Summary & Study Guide - The Fountain - Lee Tang - ebook

The Key to the Fountain of Youth A Practical Plan to Win the War on Aging, Prevent Chronic Diseases, and Live a Longer, Happier, Healthier, and More Productive Life The must-read summary of “The Fountain: A Doctor’s Prescription to Make 60 the New 30,” by Rocco Monto, MD. Over the last century, medicine has helped us all live longer. The problem is that our health span hasn’t kept pace. Heart disease, hypertension, strokes, renal disease, diabetes, fractures are more common. Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s, and depression are rising. Doctors continue to treat the symptoms of diseases while the causes go unmanaged. People are just surviving, not thriving, at the end of their lives. In The Fountain, Dr. Monto questions the established doctrines of traditional medicine that have brought us to this point. He explains why we age so poorly and how the latest breakthroughs in science and medicine can change this. Debunking long-held diet and fitness myths while highlighting safe, effective therapies backed by leading-edge research, Dr. Monto provides us with a practical plan that could help us live a longer, healthier, happier, and more productive life. This guide includes: Book Summary—The summary helps you understand the key ideas and recommendations. Online Videos—On-demand replay of public lectures, and seminars on the topics covered in the chapter. Value-added of this guide: Save time Understand key concepts Expand your knowledge Apply what you learned from this book to win the war on aging, prevent chronic diseases, and live a longer, happier, healthier, and more productive life.

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Summary &Study Guide

The Fountain

A Doctor’s Prescriptionto Make 60 the New 30

Lee Tang

Title: Summary & Study Guide - The Fountain

Subtitle: A Doctor’s Prescription to Make 60 the New 30

Author: Lee Tang

Publisher: LMT Press (

Copyright © 2018 by Lee Tang

All rights reserved. Aside from brief quotations for media coverage and reviews, no part of this book may be reproduced or distributed in any form without the author’s permission. Thank you for supporting authors and a diverse, creative culture by purchasing this book and complying with copyright laws.

First Edition: May 2018

Issued in print and electronic formats.

ISBN 9781988970097 (ebook)

ISBN-13: 9781987739619 (paperback)

ISBN-10: 1987739612 (paperback)

Limit of Liability/Disclaimer of Warranty: The publisher and author make no representations or warranties regarding the accuracy or completeness of these contents and disclaim all warranties such as warranties of fitness for a particular purpose. The website addresses in the book were correct at the time going to print. However, the publisher and author are not responsible for the content of third-party websites, which are subject to change.

To my wife, Lillian, who is the source of energy and love for everything I do, and to Andrew and Amanda: watching you grow up has been a privilege.


For a complete list of books by Lee Tang and information about the author, visit Lee Tang’s site.


Title Page



Books by Lee Tang


Phase One: Science

1. The Hunt for the Aging Off-Button

2. The Crucible

3. Ancient Invaders

4. The 4-Hour Rule

5. Hacking the Genome

Phase Two: Diet

6. Bridge of Lies

7. A High-Steaks Game

8. Green Is the New Black

9. Supplement City

Phase Thre: Exercise and Mind-Body

10. Harder, Better, Faster, Younger

11. The Catalyst

12. The Tao of Aging

13. Agents of Change

Phase Four: Meds

14. Better Living Through Chemistry

15. Blinded by Science

16. Stranger Things

Phase Five: The Plan

17. The Fountain Plan


About the Author

Plea from the Author


“The Fountain: A Doctor’s Prescription to Make 60 the New 30,”

by Rocco Monto, MD.

Book Abstract

The book is organized into five sections or phases with each phase standing on its own. Phase one covers the science of aging, including the seven pathways of aging and how to harness the research in this area to improve the quality of your health and life. Phase two covers diet. It exposes the long-held diet myths on saturated fats and cholesterol and warns us about the hidden dangers of going gluten-free and high-protein diets. Phase three covers exercise and mind-body, the most powerful tool to combat the negative effects of aging. Phase four covers medications that keep our hormones balanced. Phase five puts it all together in the Fountain Plan.


Rocco Monto, MD, is an award-winning, board-certified orthopedic surgeon and a leading expert in sports medicine, stem cells, and aging. He is a media spokesperson for the American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons and consults with professional athletes and sports teams around the world.

Important Note About This Guide

This guide is a summary and not a critique/review of the book. The summary may not be organized chapter-wise but summarizes the book’s main ideas, viewpoints, and arguments. It is NOT meant to be a replacement, but a supplement to help you understand the book’s key ideas and recommendations.





For decades, researchers have known several regions around the globe where people live much longer than expected. They have circled these areas in blue marker. These “blue zones” now include Okinawa (Japan), Sardinia (Italy), Ikaria (Greece), Nicoya (Costa Rica), and Loma Linda (United States). People in these communities live 10 years longer than people in the rest of the world.


Sardinia is the second largest island 222 miles off the west coast of Italy in the Mediterranean Sea. Most of its 1.6 million residents live near its coastlines, with a secluded population living in the isolated central mountain region. The estimated life expectancy of this secluded population is much higher than the rest of the world. 21 people per 10,000 live to age 100, compared to only 1.73 in the United States. Their traditional diet is high in complex carbohydrates, grass-fed goat, sheep milk, and cheese. Although they don’t eat a calorie-restricted diet, the oldest Sards have lived through decades of famine due to war, poverty, and disease. The average Sand eats meat only once or twice a week and drinks 8 to 12 ounces of red wine daily. Many live in vertical homes that require heavy climbing, and the average 80+-year-old male Sard shepherd walks over 5 miles every day on demanding terrain.

Sardinia used to be an unhealthy place. Malaria has been endemic there since 500 BC. in 1943, on the eve of World War II, the German troops flooded the southern plains of Italy to slow Allied progress. Thousands of bomb craters became mosquito habitats. Malarial cases skyrocketed until the Rockefeller Foundation Sardinian Project eradicated the disease in 1946 by spreading DDT throughout the island to wipe out the parasite-carrying Anopheles mosquito population.

Scientists now believe endemic malaria in Sardinia selected for people resistant to the disease. A genetic mutation produces a protein called B-cell activating factor (BAFF) that fights malaria infection. But this infection-fighting B-cells also cause collateral autoimmune damage to nerves and tissues. So Sardinians live a long time but have the world’s highest incidence of multiple sclerosis, lupus, and other disabling autoimmune diseases.


Okinawa comprises over 150 islands in the East China Sea between Taiwan and Japan’s mainland. The islands were once the independent kingdom of Ryukyu and were considered a place of extended life. The Chinese called it the land of the immortals. After it was forcibly annexed by Japan in 1879, the Okinawans suffered a century of fighting, famine, and poverty.

Okinawans live 10 years longer than people in the rest of the world. They have 80 percent fewer heart attacks than Americans, little or no obesity, little or no dementia, and few cases of stroke or cancer. 6.5 people per 10,000 live to age 100, compared to only 1.73 in the United States.

Older Okinawans eat a severely calorie-restricted diet high in complex carbohydrates and limited in protein. Over 60 percent of their diet comprises the imo, a purple Okinawan sweet potato, soybeans, mugwort tea, brown rice, turmeric, and a bitter melon called goya. The imo contains the powerful antioxidant sporamin. Turmeric contains the anti-inflammatory chemical curcumin, which may slow dementia. Goya has anti-diabetic effects. They also eat seaweed kombu and wakame, both rich in micronutrients.

When Okinawan leave the island, they lose their longevity advantage. The reason is they switch from a severe calorie-restricted, plant-based diet to a calorie-heavy Western diet loaded with processed food. Genetic mapping of super elderly Okinawans shows they may have some favorable insulin and metabolic epigenetic clusters that could result from caloric restriction.


Ikaria is a Greek island in the Aegean Sea 30 miles off the coast of Turkey. Inhospitable terrain, dangerous waters, and a lack of natural ports isolate the island from the rest of the Aegean. Ikaria is famous for its therapeutic hot springs which contain a high percentage of minerals and radioactivity. The Ikarians are splashing around in these radioactive hot springs with no ill effect.

A demographic study found that the Ikarians are 2.5 times more likely to reach 90 than Americans and 10 times more likely than Europeans. They are three times more active than other Europeans and have lower rates of depression and 75 percent less dementia. 80 percent of men between 65 and 100 are still sexually active.

Elderly Ikarians have survived decades of war, poverty, and famine. Many used to smoke, and most stay up late, sleep late, and drink a lot. They are active well into their nineties and eat a lean diet of fresh vegetables drenched in olive oil. Their traditional diet includes fish, red wine, potatoes, garbanzo beans, black-eyed peas, olives, sage, mint, lentils, and goat’s milk. They also eat dandelion weeds called horta. They eat meat only once a week and very little sugar. Most (87 percent) drink a lot of strong Greek coffee and herbal tea high in polyphenols and antioxidants.


The Peninsula of Nicoya extends out from the northwestern corner of Costa Rica. Costa Rica has a population of 4.5 million and is the second most populated country in Central America. But Nicoya remains isolated by thick tropical forests and rugged mountain ridges, accessible only by air, bridge, or ferry.

A demographic study found that men in the remote region of Nicoya outlive everyone in the world. But Nicoyan women do not share this advantage. When Nicoyans moved away from the peninsula, they lost their longevity advantage.