – the perfect wave does exist. However one will never surf the same wave twice because every wave is different to the next. To make your search for the perfect wave a little easier, our book includes details of various surfing destinations in this world. We will provide you with many little yet often important tips to increase the fun factor on your travels and help you find your way in unfamiliar countries and waters.

A famous surfer once answered the question on who he thought was the best surfer in the world by replying, “The best surfer in the world is the one having the most fun.” But, be careful, surfing is addictive! Once you have ridden your first glassy, long, green wave you will have nothing but surfing on your mind. So “Surf hard and respect the ocean.” Enjoy reading this book!

N.B. To avoid repetition and easier reading; whenever the male pronoun is used the female form is equally meant to be included.


Even today the Hawaiians and the Tahitians still argue over the origin of surfing. One thing is sure – it started in Polynesia. Just exactly when surfing started there, however, is still a little uncertain and not proven. There are indications in native songs that this spectacular water sport was already being carried out in the 15th century. So, even before the white man placed foot on the Polynesian shores, waves were being ridden there. On his sea travels in 1777, Captain James Cook was the first white man to enjoy watching the Polynesian natives playing with the waves.

Thanks to one of their successors, the Hawaiian Duke Kahanamoku, surfing became so popular in our time. The “Duke” was an excellent swimmer and won several Olympic gold medals for the USA. On a visit to Australia, the “Duke” also demonstrated what he was capable of when it came to using a board. Riding waves – surfing – became increasingly popular from that moment on and spread across to California, New Zealand, South Africa and to Europe.

There are, of course, many more highly influential and legendary surfers who should be named here, like for example the American Greg Noll, “da Bull” – the big wave legend who rode one of the biggest waves of all times already in the 60s, or “the Gull “, Australian Mark Richards – who won four consecutive world titles in the seventies and eighties on his twin fin surfboards. Then there is Nat Young – the Australian surfing legend who introduced a new much more radical, manoeuvre oriented surfstyle, as well as of course the Michael Jordan or Tiger Woods of this sport , “his Eightness” the incredible, eight times (and counting) world Champion Kelly Slater – who is writing surfing history as you read this, and so on and so forth. But this is not a history lesson rather a surf lesson, so let’s get on with it.


Now you know where wave riding comes from. But how are you going to turn yourself into a second Duke? Well, nothing is guaranteed, but the following sections will help for sure.

1 How to Start

Alright, you have decided to become a surfer. Sounds good. Just think of all those unreal pictures on television and in the magazines! Looks really cool! But, unfortunately, it is not as easy as many top surfers make it look. The multitude of different factors that make it possible to actually stand up on a board and glide on a wave, without a sail and without footstraps, turn the first steps into an uphill struggle.

But don’t give up just yet. Although many hours will be spent sitting in freezing water waiting for the waves that never came, and with your motivation close to zero, all of a sudden all will come together. The right wave, the correct paddling speed, no one in the way – and there you are – standing, surfing your first wave. What a feeling. So never give up. It is well worth the effort.

1.1 Requirements

Who can learn to surf? Basically anyone who can swim! For surfing, the size of the body is relatively insignificant. Actually, short surfers have a little advantage because of their somewhat lower centre of gravity. Although you will mainly find male surfers, the amount of women in surfing (in particular in the wake of the movie Blue Crush) is ever increasing as women can just as easily learn to surf. Irrespective of whether you are a man or a woman you must have a lot of patience and endurance. Surfing demands skill, timing and knowledge about waves, currents and the sea bottom. Surfing can sometimes be a little dangerous, but if you are well prepared and are aware of your own physical and psychological limits, even as a beginner you will have a lot of fun.

Oh yes, and one more thing. You better start saving money for your first big surfing trip to Australia, Bali or Hawaii.

(Photo: Billabong, Jason Childs)

Ineika Surf School Fuerteventura (Photo: Menges & Diel)

1.2 Equipment

1.2.1 The Right Surfboard for the Beginner

Besides the dimensions, there are a few other things to take note of. The board should not be too heavy and, above all, it should have no sharp edges e.g from previous repairs. Most injuries in surfing are caused by your own or by some other person’s board. The most dangerous parts of the board are the tip of the nose and the fins. Thus the nose should be rounded and the fins should have no sharp edges (if necessary off the edges with sandpaper or get a board with those hard rubber fins). For a beginner it does not matter whether the board has one, two or three fins. The rails of the board should similarly also be smoothly rounded.

A surfboard is made out of a polyurethane foam core with a fibreglass laminate on the outer surface. The glass is easily damaged so therefore a surfboard must always be handled carefully. The ceiling of the surf shop is a classic for the first ding when you lift a brand new board up for inspection. So watch out! If, despite all the good advice and the greatest care, you have damaged the board somehow, you must get it fixed as quickly as possible. Otherwise the foam core mentioned earlier will soak up water, and after a while, the board will become heavier, develop brown spots and simply will be no more fun to surf.

When buying a second-hand board you must check the board for any unrepaired cracks on the surface, that the fins and fin plugs are firmly fixed and that the foam is not lifting at any place. Brown coloured spots mean that water has already penetrated into the board. Also cracks that run right from one side to the other of the board can mean that the board has been broken in two before and will propably break again soon. So keep your fingers off.

A good alternative to purchase is to rent a board on the spot. Many surfing shops have, amongst other things, boards especially for beginners to hire. Also most snowboarding or windsurfing shops can possibly be of help in the search for a board to hire. But remember: long, thick, wide and no sharp edges!

1.2.2 The Wetsuit

The amount of time you will be able to spend in the water while having a go at surfing will largely depend on your clothing – the wetsuit. Especially when the conditions are good there is nothing worse then to start freezing after only five minutes in the water.

Wetsuits are made from a kind of rubber called neoprene. Unlike the so-called ‘drysuits’ often used for windsurfing, which keep the body dry and protect the whole body from the cold water, neoprene suits work on a different principle. Water gets trapped between the rubber and the body and is then warmed by your own body temperature. However the next time you go under, the warm water is flushed out and changes place with fresh cold water, which is then warmed up again. The wetsuit must fit snugly on the body so that not too much water can penetrate i.e., the body does not have to warm up too much water. The suit should also sit relatively tightly on the arms, round the neck and the legs. The thickness of the neoprene determines how much the coldness of the water and the wind can reach the body from the outside.

This brings us to another important feature of a wetsuit – comfort. Too close a fit makes movement in the water difficult, and you will want to move a great deal. The same applies to thick suits that are on the one hand very warm, but on the other also very heavy and unflexible. Many of the neoprene suits used by windsurfers or divers are therefore unsuitable for surfing. The thickness of the neoprene should be not more than 3 mm unless you are going to surf in extremely cold waters. The arms and legs of most surfing suits are 1 mm thinner than the rest. Very often you will find a number combination on the suit e.g., 3/2. This means 3 mm neoprene on the body part and 2 mm on the arms and legs.

Surfing suits come in various combinations, for example the ‘full suit’ or ‘steamer’ with long legs and sleeves, or the ‘spring suit’ with short sleeves and legs. To begin with use a suit with long legs. The sleeves can be either long or short. Long sleeves keep the warmth in but limit movement when paddling. If you choose a suit with long sleeves make sure it stretchs well around the shoulders and arms to allow for easier paddling.

The final decision is obviously dependent on the price but also your personal warmth requirements (skinnier people loose heat much quicker), where you are going to use it and of course what you look like in it (the Captain Kirk look remains a classic).

You will often find that you develop a rash on certain parts of your body from wearing the wetsuit. This is caused by the neoprene rubbing against your skin. To protect yourself you can get a special T-shirt made out of Lycra or a similar material – so-called wet-shirts or rash guards that are worn under the suit. Smearing Vaseline on the sensitive places offers another solution to prevent the rubbing. Whilst the latest wetsuits really do not require any of those anti-rash measures you can also wear the Lycra shirt without the suit to protect yourself against sunburn.

Just a few tips to help extend the life of your wetsuit! Whenever possible, after each use, you should rinse your suit in fresh water. You should also never leave your suit out to dry in the sun. It is perfectly sufficient to hang it on a clothes hanger or over a washing line in the shade. The water will automatically run out and it will dry without the aid of the sun.

If you do not want to buy a wetsuit straight away, try checking out the local surf shops where you can often find a decent suit for hire.

1.2.3 Wax and Leash


For a windsurfer it is the foot straps, for the snowboarder it is the binding and for the surfer it is the wax. Wax prevents the surfer from slipping off the wet board, which is obviously wet when in the water. Each time, before you go into the water, the whole upper-side of the board must be completely waxed. The rear two-thirds of the board are important (this is where the feet stand) as well as the side edges of the forward two-thirds (this is where you hold the board when you duck-dive through the waves). There is different wax for different water temperatures. You should use soft wax for cold water and harder wax for warm water. Most wax comes labelled as “cold water”, “cool”, “warm water” or “tropical”. Make sure the surface of the board is not hot from the sun before you wax it. If this is the case simply hold the board in the water before you start waxing. You can do the same with a piece of wax that has been sitting in the sun and become soft.

If the board, at some stage, gathers a thick hardened surface after repeated waxing, it is sufficient to roughen up the surface with a so-called wax comb (you should buy one of these when you purchase your first piece of wax). By doing this the wax will become grippy again. If you run out of wax and you have left your wax comb in the car, you can also use some wet sand to roughen up some old wax.

Many surfers use a so-called ‘grip deck’ glued on to the board just about where the rear foot is placed. This is a development of the ‘rubber daisies’ that your mother used to put in the bottom of the bathtub so that ‘little darling’ would not slip. The grip deck gives your rear foot extra grip during powerful turns and saves you from having to wax your whole board everytime you hit the water. As a beginner however you might want to stick to waxing as you will hardly place your feet in the same spot everytime you stand up. It is therefore hard to predetermine just exactly where the grip deck should be stuck on the board. We will return to this in the section later on ‘Equipment for the Advanced’.


The leash is an extremely practical and pleasant accessory. It resembles a lead made out of rubber. One end is attached to the end of the surfboard and the other end is fixed to the surfer’s ankle using a Velcro fastener. The leash saves a lot of trouble and effort if you fall off the board or you have to let go of it. You will not have to swim all the way back to the beach to get your board after you have fallen off, simply because it is actually fixed to your ankle.

When buying the leash make sure it is equipped with a Velcro fastener with a simple opening mechanism. If the leash gets caught up in something in the water you must be able to open it with one quick movement (more about this in the section ‘Equipment for the Advanced’). At the end where the leash is fixed to the board there should be a so-called ‘railsaver’. This is made from a piece of strong tear proof textile, about 20 cm long, which prevents the leash from cutting into the polyester side of the rails when the board is pulled back . At the end of the railsaver, the leash is attached to the board through the so-called ‘plug’ using a nylon rope. If you have to knot this piece of nylon you should use your very best mega-double sailor’s knot. What good is the best leash if the knot slips and you are left there with your leash strapped around your ankle without a board attached to it?

But watch out! As much as it is nice not to continually keep losing your board, to have a 2 m solid hard object (your surfboard) strapped to your leg in the water is pretty dangerous. The leash is very elastic. If the board is washed away by a solid wave the leash can be stretched to its utmost limit. When the wave passes, the board can shoot back like a harpoon. This usually happens exactly at the moment when you have just surfaced after a long hold down and come up for the long awaited deep breath, and you are thinking “Uhhh! Where’s my board?” Many of us have collected a few real “smashing” looking scars this way. To avoid this, you should always surface with your hands on your head and your arms shielding your face. At the same time keep your eyes open and look around to see where your board is coming from in order to catch it. You should try to always automatically shield your head when surfacing, because not only the board of a beginner has the habit of shooting back.

1.3 Preparation

Surfing is a very strenuous and physical sport. Therefore some preparation at home is important. Surfing is much more fun if you are physically fit. You can paddle longer without tiring and therefore you can surf longer. You can lose your fear of being held under by a wave if you have practiced diving and holding your breath under water in the swimming pool beforehand. Some surfers say that the best training for surfing is simply surfing. Of course this is easy to say if you live five minutes away from the beach in Australia or California and can keep yourself fit by surfing on a daily basis. But for those of us who live away from the ocean and perhaps are only able spend a few weeks surfing; it is essential to carry out some preparation. Who wants to return to the beach after the first wave because your arms feel like jelly?

The main muscles that are used in surfing are the shoulder, back and upper arm muscles. The chest and neck muscles are also used a lot – in general the whole of the upper body is brought into play. The most tiring thing in surfing is not the actual surfing but the continuous paddling (for longer rides and lots of manoeuvres the leg muscles also play an important role). If you already own a board, you should practice paddling on your local lake. This way, you can get also get a feeling for the correct position on your board on home ground. A friend of ours ties up his surfboard with the leash to the side of the swimming pool and practices paddling on the spot – this is also a way. For those who have not yet got a surfboard (or pool), or find it embarrassing to turn up at the local lake with a surfboard, we recommend regular swimming as the best preparation for surfing. The most useful stroke is the crawl and in particular when you keep your head out of the water like the water polo guys do. This uses practically the same muscles as the paddling movement. Besides this, swimming longer distances underwater and training your lungs is very helpful as well. Other then swimming, press-ups and similar exercises will be useful, preferably done in front of the television with a surfmovie playing.

Something that can be done easily at home is determining your preferred way of standing on the surfboard. If you have been snow- or skateboarding before, you will know already whether you stand naturally with your left foot (regular foot) or with the right foot (goofy foot) forward. For those who do not yet know which foot to place foward there are two simple ways of finding out. The first is jumping up from a press-up into a sideways standing position as if you were leaping onto the surfboard. Most of the time, your subconscious will automatically find the correct position for you. The important thing is not to spend too long in the press-up position thinking about it – just simply jump up straight away.

The second way, concerns your so-called ‘take-off leg’. This will always stand to the rear since, when surfing, this leg is the one that needs the most power. To find this out simply take a run and jump as if you were going for a basketball slam dunk, or doing a long jump over a puddle. The take-off leg is the one with which you lead off when jumping. If, after all this, you are still not quite sure, you should simply rely on the result of your first attempt. Some time or other you may notice that when you stand up on the surfboard you are continually getting entangled in the leash. This is because, despite everything that your subconscious (and our smart advice) told you, your left foot is the one that belongs to the rear. This is the moment that you turn out to be a goofy after all.

Quirin Rohleder river surfing in Munich (Photo: Uli Scherb, Wavetours)

2 The First Wave

Now you have the right surfboard, a cozy wetsuit, you have waxed your board, you have been swimming up and down, over and under water in the swimming pool, and now you are standing on the beach. You are ready to go but isn’t there something still missing? Well of course! – It is the right wave.

2.1 The Right Wave for the Beginner

If you listen to other surfers, you will often hear, “There are some unreal waves out there – just perfect lines”, and so on and so forth. You immediately want to grab your surfboard and paddle out. But there are waves and waves and not every wave is surfable. Even more important, what should the beginner be watching out for? Waves which look straight out of the latest surfing magazine often hide substantial danger. So do not just paddle out anywhere. Let’s begin with the search for your first wave and make sure we know what to avoid.

To start with the waves should not be very big. This means that when you watch a surfer who is riding a wave, the wave should not be ‘overhead’ i.e., higher than the head of a surfer riding in an upright position. Although you should start your first few attempts mainly in white water or foam of larger broken waves, large waves further out usually also mean strong currents all along the beach. Strong currents can be dangerous and the beginner should try and avoid them. He will also often have difficulty in actually recognising strong currents.

It is therefore very important to spend some time just watching and observing the sea and its movements. If there are surfers in the water note whether they are being pulled out to sea rapidly when they paddle out. Surfers, who are further out, waiting for a wave may be paddling ‘on the spot’ in order to hold their position. This is an obvious indication that there is a strong current running through the line up.

Many beaches with lifeguards have a warning system. Sometimes flag signals are used to indicate sea dangers on any particular day. The beginner should try and seek some information on the day’s conditions from the local lifeguards and above all should take their advice regarding currents and other dangers very seriously, simply because these girls and guys know best.

Many beaches also have boundary flags that indicate the swimming zone and non-surfing zone. You should definitely keep clear of these zones. If you disregard the zones you could find yourself having to hand your surfboard over to the lifeguards faster then you can say “Baywatch”.

Back to your first wave. If there are swimmers outside their marked off zones, make sure you stay clear of them, as they have no idea how fast and dangerous a loose surfboard (even on a leash) can be. Preferably try and get at least 50 meters between you and the next swimmer. Generally make sure that wherever you want to practice there are not many swimmers, boogie-boarders or surfers around in the water. The beginner needs lots of space. It goes without saying that you should not venture off into the wide wet far away from all the lifesaving Baywatch models either. Someone must be available to keep a watching eye on you.

Now to the wave itself. As a beginner you should look for the foam of the wave. The foam that appears on the top of the wave, as it breaks should roll down continuously as the wave travels towards the beach. As it reaches the beach it should run out smoothly. Waves that build up again and pound the shoreline as they break on to the beach (called ‘shore breaks’) are dangerous. Breaking your fin, board or body made easy!

Now a word about the sea bottom. The best waves for beginners break on to sandy beaches. This is not because of their quality. The reason is more that, in comparison to other bottom types, they will actually present less danger of hurting you. Waves that break on to reefs or along submerged reefs are totally unsuitable for the beginner. Areas with rocks or a harbour wall, a pier or similiar objects lining the shore are also unsuitable – unfortunately some of the best waves are found in these areas. But do not lose heart!

2.2 Get Ready (on the Beach)

So you thought you could just simply jump in the water and paddle out? You are joking?! Well, first of all here are a few dry exercises for you to practice on the beach. This will make sure that you turn yourself into a complete beach-clown – but so what? Not only as a starter some warming-up exercises help avoid sprains and cramps. Start with the muscles that you use for paddling i.e., the arm and shoulder muscles.

You can also try out on the beach how to lie on the board while paddling. Put your surfboard down on the sand and push the fins into the sand so that you can lie down without breaking them. You should lie on the board with your chest somewhere just forward of the middle of the board. You should lie with head, shoulders and chest raised to form a hollow in the back. The actual paddling movement is very similar to the arm movement when doing the crawl in the pool. Keep your fingers together and pull the arms to the rear alongside the surfboard. Make sure that you pull all the way through – from the tip of the board right through to the full extension of your arm and out of the water (out of the sand in this case). Your legs should be kept together and your toes stretched out to the rear. The best thing to do is to keep your shin slightly raised out of the water so that the water resistance is brought to a minimum. This position is very strenuous for the beginner and the back muscles will quickly tire. Usually after a few days of intensive paddling, however, you will have built up most of the necessary muscles.

Now let us look at standing up. You should also practice this on the beach to start with. Lay down on the surfboard in the sand as already described above with your head up and your shoulders hollowed etc. Grab the rails with your hands at about the spot where your shoulders are in relation to the board. Your arms will be slightly angled in this position. Now we come to actually standing up. Press-up from the board and jump with both feet at once on to the surfboard. You must jump into a sideways stance with your feet well apart. The forward foot should be a little in front of the middle of the board and your rear foot about 30 cm from the tail of the surfboard. To practice this, do a press-up and then jump up into the standing position. Later the action must become one flowing movement i.e., as you press up with your arms, the jump into the standing position is done almost simultaneously.