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Summary & Study Guide - The End of Epidemics ebook

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Opis ebooka Summary & Study Guide - The End of Epidemics - Lee Tang

What can we do to stop the next pandemic from killing millions of lives? The must-read summary of The End of Epidemics: The Looming Threat to Humanity and How to Stop It, by Jonathan D. Quick, MD. At the peak of the 2014 Ebola crisis in West Africa, the world was facing a global catastrophe. Where would Ebola travel next? There will always be new outbreaks of infectious diseases. Bill Gates and his team predicted that an epidemic like the 1918 Spanish flu that killed 50 million people could happen again today. A global pandemic could kill over 300 million people and reduce global GDP by 5 to 10 percent. What can we do to prevent such devastating epidemics? In The End of Epidemics, Dr. Jonathan Quick presented compelling evidence that a global pandemic threat is real. He proposes a new set of actions called The Power of Seven, to end epidemics before they can begin. By following The Power of Seven, public-health leaders can keep such outbreaks from exploding into catastrophic epidemics. This book is crucial reading for citizens, health professionals, and policymakers alike. This guide includes: * Book Summary—The summary helps you understand the key ideas and recommendations. * Online Videos—on-demand replay of public lectures, and seminars on the topics covered in the chapter. Value-added of this guide: * Save time * Understand key concepts * Expand your knowledge

Opinie o ebooku Summary & Study Guide - The End of Epidemics - Lee Tang

Fragment ebooka Summary & Study Guide - The End of Epidemics - Lee Tang

What can we do to stop the next pandemic from killing millions of lives?

The must-read summary of The End of Epidemics: The Looming Threat to Humanity and How to Stop It, by Jonathan D. Quick, MD.

At the peak of the 2014 Ebola crisis in West Africa, the world was facing a global catastrophe. Where would Ebola travel next?

There will always be new outbreaks of infectious diseases. Bill Gates and his team predicted that an epidemic like the 1918 Spanish flu that killed 50 million people could happen again today. A global pandemic could kill over 300 million people and reduce global GDP by 5 to 10 percent. What can we do to prevent such devastating epidemics?

In The End of Epidemics, Dr. Jonathan Quick presented compelling evidence that a global pandemic threat is real. He proposes a new set of actions called The Power of Seven, to end epidemics before they can begin. By following The Power of Seven, public-health leaders can keep such outbreaks from exploding into catastrophic epidemics.

This book is crucial reading for citizens, health professionals, and policymakers alike.

This guide includes:

Book Summary—The summary helps you understand the key ideas and recommendations.

Online Videos—On-demand replay of public lectures, and seminars on the topics covered in the chapter.

Value-added of this guide:

Save time

Understand key concepts

Expand your knowledge

Title: Summary & Study Guide - The End of Epidemics

Subtitle: The Looming Threat to Humanity and How to Stop It

Author: Lee Tang

Publisher: LMT Press (lmtpress.wordpress.com)

Copyright © 2018 by Lee Tang

All rights reserved. Aside from brief quotations for media coverage and reviews, no part of this book may be reproduced or distributed in any form without the author’s permission. Thank you for supporting authors and a diverse, creative culture by purchasing this book and complying with copyright laws.

First Edition: December 2018

Issued in print and electronic formats.

ISBN: 9781988970172 (ebook)

ISBN: 9781720295112 (paperback)

Limit of Liability/Disclaimer of Warranty: The publisher and author make no representations or warranties regarding the accuracy or completeness of these contents and disclaim all warranties such as warranties of fitness for a particular purpose. The website addresses in the book were correct at the time going to print. However, the publisher and author are not responsible for the content of third-party websites, which are subject to change.

To my wife, Lillian, who is the source of energy and love for everything I do, and to Andrew and Amanda: watching you grow up has been a privilege.

Table of Contents

Title Page

Copyright

Dedication

Synopsis

Prologue

Part I: The Pandemic Threat

1. How Would a Global Pandemic Happen?

2. The Bush—Lessons from Ebola, AIDS, and Zika

3. The Barn

4. The Triple Threat: Bioterror, Bio-error, and Dr. Frankenstein

5. The Costs of Complacency

Part II: Stopping Pandemics Before They Start

6. Lead Like the House Is on Fire

7. Resilient Systems, Global Security

8. Active Prevention, Constant Readiness

9. Fatal Fictions, Timely Truths

10. Disruptive Innovation, Collaborative Transformation

11. Invest Wisely, Save Lives

12. Ring the Alarm, Rouse the Leaders

Epilogue: What Can You Do?

Index

About the Author

Plea from the Author

Synopsis

The End of Epidemics: The Looming Threat to Humanity and How to Stop It, by Jonathan D. Quick, MD.

Book Abstract

In part I of the book, the author presents compelling evidence that a global pandemic threat is real. Population growth, urbanization, international travel, farming practices, climate change, bioterror attacks, and accidental laboratory bio-errors all increase our risk. In part II, the author uses examples and evidence to establish the seven fundamental sets of actions needed for preventing epidemics—The Power of Seven.

Author

Dr. Jonathan D. Quick is a senior fellow and former president and CEO at Management Sciences for Health in Boston. He is Chair of the Global Health Council at the Department of Global Health and Social Medicine at Harvard Medical School. He has worked in public health for over 35 years and in over seventy countries.

Important Note About This Guide

This guide is a summary and not a critique/review of the book. The summary may not be organized chapter-wise but summarizes the book's main ideas, viewpoints, and arguments. It is NOT meant to be a replacement, but a supplement to help you understand the book's key ideas and recommendations.

Prologue

Close contact with the bodily fluids of infected animals introduces the Ebola virus into the human population. Human-to-human transmission occurs through direct contact with blood, bodily secretions, organs, and sick people.

The outbreak of Ebola in West Africa on March 22, 2014 killed over 11,300 lives, including over 500 healthcare staff. The high mobility of the population, weak health systems, and lack of infrastructure and human resources in the affected countries made the situation worse. At the peak of the crisis, the world was facing a global catastrophe.

There will always be new outbreaks of infectious diseases. Bill Gates and his team predicted that an epidemic like the 1918 Spanish flu that killed 50 million people could happen again today. A global pandemic could kill over 300 million people and reduce global GDP by 5 to 10 percent. What can we do to prevent such devastating epidemics?

Part I

The Pandemic Threat

Chapter 1

How Would a Global Pandemic Happen?

An outbreak is a localized epidemic that affects a normal number of people. An epidemic is an outbreak affecting more than normal. A pandemic is an epidemic that occurs over a wide area, crosses international boundaries, and affects thousands or millions.

Outbreaks of infectious disease occur whenever humans are exposed to a virus or bacterium against which they have little or no immunity. When Europeans first settled in America, they introduced smallpox to the indigenous population. Native Americans, due to the lack of prior contact with Europeans, had not been exposed to the disease. Therefore, they had not built up immunity to the disease. It decimated the indigenous population through sweeping epidemics.

Microbes jumping from animals to humans cause most of the disease outbreaks with pandemic potential. We call them zoonotic diseases or zoonoses. Plague, AIDS, influenza, and Ebola are all zoonotic diseases. Disease outbreaks also occur when a microbe to which humans have developed immunity mutates as often happens with influenza.

The Yersinia pestis bacteria caused the devastating global epidemic of bubonic plague, or black death, that struck Europe and Asia in the mid-1300s. After exposure to the bacteria, people suffered abdominal pain, fever, headaches, bleeding, and blackening of the extremities. Even today, outbreaks of this disease occur every few years in the American Southwest.

The Yersinia pestis bacteria is transmitted by the bite of an infected flea from a rat or a small rodent, like the Southwest prairie dog. The fleas that infected the prairie dogs came from rats that migrated on a steamship from China, which suffered a plague epidemic in the 1860s. Over generations, the infected fleas migrated from ship rats to San Francisco squirrels and then made their way to the Southwest. The Native American families kept many domesticated dogs which came in contact with prairie dogs and their fleas. The Native Americans get infected with the plague from the prairie dog fleas hitchhiking on dogs.

Vaccines were not useful for plague prevention. Several antibiotics are effective for treatment. Without treatment, 30% to 90% of the affected will die within 10 days. With treatment, the risk of death is around 10%.

In the late 1960s, Dr. Steve Kunitz at the University of Rochester discovered the infected dogs were getting a mild illness and developing antibodies to the disease. Today, public-health officials are taking surveys of the Yersinia pestis antibodies in dog populations to predict the disease outbreaks. When the antibody levels increased, they would spread the warning and intensify education programs that teach people how to protect themselves from fleas and recognize plague symptoms.

A Century of Deadly Outbreaks

The table below shows influenza and HIV/AIDS have been among the most deadly of the viral infectious diseases in the last 100 years.

Influenza

Year

Non-influenza

Spanish Flu (H1N1) (~50 million)

1918

1937

West Nile Virus (>15,000)

Avian Flu (H2N2) (~100,000)

1957

Hong Kong Flu (H3N2) (~700,000)

1968

1976–2012

Ebola Virus (1,553)

1981–2017

HIV/AIDS (~40 million)

H5N2 & H7N7(1)

1999–2000

2002

SARS Coronavirus (774)

Avian Flu (H5N1) (449)

2003–2016

Swine Flu (H1N1) (284,500)

2009

2012–2016

MERS Coronavirus (700)

Avian Flu (H7N9) (295)

2013–2016

2014–2016

West Africa Ebola Virus (11,325)

2015–2016

Zika, Western Hemisphere (20)

Source: Bean A, Baker M, Stewart C et al. Studying immunity to zoonotic diseases in the natural host—keeping it real. Nature Reviews: Immunology 2013; 13; 851–61.

Three Tales from Killer Diseases

Influenza

Before the 1918 Spanish flu epidemic, the influenza virus had been circulating within the armies of the World War for a long time. Like all flu viruses, the Spanish version mutated, infecting those who had no immunity to it. It then erupted in far-flung port cities: Freetown, Sierra Leone; Brest, France; and Boston, Massachusetts.

In the United States, the Spanish flu first infected someone in Philadelphia in the summer of 1918. Many people in Philadelphia flocked to theaters, exchanging coughs. By autumn, the coughing had spread the disease throughout the city. People suffered from fevers and pneumonia. Some suffocated because their lungs and organs collapsed. In response, officials closed all picture theaters, schools and churches. Medical care was scarce because most of the city's doctors were in Europe tending to soldiers. Hospitals were so full they set up beds in the armory. People died so fast that the coroner's office could not keep up with the demand for death certificates. Before it was over, the Spanish flu killed 13,000 people in Philadelphia and between 50 and 100 million worldwide.

HIV/AIDS

The simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) has made five successful species jumps from primates to humans in the past 100 years. Successful means the SIV has adapted, through mutation, to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that would thrive in humans. The first species jump happened around 1910 from a chimpanzee to humans in Cameroon, Africa. The HIV virus spread from Cameroon down the Sangha River to modern-day Kinshasa in Congo. AIDS had smoldered unnoticed for over 50 years in Africa before one strain passed into Western countries via Haiti. Other strains passed from Africa to Asia and beyond. By 2014, the HIV virus had infected almost 78 million people.

Ebola

In December 2013, a two-year-old named Emile Ouamouno had been playing in a hollow tree, grabbing and poking insect-eating bats. He became ill afterward and died in a small Guinean village. His family mourned him with all the rites, including holding and kissing his corpse. The previous 22 Ebola outbreaks in Africa had all been contained. But within weeks of Emile's death, the Ebola virus that killed him had exploded into a three-country pandemic.

A Gigantic Threat