Wydawca: LMT Press Kategoria: Nauka i nowe technologie Język: angielski Rok wydania: 2018

Summary & Study Guide - Rise of the Necrofauna ebook

Lee Tang  

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Opis ebooka Summary & Study Guide - Rise of the Necrofauna - Lee Tang

The Truth About De-ExtinctionThe must-read summary of “Rise of the Necrofauna: The Science, Ethics, and Risks of De-Extinction,“ by Britt Wray.Necrofauna is a term used by futurist Alex Steffen to refer to species that were extinct but have been recreated by the process of de-extinction.In Rise of the Necrofauna, Britt Wray introduces us to renowned scientists who try to revive extinct species like woolly mammoths and passenger pigeons. She explains why de-extinction is important to our ecosystem but reminds us it could bring many dangers as it does opportunities. By raising the many cultural, ethical, environmental, legal, social, and philosophical issues raised by this new science, Wray offers an enthralling look at the best and worst of de-extinction.This guide includes: Book Summary—The summary helps you understand the key ideas and recommendations. Online Videos—On-demand replay of public lectures, and seminars on the topics covered in the chapter.Value-added of this guide: Save time Understand key concepts Expand your knowledgeRead this summary to discover the truth about de-extinction and how it might shape a better future for life.

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Fragment ebooka Summary & Study Guide - Rise of the Necrofauna - Lee Tang

Summary &Study Guide

Rise of the Necrofauna

The Science, Ethics, and Risks of De-Extinction

Lee Tang

Title: Summary & Study Guide - Rise of the Necrofauna

Subtitle: The Science, Ethics, and Risks of De-Extinction

Author: Lee Tang

Publisher: LMT Press (lmtpress.wordpress.com)

Copyright © 2018 by Lee Tang

All rights reserved. Aside from brief quotations for media coverage and reviews, no part of this book may be reproduced or distributed in any form without the author’s permission. Thank you for supporting authors and a diverse, creative culture by purchasing this book and complying with copyright laws.

First Edition: February 2018

Issued in print and electronic formats.

ISBN 9781988970042 (ebook)

ISBN-13: 9781985119710 (paperback)

ISBN-10: 1985119714 (paperback)

Limit of Liability/Disclaimer of Warranty: The publisher and author make no representations or warranties regarding the accuracy or completeness of these contents and disclaim all warranties such as warranties of fitness for a particular purpose. The website addresses in the book were correct at the time going to print. However, the publisher and author are not responsible for the content of third-party websites, which are subject to change.

To my wife, Lillian, who is the source of energy and love for everything I do, and to Andrew and Amanda: watching you grow up has been a privilege.

BOOKS BY LEE TANG

For a complete list of books by Lee Tang and information about the author, visit https://lmtpress.wordpress.com.

CONTENTS

Title Page

Copyright

Dedication

Books by Lee Tang

Synopsis

Introduction

1 | How Is de-Extinction Done

2 | Why Is De-Extinction Important

3 | What Species Are Good Contenders, and Why

4 | Why Recreate the Woolly Mammoth

5 | Can Billions of Passenger Pigeons Rebound, and Should They

6 { How Might We Regulate This New Wilderness

7 | Can De-extinction Save Species on the Brink

8 | Is Some Knowledge Too Dangerous

Index

About the Author

Plea from the Author

SYNOPSIS

“Rise of the Necrofauna: The Science, Ethics, and Risks of De-Extinction,” by Britt Wray.

Book Abstract

The book introducing us to renowned scientists who are harnessing the powers of CRISPR gene editing to revive extinct species like woolly mammoths and passenger pigeons. It explains why de-extinction is important to our ecosystem but reminds us it could bring many dangers as it does opportunities. By raising the many cultural, ethical, environmental, legal, social, and philosophical issues raised by this new science, it offers an enthralling look at the best and worst of de-extinction.

Author

Britt Wray is a radio broadcaster and journalist. She has worked as a host and producer on programs for the BBC and CBC Radio and is the presenter of BBC Tomorrow’s World. She has a BSc in Biology and is a PhD candidate at the University of Copenhagen in Science Communication with a focus on Synthetic Biology.

Important Note About This Study Guide

This guide is a summary, not a critique/review of the book. The summary may not be organized chapter-wise but summarizes the main ideas, viewpoints, and arguments. It is a supplement to, not a replacement for the book.

INTRODUCTION

For centuries, passenger pigeons flew across North America in flocks, billions at a time. But by the end of the nineteenth century, the number of pigeons had dwindled. The last passenger pigeon died in the Cincinnati Zoo on September 1, 1914.

In May 2011, the renowned environmentalist, Stewart Brand, emailed Geneticist George Church enquiring the feasibility of bringing back the extinct passenger pigeons. Church is a professor at Harvard Medical School and MIT, and the head of the Personal Genome Project in the U.S. He responded promptly, detailing how they could bring back billions of passenger pigeons to the North American skies. Excited about the possibility, Stewart Brand and his wife, Ryan Phelan, founded a nonprofit called Revive & Restore and brought researchers around the world who were interested in de-extinction. Their mission: “to enhance biodiversity through the genetic rescue of endangered and extinct species.”

Genetic rescue uses technology to restore impoverished ecosystems. It has three layers. The first layer is to determine what makes the species vulnerable to extinction at the gene level. The second layer is to edit the species’ genome to make it less vulnerable to extinction. The third layer is to transfer the edited genome to a related species, creating a genetically modified species. Genetic rescue on extinct species is called de-extinction.

When a species goes extinct, so does the role it once played in its ecosystem. Its absence affects a cascade of other life forms. Keystone species are those known to have played a crucial role in their ecosystems. They are the species de-extinction advocates want to revive. The emphasis is not to recreate the exact original species, but one that can live and act like the extinct species.

This book uses the term unextinct to describe an organism recreated by the process of de-extinction. To call them “de-extinct” would imply the process of extinction has been reversed.

ONLINE VIDEOS

Keystone Species and Their Role in Ecosystems

De-Extinction: Resurrecting the Past

Genetic rescue and biodiversity banking

1

HOW IS DE-EXTINCTION DONE?

In 1983, the inaugural conference of the Extinct DNA Study Group met in Bozeman, Montana. The purpose was to discuss the recovery and deciphering of DNA from extinct organisms. One researcher named George Poinar Jr. had a collection of insects trapped in hardened amber blots dated to the Cretaceous. Cretaceous mosquitoes lived at the same time as the duck-billed dinosaurs. They could have fed on a dinosaur before being trapped in the amber. The scientists speculated if the insect in the amber contained dinosaur DNA, it might be possible to recover it and reverse-engineer the genetic code to resurrect the extinct creature.

Somehow, Michael Crichton got a copy of the conference paper and contacted Poinar on the idea for a book he was writing. In Jurassic Park, Crichton told the story of an amusement park mastermind who has access to amber nuggets that encase mosquitoes from the time of the T. Rex. These nuggets allow him to fill his amusement park with dinosaurs.

Recreating a dinosaur from ancient DNA might have worked for fiction, but not