Ebooka przeczytasz w aplikacjach Legimi na:
Odsłuch ebooka (TTS) dostępny w abonamencie „ebooki+audiobooki bez limitu” w aplikacji Legimi na:
If you thought you knew all about dinosaurs, you will learn much more in this book.
The must-read summary of “The Rise and Fall of the Dinosaurs: A New History of a Lost World,” by Steve Brusatte.
The dinosaurs, the world's most fearsome creatures, vanished sixty-six million years ago. Now Steve Brusatte reveals their 200-million-year-long story as never before.
In The Rise and Fall of the Dinosaurs, Brusatte tells the story of the origin and demise of the most intriguing class of animals ever lived. Drawing on cutting-edge science, he reveals how dinosaurs evolved from small insignificant animals 250 million years ago into apex predators that ruled the entire planet. He re-created the dinosaur kingdoms in North America, Asia, South America, Africa, and Europe during the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods, when thousands of species thrived. He describes the most famous dinosaurs of the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods, and how dinosaurs evolved into birds. The story continues to a day at the end of the Cretaceous, 66 million years ago. Billions of dinosaurs all over the world woke up on that day feeling confident about their place in nature. Then, in a split second, nearly all dinosaurs died in the most extraordinary extinction event in the Earth's history.
If it could happen to dinosaurs, could it happen to us?
This guide includes:
* Book Summary—The summary helps you understand the key ideas and recommendations.
* Online Videos—On-demand replay of public lectures, and seminars on the topics covered in the chapter.
Value-added of this guide:
*Understand key concepts
*Expand your knowledge
Title: Summary & Study Guide - The Rise and Fall of the Dinosaurs
Subtitle: A New History of a Lost World
Author: Lee Tang
Publisher: LMT Press (lmtpress.wordpress.com)
Copyright © 2018 by Lee Tang
All rights reserved. Aside from brief quotations for media coverage and reviews, no part of this book may be reproduced or distributed in any form without the author’s permission. Thank you for supporting authors and a diverse, creative culture by purchasing this book and complying with copyright laws.
First Edition: December 2018
Issued in print and electronic formats.
ISBN: 9781988970189 (ebook)
ISBN: 9781790980802 (paperback)
Limit of Liability/Disclaimer of Warranty: The publisher and author make no representations or warranties regarding the accuracy or completeness of these contents and disclaim all warranties such as warranties of fitness for a particular purpose. The website addresses in the book were correct at the time going to print. However, the publisher and author are not responsible for the content of third-party websites, which are subject to change.
To my wife, Lillian, who is the source of energy and love for everything I do, and to Andrew and Amanda: watching you grow up has been a privilege.
Table of Contents
Table of Figures
Timeline of the Age of Dinosaurs
Prologue: The Golden Age of Discovery
1. The Dawn of the Dinosaurs
2. Dinosaurs Rise Up
3. Dinosaurs Become Dominant
4. Dinosaurs and Drifting Continents
5. The Tyrant Dinosaurs
6. The King of the Dinosaurs
7. Dinosaurs at the Top of Their Game
8. Dinosaurs Take Flight
9. Dinosaurs Die Out
Epilogue: After the Dinosaurs
About the Author
Plea from the Author
Ischigualasto Provincial Park
Map of Pangaea with modern continental outlines
Staurikosaurus feeding on a dicynodont
Hudson River Palisades
Guanlong compared to a human
Map of the Late Cretaceous
Hell Creek Formation
Artist's reconstruction of Chicxulub crater soon after impact
Torrejonia-Wilsoni Partial Skeleton
“The Rise and Fall of the Dinosaurs: A New History of a Lost World,” by Steve Brusatte.
This is a story of the origin and demise of dinosaurs. Drawing on cutting-edge science, Brusatte tells us how dinosaurs evolved from small insignificant animals 250 million years ago into apex predators that ruled the entire planet. He re-created the dinosaur kingdoms in North America, Asia, South America, and Europe during the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods, when thousands of species thrived. He describes the most famous dinosaurs of the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods, and how dinosaurs evolved into birds. The story continues to a day at the end of the Cretaceous, 66 million years ago. Billions of dinosaurs all over the world woke up on that day feeling confident about their place in nature. Then, in a split second, nearly all dinosaurs died in the most extraordinary extinction event in the Earth's history.
Steve Brusatte is a paleontologist at the University of Edinburgh. A graduate of the University of Chicago, he completed his doctorate at Columbia University. He writes frequently for Scientific America, including the May 2015 cover story on the evolution of tyrannosaurs. He is the resident paleontologist for BBC's Walking with Dinosaurs.
This guide is a summary and not a critique/review of the book. The summary may not be organized chapter-wise but summarizes the book's main ideas, viewpoints, and arguments. It is NOT meant to be a replacement, but a supplement to help you understand the book's key ideas and recommendations.
Million years ago (Ma)
The Golden Age of Discovery
In November 2014, Steve Brusatte visited his friend Junchang Lü in China to study a new dinosaur fossil. It was a skeleton, about the size of a mule. Its sharp teeth, pointing claws, and long tail showed it was a close cousin of Jurassic Park's Velociraptor. Its long legs and slender skeletons were the hallmarks of a dynamic, fast-moving animal. It had bushy feathers covering the entire body, layering over each other to form wings. Steve and Junchang described it as a new species and called it Zhenyuanlong suni.
This is the new golden age of discovery. Somehow around the world, scientists found a new species of dinosaurs every week. Emerging technologies help paleontologists understand the biology and evolution of dinosaurs. Contrary to what they taught us in elementary school, dinosaurs were not evolutionary failures. They were remarkably successful. They evolved in concert with an ever-changing world, thriving for over 150 million years, producing many amazing species including birds. But most of them went extinct when faced with the most extraordinary extinction event in the Earth's history.
Figure 1: Zhenyuanlong suni. Photograph by Junchang Lü & Stephen L. Brusatte CC BY 4.0, via Wikimedia Commons.
Beasts of the Mesozoic: Zhenyuanlong suni
7 Recently Discovered Dinosaurs Species
Zhenyuanlong suni: biggest ever winged dinosaur is found in China
The Dawn of the Dinosaurs
The Earth was formed about 4.5 billion years ago, and the first microscopic bacteria evolved a few hundred million years later. For 2 billion years, it was a bacterial world. Then about 1.8 billion years ago, these simple bacterial cells grouped together to form more complex organisms. A global ice age came and went, and the first animals appeared. They were simple at first, like sponges and jellyfish, until they developed shells and skeletons. Around 540 million years ago (Ma), these organisms exploded in diversity. They ate each other, forming complex ecosystems in the oceans. Some became vertebrates by developing a skeleton made of bones. Then about 390 Ma, these vertebrates evolved, and some turned their fins into arms, grew fingers and toes, and emerged onto the land.
Fossils are any sign of ancient life. They can be bones, teeth, and shells that form the skeleton of an animal. After being buried in sand or mud, these hard bits are replaced by mineral and turned to rock, leaving a fossil. The same is true for the soft parts of animals, like skin, feathers, and internal organs. But the animal must be buried quickly before these soft tissues decay or get eaten by predators. Trace fossils are footprints, burrows, bite marks, fossilized dung, eggs, and nests that an organism left behind. These tracks can tell how animals interacted with each other and their environment.
In the Permian Period (300–252 Ma), the Holy Cross Mountains in Zachelmie, Poland were proper mountains, with sharp snowy peaks. Raging rivers wound their way through a vast forest, emptying into a big basin of seasonal lakes. These lakes were watering holes that provided an oasis from the harsh heat and wind. It was a perfect environment for preserving fossil tracks.