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In this book the Stories of the Prophets and Messengers and all the events in their lives have been supported by the Qur’an and Ahadeeth. Wherever it was necessary, other sources have also been reported for the sake of historical accounts, but on such places a comparative study has been made to prove the authenticity of the sources. The views and interpretations of great exegetes of the past have also been documented in this compilation. The systematic narratives of these stories have been written in chronological order which renders a historical style to the book. This eBook is compiled utilizing some of the highest quality and best standards of formatting in order to preserve and distinguish the layout of the eBook. It is an excellent work which caters for a large audience of the English speaking world and can be read by virtually all age groups. Guaranteed to be enjoyed by all those who read it. Contents of the Book: Introduction 01 The Story of Adam and Eve ('Adam and Hawwa) 02 The Story of Seth (Sheeth) 03 The Story of Enoch (Idrees) 04 The Story of Noah (Nuh) 05 The Story of Hud 06 The Story of Saleh 07 The Story of Abraham (Ibrahim) 08 The Story of Lot (Lut) 09 The Story of Shu'aib 10 The Story of Ishmael (Isma'eel) 11 The Story of Isaac and Jacob (Ishaq and Ya'qub) 12 The Story of Joseph (Yusuf) 13 The Story of Job (Ayyub) 14 The Story of Dhul-Kifl 15 The Story of Jonah (Yunus) 16 The Story of Moses and Aaron (Musa and Harun) 17 The Story of Khidr 18 The Story of Joshua (Yusha') 19 The Story of Ezekiel (Hizqeel) 20 The Story of Elijah (Ilyaas) 21 The Story of Elisha (Al-Yas'a) 22 The Story of Samuel (Shamu'eel) 23 The Story of David (Dawud) 24 The Story of Solomon (Sulayman) 25 The Story of Isaiah, son of Amoz (Shi'ya bin Amsia) 26 The Story of Jeremiah (Irmiyaa) 27 The Story of Daniel (Daniyaal) 28 The Story of Ezra ('Uzair) 29 The Story of Zachariah and John (Zakariyya and Yahya) 30 The Story of Jesus ('Isa)
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Stories of the Prophets and Messengers
BY: IDP Research Division
PUBLISHER: Islamic Digital Publishing
Copyright © - 2018 All rights reserved.
No part of this e-book may be used or reproduced in any manner whatsoever without prior consent from the Publisher.
Table of Contents
About this Book
01 The Story of Adam and Eve ('Adam and Hawwa)
02 The Story of Seth (Sheeth)
03 The Story of Enoch (Idrees)
04 The Story of Noah (Nuh)
05 The Story of Hud
06 The Story of Saleh
07 The Story of Abraham (Ibrahim)
08 The Story of Lot (Lut)
09 The Story of Shu'aib
10 The Story of Ishmael (Isma'eel)
11 The Story of Isaac and Jacob (Ishaq and Ya'qub)
12 The Story of Joseph (Yusuf)
13 The Story of Job (Ayyub)
14 The Story of Dhul-Kifl
15 The Story of Jonah (Yunus)
16 The Story of Moses and Aaron (Musa and Harun)
17 The Story of Khidr
18 The Story of Joshua (Yusha')
19 The Story of Ezekiel (Hizqeel)
20 The Story of Elijah (Ilyaas)
21 The Story of Elisha (Al-Yas'a)
22 The Story of Samuel (Shamu'eel)
23 The Story of David (Dawud)
24 The Story of Solomon (Sulayman)
25 The Story of Isaiah, son of Amoz (Shi'ya bin Amsia)
26 The Story of Jeremiah (Irmiyaa)
27 The Story of Daniel (Daniyaal)
28 The Story of Ezra ('Uzair)
29 The Story of Zachariah and John (Zakariyya and Yahya)
30 The Story of Jesus ('Isa)
About this Book
In this book the Stories of the Prophets and Messengers and all the events in their lives have been supported by the Qur'an and Ahadeeth. Wherever it was necessary, other sources have also been reported for the sake of historical accounts, but on such places a comparative study has been made to prove the authenticity of the sources. The views and interpretations of great exegetes of the past have also been documented in this compilation. The systematic narratives of these stories have been written in chronological order which renders a historical style to the book.
This eBook is compiled utilizing some of the highest quality and best standards of formatting in order to distinguish Qur'anic quotes, Ahadeeth references and scholarly quotes from the main body of the work. It is an excellent work which caters for a large audience of the English speaking world and can be read by virtually all age groups. Guaranteed to be enjoyed by all those who read it.
Allah the Exalted says in the Noble Qur'an:
"We are relating to you the most beautiful of stories in that which We have revealed to you from the Qur'an, though before it you were from among those who were not aware of them." (12:3)
"We have indeed aforetime sent Messengers before you, of them there are some whose stories We have related to you. And there are some whose stories We have not related to you." (40:78)
"We relate to you the important news of their story in truth …" (18:13)
"And all that We relate to you of these stories of the Messengers, We strengthen with them your heart. Through them there comes to you the truth as well as admonition and a reminder to those who believe." (11:120)
"There is, indeed, in their stories lessons for people endowed with understanding. It is not any invented tale, but a confirmation of what went before it, and a detailed exposition of all things, and a guide and a mercy to the people who believe." (12:111)
"… so relate the stories, perhaps they may reflect." (7:176)
It is narrated from Abu Dharr (R) that he asked the Prophet (S):
'O Messenger of Allah! How many Prophets were there?'
He replied: 'One hundred and twenty four thousand.'
I asked: 'O Messenger of Allah! How many of them were Messengers?'
He replied: 'Three hundred and thirteen; quite a big number.'
I then asked: 'O Messenger of Allah! Who was the first of them?'
He replied: 'Adam.'
I asked: 'O Messenger of Allah! Was he a Prophet and Messenger?'
He replied: 'Yes, Allah created him with His Hand, then He breathed into him
the soul which He created for him, then He gave him a perfect shape.'
(Saheeh Ibn Hibbaan)
This Hadeeth confirms that there were 124 000 Prophets sent to this earth, and from among these, 313 were Messengers. However, Allah only makes mention of 25 Prophets and Messengers in the Noble Qur'an, in various places. And from among these, 4 were Arabs.
The Messenger of Allah (S) also addressed Abu Dharr (R), saying:
"Among them were four from among the Arabs; Hud, Saaleh, Shu'aib and your Prophet, O Abu Dharr." (Saheeh Ibn Hibbaan)
THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A MESSENGER AND A PROPHET
(A RASOOL AND A NABI)
The commonly-held view is that a Messenger is more general than a Prophet. The Messenger is one to whom Laws (Shari'ah) are revealed and he is commanded to convey them, whereas a Prophet is one who receives revelation but he is not commanded to convey it. On this basis, every Messenger is a Prophet, but every Prophet is not a Messenger.
Nonetheless, ever since people innovated the dogma of joining others in worship along with Allah, He had been sending these Prophets and Messengers to His devotees in order to invite them to the worship of Himself Alone, to order them not to ascribe partners unto Him and bring them out of the darkness of polytheism into the light of Monotheism. All the Prophets preached the Belief in the Oneness of Allah. There are many Verses in the Qur'an which illustrate this fact. Every Prophet was sent unto his own nation for their guidance, but the Message of Prophet Muhammad (S) was general for all mankind and jinn.
LET US BEGIN TO RELATE THEIR STORIES …
01 The Story of Adam and Eve ('Adam and Hawwa)
The story of Adam is narrated in different parts of the Qur'an in different Verses. We will speak about the meanings that these Verses indicate along with some of the relevant Ahadeeth from the Messenger of Allah (S).
Allah addressed the angels in the Noble Qur'an, saying:
"Verily, I am going to place a vicegerent on the earth." (2:30)
In these Verses Allah the Almighty informs us that He addressed the angels saying to them and expressing His intention of creating Adam and his progeny, of whom one generation would succeed another. Thus He informed the angels about the creation of Adam and his progeny.
"Will You place therein one who will make mischief and shed blood?"(2:30)
The angels sought more information about the Divine wisdom of creating Adam, and not as to launch a protest or to demean the position of mankind, as some of the ignorant may understand it.
It is said by Qatadah that the angels knew or thought so that this was going to be the case, from what they had observed of other creatures who lived on the earth before Adam, like the jinn.
The angels added:
"And we glorify You with Your praise and sanctify You."(2:30)
What they meant to say here was that they always worship Him, and that none of them ever disobey Him. And that if He wanted from the creation of Adam and his progeny that they worship Him, then they are here to do so. They unabatedly worship Him day and night.
"I certainly know what you know not." (2:30)
Allah told them that He had the best of knowledge about the preponderant benefit in their creation, which they had no knowledge of. There will be from among them Prophets, Messengers, righteous ones, martyrs and pious people.
Al-Hasan Al-Basri says that when Allah intended to create Adam, the angels said: "Our Lord does not create any creature but we are more knowledgeable and honourable than that creature."
Allah then says:
"And He taught Adam the names of everything, then He displayed those things to the angels and said: 'Tell Me the names of these if you are truthful.'" (2:31)
Ibn 'Abbaas (R) said that these are the names of those objects through which people recognize things and communicate in their daily life, be they big or small, like humans, animals, earth, lands, seas, mountains, camel, donkey, and similar names of the nations and otherwise.
Mujahid said that He taught him the names of dishes and pots. He taught him the names of every animal, every bird and every thing. That is how it is explained also by Sa'eed bin Jubayr, Qatadah and others.
Ar-Rabi' said that he taught him the names of the angels.
However, the preferable opinion is that Allah taught him the names of all creation, and their functions, be they the smallest of objects or largest of them, as indicated by Ibn 'Abbaas (R).
The angels replied:
"Glory be to You, we have no knowledge except what You have taught us, You are the All-Knowing, All-Wise."(2:32)
Allah then said:
"O Adam! Tell them of their names." (2:33)
When Adam had done so as requested by Allah (after he was created) and told them of their names, He then addressed the angels saying:
"Did I not tell you that I know the unseen secrets of the heavens and the earth, and I know what you reveal and what you conceal?" (2:33)
CREATION OF ADAM
Abu Musa (R) narrated that the Prophet (S) said:
"Allah created Adam from a handful of soil which He gathered from all over the earth. That is how the children of Adam came according to the colour and nature of the earth. There are white among them, as well as red and black, and cross colours. There are those among them who are of bad nature and good nature, soft as well as harsh and in between." (Ahmad)
Anas (R) narrated that the Prophet (S) said:
"When Allah created Adam, He left him for a while as long as He wanted him to be. Iblees went around him, and when he found him hollow, he knew that he was a creature who could not restrain itself." (Muslim)
Allah created Adam with His Hand so that Iblees should not display any arrogance.
Nonetheless, Allah created him into a human in the last hour of Friday and he remained as an earthen body for forty years, before the soul was breathed into him. When the angels passed by and saw him, they became frightened. Iblees (at that time his name being Azaazil) was the most frightened among them. He began to move around the body (in curiosity). He would pass by Adam and hit him, and the body would make a sound like the sound of pottery with a rattle. Hence he observed that it was hollow and lifeless.
Iblees said: "There must be something for which he is created." So he entered through his mouth inspecting him and came out through his anus, and said to the angels: "Do not be frightened of it because your Lord is Samad (Absolute, Eternal) and this is Ajwaf (hollow). If I overpower him, I will destroy him."
Another report mentions that Iblees said: "If I have a say over you, I will destroy you, but if you have authority over me, then I will disobey you."
Finally, the time approached in which Allah wanted to breathe into Adam the soul which He created for him.
He said to the angels:
"When I have breathed the soul in him, you should prostrate before him." (15:29)
As the soul passed through his head, Adam sneezed. The angels said: "Say Alhamdulillah" (Praise be to Allah), and Adam said so. Allah answered him bysaying: "Yarhamuk-Allah" (Allah bestows His Mercy upon you).
When the soul entered into his eyes, he saw the fruits of Paradise, and when it reached his stomach, he desired for food. So he jumped up in haste, for the fruits of Paradise, before the soul even entered into his legs. That is what Allah indicated to in a Verse of the Noble Qur’an where He said:
"Man is created of haste." (21:37)
Abu Hurayrah (R) narrated that the Prophet (S) said:
"Allah created Adam and he was sixty cubits (dhira'a) tall, and then said to him: 'Go and greet those angels, and listen to what they greet you back with, because that will be your greeting and the greeting of your progeny.' Adam said: 'Assalamu 'Alaikum.' They greeted him back by saying: 'Assalamu 'Alaikum wa Rahmatullah.' So they added to what he said. Hence, everyone who enters Paradise, will enter it in Adam's image, and since that time humans are being reduced in their height till now." (Bukhari)
We will now read Verses of the Qur'an whereby Allah commands the angels to prostrate before Adam and see what happened thereafter.
Allah commands the angels, saying:
"'Prostrate yourselves before Adam.' So all prostrated themselves before him except Iblees, he refused to join those who prostrated. Allah asked him: 'What prevented you from prostrating yourself when I commanded you?' He answered: 'I am better that him, You have created me from fire,and You created him out of clay.'" (7:11,12)
"I am not going to prostrate before a human whom You have createdfrom sounding clay of moulded mud." (15:33)
The exegetes of the Qur'an are of different views regarding those angels who were ordered to prostrate before Adam. Were they the angels in general, as the Verses in this respect indicate? (which is the opinion of the majority of the exegetes). Or were they the angels of the earth? However, the context supports the opinion of the majority.
Nevertheless, Iblees looked upon himself from the point of analogous conclusion between himself and Adam. He saw himself nobler than Adam, so he refused to prostrate before him, in the face of the Divine command for him, to prostrate as He commanded the angels. Iblees disobeyed Allah willfully, out of stubbornness and being too proud to obey His command. It was his natural disposition and evil composition that betrayed him, as he was created from fire which has qualities of frivolity, impatience, haste and burning. Soil is more beneficial and better than fire, as in the soil there are qualities of serenity, gentleness, perseverance and growth.
Allah then tells Iblees:
"Get you out from here, as you are accursed. And the curse will be upon you until the Day of Judgement." (15:34,35)
Iblees deserved this treatment from Allah because he demeaned Adam and behaved arrogantly by disobeying His command. He started giving futile excuses, though his excuses were worse than his sin.
"Grant me respite until the Day they all shall be raised."(7:14)
"You are of those granted respite." (7:15)
"Because You have sent me astray, certainly I will lie in wait for them on Your straight path. Then I shall come upon them from in front of them, and from behind them, and from their right, and from their left, and You will not find most of them grateful."(7:16,17)
Allah replied to Iblees:
"Get out from here disgraced and expelled. Whoever of them follows you, I will certainly fill the Hell with you all." (7:18)
So it is clear from the above Verses that the blissful is the one who opposes Iblees (Satan), and the damned is the one who follows him.
It is also a clear indication that he was in the heaven, and Allah commanded him to descend from there, and get out of the high status and position which he achieved through his worship of Allah, and his resemblance to the angels in obedience and worship. This high position was withdrawn due to his arrogance, jealousy and disobedience to his Lord, then he was thrown down upon the Earth in utter humiliation and banishment.
This creature has despaired of the mercy of Allah, hence Allah called him Iblees. 'Balas' in the Arabic language means the one who has nothing good in him. 'Ablasa' in Arabic means to be filled with despair and confusion.
Also, in Arabic the word 'shaytaan' is applied to every insolent and rebellious one, and the word is applied to this creature because of his insolence towards and rebellion against his Lord.
Nonetheless, Iblees was expelled from Paradise and Adam was made to dwell in it. He wandered through it alone as he had no partner in whom he could seek his comfort. However, once he slept and when he woke up, he found a woman sitting near his head.
Adam asked her: "What are you?"
She replied: "A woman!"
He asked her again: "What are you created for?"
She answered: "So you could seek comfort in me."
The angels who were well aware of the extent of the knowledge of Adam asked him: "What is her name, O Adam?"
He said: "Eve (Hawwa)."
They asked him: "Why is it Hawwa?"
Adam replied: "Because she was created from something living."
Ibn 'Abbaas (R) narrates that she was created from the shortest rib of his left side while he was sleeping, and then its place was dressed with flesh.
THE FORBIDDEN TREE
Allah addresses them both saying:
"He (Iblees) is a certain enemy to you and your wife, so do not let him expel you both from Paradise in order that you may suffer hardship. Surely you will not feel hungry therein, nor be unclothed. You will certainly not get thirsty therein, nor will you suffer from heat." (20:17-19)
"O Adam! Dwell you and your wife in Paradise, and eat from anywhere you may desire, but you both should not approach this Tree, lest you become unjust." (7:19)
There are differences of opinions among exegetes as to what is meant by the Tree in the above Verse. In one opinion it is suggested that it was the vine. The Jews interpreted it as wheat. And Wahb bin Munabbih said that its seeds are softer than butter and sweeter than honey.
Abu Malik said that this was the palm tree, while Mujahid suggested that it was the fig tree, which is also the opinion of Ibn Qatadah and Ibn Juraij. However, Abul-'Aaliah said that it was a kind of tree that if anybody ate from it, he would pass wind, and Paradise was not a place to pass wind.
All these differences are quite close in nature. However, Allah did not specify its name and left it obscure, and had there been any benefit for us in mentioning it, He would have specified it.
There is also difference of opinion, regarding the whereabouts of this Paradise that Adam was admitted into, which needs to be sorted out. Was it that Paradise? Was it in the heaven or on the earth?
The opinion of the majority of scholars is that this Paradise was in the heaven called 'The Garden of Eternal Abode' (Jannatul-Ma'wa). This is also what the Qur'anic Verses and Ahadeeth are apparently supporting.
The other opinion being that it was a Paradise prepared by Allah specifically for Adam and Eve. This view holds that had it been the Garden of Eternal Abode, Adam would not have been forbidden from eating from that Tree. And it is also that Adam slept in it, was expelled from it, and Iblees (Satan) managed to enter it. These actions contradict the idea that it was the Garden of Eternal Abode.
This opinion is also supported by the Torah of the Jews. They further mention that the Garden of Eternal Abode (opinion one) was made as a place of reward in Heaven and the Specially Prepared Paradise (opinion two) was made as a place of trial for Adam and Eve, differing even further whether it was in Heaven or on Earth due to it having restrictions.
Moving further on, Allah mentions what transpired thereafter.
"O Adam, shall I guide you to the Tree of Eternity and to a dominion that will never waste away?"(20:120)
Allah also says:
"Satan then whispered a suggestion to both of them, in order to uncover what had been hidden from each other of their private parts, and said to them: 'Your Lord has only forbidden you to approach this Tree lest youbecome angels or immortals.' The Satan swore to them: 'I am indeed, asincere adviser for you both.' So he misled them both with delusion, so when they tasted of the Tree, their private parts became uncovered to them and they began to cover themselves with the leaves of the Paradise." (7:20,21)
This was an act of sheer deception and delusion from Satan. When they tasted of the Tree, their shameful parts appeared to them and they began to cover themselves with leaves from the Garden.
It was Eve who ate first from that Tree and it was her who incited Adam to eat from it. This is what may be understood from the Hadeeth whereby the Prophet (S) said:
"Where it not for the Children of Israel, meat would not become rotten. And where it not for Eve, women would not have cheated on their husbands." (Bukhari)
In the Torah of the Jews it is said that the one who instigated Eve to eat from the Tree was the snake. It had a beautiful appearance. Eve was taken in by its word and ate from it and fed Adam as well. There is no mention of Satan in the Torah in this respect. Afterwards their eyes opened and they came to know that they were naked. They stitched together the leaves of figs and made out of it a covering.
Wahb bin Munabbih said that their clothing was light upon their private parts. This information in the Torah of the Jews is incorrect, and in fact a distortion of translation due to various reasons. The Qur'an indicates clearly that Adam and Eve had clothes on them, further narrated by Ibn 'Abbaas (R) that they were leaves of the fig tree ... and they began covering themselves with leaves from Paradise.
THEIR EXIT FROM PARADISE
Allah then called out to them saying:
"'Did I not forbid you from that Tree, and say to you that Satan was an avowed enemy to you?' They said: 'Our Lord! We have wronged our souls and if you do not forgive us and have mercy upon us, we shall certainly be among the losers.'He said: 'Descend, you are enemies to each other, and there is for you in the earth an abode and a provision until an appointed time.'" (7:22-24)
"Descend all of you from here, and whenever there comes to you guidance from Me, then whoever followed My Guidance, no fear shall come upon them nor shall they grieve. And those who disbelieve and reject Our Signs, shall be the dwellers of the Fire, wherein they will dwell forever." (2:38,39)
This is addressed to Adam and Eve, as well as Satan. It is said that the snake is also meant by it. They were commanded to descend down from Paradise in a state of mutual enmity and hostility. Eve followed Adam and the snake followed Satan in this command.
Allah says regarding this whole incident:
"And so Adam disobeyed his Lord and went astray." (20:121)
Abu Hurayrah (R) narrates that the Prophet (S) said:
"When the son of Adam reads a Sajdah (in the Qur'an) and prostrates, Satan retires to one side and cries saying: 'Woe to me, the son of Adam was commanded to prostrate and he obeyed the command, and he entered Paradise. I was commanded to prostrate but I disobeyed the command, and I earned Hell.'" (Ahmad)
Allah then says:
"Then Adam received certain words from his Lord and He accepted his repentance, indeed He is the Relenting, the Most Merciful." (2:37)
"Then his Lord chose him and accepted his repentance and guided (him)." (20:122)
Abu Musa Al-Ash'ari (R) said that When Allah sent down Adam from Paradise to Earth, He taught Adam workmanship of everything, and provided him with the fruits of Paradise. So your fruits are from the fruits of Paradise, except that your fruits change and those do not.
Ibn Jareer said that the first food Adam ate on Earth was when Gabriel came to him with seven grains of wheat.
Adam asked him: "What are they?"
He replied: "They are from the same Tree which you were forbidden to eat from, but you ate from it."
Adam said: "Then what shall I do now with them?"
Gabriel said: "Sow them in the earth."
And Adam did so. Each of those grains weighed more than one hundred thousand grains of now. They grew and Adam harvested them, then baked from them bread and ate them, after it has taken so much of his effort and hard work. This is what Allah indicated in a Verse of the Qur'an where he said: "So do not let him expel you both from the Paradise, so that you would suffer hardship."
The first of their clothing was from sheep's wool. He separated them and then spun them. Afterwards, he wove a Jubbah for himself and a dress and headscarf for Eve.
There are differences of opinion with regard to whether they had any children when they were in Paradise. It is said that they had their children only on Earth. However, in another opinion it is suggested that they had children in Paradise, and Cain and his sister were born when they were living in it. And Allah knows best.
Scholars are also of different opinions about the duration of stay of Adam and Eve in Paradise. One opinion suggests that it was a portion of a day, like the days of this world, which works out to only a few hours.
However, another opinion by Ibn Jareer suggests that it is known that he was created in the last hour of Friday. One hour of it is equal to eighty-three years and four months. He remained for forty years in his earthen body before his soul was breathed into him and given life. Taking away these forty years, we are left with forty-three years and four months before his expulsion from Paradise. And Allah is the Best Knower.
Abu Hurayrah (R) has narrated that the Prophet (S) said:
"When Allah created Adam, He stroke his back. So all the souls that were due to be born in his progeny until the Day of Judgement, came out of his back. Between the eyes of every human He made a shining light and put them before Adam.
Adam asked: 'O Lord! Who are they?' Allah replied: 'They are your progeny.' Then he saw a man among them whose shining light attracted him. Adam asked: 'O Lord! Who is this?' Allah answered him: 'He is a man who will come in the last of your progeny, and who will be called David. (Dawud)' He asked Allah: 'O Lord! How long have you made his life-span?' Allah said: 'Sixty years.' Adam requested Allah: 'O Lord! Give him an increase of forty years from my lifespan …'" (Tirmidhi)
Ibn 'Abbaas (R) narrated that the Prophet (S) said:
"Allah took the covenant from the back of Adam at Na'maan ('Arafah). He took out from his back all his progeny, gave them shape, scattered them, and made them to speak. He asked them: 'Am I not your Lord?' They said: 'Yes! Indeed, we bear witness,' lest you should say on the Day of Resurrection: 'Surely we were unaware of this.' Or lest you say: 'Our fathers before us ascribed partners to Allah, and we were only descendants after them, will You then destroy us for the deeds of those who followed falsehood?'" (Ahmad)
Anas bin Malik (R) narrated that the Prophet (S) said:
"It will be said to a person from the People of Hell on the Day of Judgement: 'If you had all that is on Earth, would you have ransomed yourself by it from what you are in?' He will answer: 'Yes!' Allah will say: 'I wanted from you something less than that, and you did not do it. I took the covenant when you were in the loin of Adam, that you should not associate with Me anything. However, you persisted in joining associates with Me.'" (Bukhari)
We may also take note of the four honors Allah gave to Adam:
1. He created him with His Hand
2. He breathed into him the soul which He created for him
3. He commanded the angels to prostrate before him
4. He taught him the names of everything
Finally, the Prophet (S) said:
"The best day in which the sun rises is Friday: on that day was Adam created, on that day he was entered into Paradise, on that day he was expelled from it, and on that day will the Hour be established." (Muslim)
CAIN AND ABEL (QABIL AND HABIL) -Two Sons of Adam-
We will mention here what is narrated by some of the Companions of the Prophet (S) and early scholars.
Imam Abu Ja'far bin Jareer has mentioned in his book of history that Eve gave birth to forty children in twenty pregnancies. In another version it is suggested that she had one hundred and twenty pregnancies, and in every birth, one male child and one female child. The oldest of them was Cain and his sister Qalima, and the youngest of them were 'Abdul-Mugeeth and his sister Umm-ul-Mugeeth.
They were commanded by Allah that every son should marry the sister of his brother, with whom she was born. And the other son should marry the other sister. No one was allowed to marry his sister with whom he was born.
Some Companions narrated that Adam did as Allah ordered and used to marry the son from one birth to the daughter from another birth. From amongst his children, he had two sons whose names were Cain and Abel. Cain was older than Abel. Hence, he was from the previous birth. Abel listened to his father and wanted to marry the sister of Cain. However, Cain’s twin sister was more beautiful and he did not want Abel to marry her. Cain wanted to keep her for himself, even after being ordered by Adam to do so.
Adam then ordered his two sons to offer sacrifice and left for Mecca to perform pilgrimage (Hajj).
Allah mentions regarding them in the Qur'an:
"And recite to them the true story of the two sons of Adam, when they each offered a sacrifice, and it was accepted from one of them and not accepted from the other. The latter said: 'I will kill you.' Said the former: 'Allah accepts only from those who are pious.'" (5:27)
After Adam left, both offered their sacrifices. Abel offered a fat lamb, and he was a shepherd. While Cain offered a bundle of the worst crops he had grown. A fire came down and devoured the sacrifice of Abel, leaving that of Cain's untouched. He became angry and threatened Abel saying: "I will kill you so that you may not marry my sister." Abel replied: "Allah accepts only of those who fear him."
According to Abu Ja'far Al-Baqir, Adam was watching their offering of sacrifices, and the acceptance from Abel. Cain said to Adam: "Abel's offering was accepted only because you prayed for him and did not pray for me." Then he threatened his brother that he would settle this matter.
"Yet, if you stretch out your hand against me to kill me, I shall not stretch out my hand to kill you, for I fear Allah, the Lord of the Worlds. Instead, I would prefer that you bear the burden of my sin and your sin, and so become an inhabitant of the Fire, that is the recompense of the trangressors."(5:28,29)
Abel showed a sign of his noble character and piety after being threatened by his brother. He restrained himself from responding in the same manner towards Cain.
Regarding the second Verse, Ibn Jareer and others said that it means: "I intend to avoid fighting you, though I am stronger than you. I am determined to do this, so that you will bear the sin of my murder along with your previous sins."
In another version from 'Abdullah bin 'Amr (R) it is narrated that the victim (Abel) was stronger, but obedience and avoidance of sin restrained him from reacting to the threat.
The Qur'an says about Cain:
"His soul then prompted him to kill his brother and he killed him, and became one of the losers." (5:30)
One night, Abel did not return from tending his flock. So Adam sent Cain to see what happened to him. When Cain went looking for him, he found him and there he complained: "Your offering was accepted, but mine was not." Abel replied: "Allah accepts only from those who fear Him." Cain became angry upon hearing this and attacked Abel.
There are different opinions as to what happened. Some mention that he hit his brother with an iron he held in his hand, killing him instantly. While others mention that he killed him by striking him upon his head with a rock while he was sleeping. It has also been suggested that he strangled him to death, and bit him like a beast. And Allah knows best as to what happened! This was the first murder on this earth.
Some interpreters have mentioned that after Cain killed his brother, he carried him on his back for a full year, not knowing what to do with his brother’s corpse. Others have mentioned that he carried him on his back for one hundred years. Allah knows best.
Allah then says:
"Then Allah sent a raven scratching the earth to show him how to bury the corpse of his brother. He said: 'Woe to me! Was I not even able to do as thisraven, and so bury my brother?' Then he became full of remorse." (5:31)
The interpreters further mention that Allah then sent two crows who fought against one another, whereby one of them got killed in the process. The murderer crow then scratched the ground in order to hide the body of the dead crow. Cain saw that and did the same, as the Verse above mentions.
'Abdullah bin Mas'ud (R) narrated that the Prophet (S) said:
"No soul is killed unjustly but the first son of Adam bears a part of that sin, because he was the first to initiate this tradition of killing." (Ahmad, Bukhari, Muslim)
Mujahid says that the chastisement of Cain was brought forward the day he killed his brother. His shanks were joined against his thighs. His face was turned towards the sun wherever he went, as a punishment for his sin and transgression against his brother from the same two parents.
There is a cave called 'The Blood Cave', in a mountain located to the northern part of Syria. It is thought to be the scene of the crime where Cain killed his brother Abel. The people living there came to know this through the People of the Book, and only Allah knows the validity or reality of this.
Al-Hafiz Ibn 'Asakir mentioned in the biography of Ahmad Ibn Katheer that he (Ahmad) saw in a dream Allah's Messenger (S), Abu Bakr (R), 'Umar (R) and Abel. Ahmad came to know from Abel, who took an oath that it was his own blood that was spilt there in that very cave. Abel said that he asked Allah to make the invocations and supplications offered in that place acceptable. Allah accepted his own invocations, and His Messenger (S) believed in that and said that he (S), Abu Bakr (R) and 'Umar (R) used to visit that place every Thursday. However, it is to be stated that this narration represents only a vision. Even if it were true, no religious ruling can ever be based on such a thing, and Allah knows best.
Ibn Katheer says that according to what he read in the Torah of the Jews, Allah postponed his punishment and granted him a respite. He lived in a land called Nawad in the east of Aden, which is now called Qinin. Then…
He had a son whose name was Enoch…
Enoch had a son called Irad…
Irad had a son called Mehujael…
Mehujael had a son called Methushael…
Methushael had a son called Lamech.
Lamech married two women who were Adah and Zillah. Adah gave birth to a son called Jabal, who was the first to live in tents and acquired wealth and livestock. She also had another son called Jubal, who played the harp and flute. Zillah gave birth to a son called Tubal-Cain, who was the first to make all kinds of tools out of bronze and iron. She also gave birth to a daughter called Nama.
It also says that Adam had a third son called Seth. When Seth was born, Adam was one hundred and thirty years old. He lived eight hundred years after that. When Enos was born, Seth was one hundred and sixty five years old. He lived eight hundred and seven years afterwards. He had other sons and daughters.
Enos, at the age of ninety, had a son called Kenan. Then he lived eight hundred and fifteen years after that, and had other sons and daughters. When Kenan was seventy years old, he had a son called Mahalalel. He lived eight hundred and forty years after that, and had other sons and daughters.
At the age of sixty-five, Mahalalel had a son called Jared, and then lived for eight hundred years, and had other children. When Jared reached to the age of one hundred and sixty-two, he had Enoch. He lived eight hundred years after that, and had other children.
Enoch, at the age of sixty-five, had Methusaleh. He lived for eight hundred years after that, and had other children. When Methusaleh reached to that age of one hundred and eighty-seven, he had his son Lamech. He lived seven hundred and eighty-two years after that, and had other children.
Lamech, at the age of one hundred and eighty-two, had a son called Noah, and he lived afterwards for five hundred and ninety-five years, and had other children. After Noah was five hundred years old, he had Shem, ham and Japeth. This is how it is clearly mentioned in their book, the Bible, Genesis. Allah knows best for we do not have any clear evidence to confirm this.
DEATH OF ADAM AND HIS BURIAL
It has been mentioned that when the age of Adam came to an end, the angel of death approached him. Adam said: "Is not there forty years still left from my age?" So Adam forgot what he had granted his son David out of his age. We already mentioned the Hadeeth earlier. So Allah out of His Mercy granted Adam his original age of one thousand years, and to David one hundred years.
It has been mentioned from Ubai bin Ka'b who said:
When the time of death approached for Adam, he said to his sons: "My sons! I have a desire for the fruits of Paradise." They all then went out in search for it. On their way, they met angels. They were carrying his shroud and embalmment, as well as tools for digging and instruments for measurement.
They asked: "O children of Adam, where are you going?" They answered: "Our father is ill, and desired for the fruits of Paradise." The angels then said: "Go back, you have fulfilled his desire."
The angels came to Adam and when Eve saw them, she recognized them, and then clung to Adam. Adam said: "Get away from me, I was born before you. Leave me alone with the angels of my Lord!"
They took out his soul, washed his body, embalmed it, and shrouded it into cloth. They then dug a grave whereupon the angel Gabriel came and led other angels in prayer upon him, and buried him. They then said to Adam’s children: "This will be the burial procedure for your dead." And Allah knows best.
When Adam died and that was Friday, angels came with embalmment and a shroud from the presence of Allah, and from Paradise, and they consoled his son Seth. Ibn Ishaq says that all creatures cried upon him for seven days and that the sun and moon eclipsed for seven days and seven nights.
There are different opinions as to where Adam was buried. The famous opinion goes that he was buried near the mountain where he descended in India. In another opinion, he was buried on the mountain of Abu Qabis in Mecca. It is also said that in the time of 'The Flood', Noah carried him and Eve in a coffin, and buried them at Bait-ul-Maqdis in Jerusalem.
It is mentioned in the Hadeeth related to the Night Journey of our Prophet (S) that when he passed Adam on the first heaven, he (Adam) said:
"'Welcome to the pious son and pious Prophet.' The Prophet (S) then said that on his right side was a huge crowd, and on his left side was a huge crowd. When he (Adam) looked on his right side, he smiled. When he looked on his left side, he cried. He (S) asked Jibreel: 'Who is this?' Jibreel replied: 'He is Adam, and they are the souls of his children.' When he looked on his right, to those who were the people of Paradise, he smiled. But when he looked on his left, to those who were the people of Hell, he cried." (Bukhari, Muslim)
Ibn 'Abbaas and Abu Hurayrah (R) narrated from the Prophet (S) that his age was written in the Preserved Tablet (Al-Lauhul Mahfuz) as one thousand years.
Historians have said that Adam saw four hundred thousand of his children and grand children before he died. Through his children, mankind multiplied and scattered throughout the land. They grew in their number and went farther and farther in the land. And Allah knows best.
END OF STORY
02 The Story of Seth (Sheeth)
ADAM'S LEGACY TO HIS SON SETH
Ibn Katheer says that according to what he read in the Torah of the Jews (if it is true) that Adam, at the age of one hundred and thirty, had a third son, namedby his wife as Seth (which means the Gift of Allah). She said that he was arecompense for Abel who was killed by Cain.
Ibn Ishaq says that it is said that all lineage of mankind goes back to Seth, while the rest of his children perished and did not leave any lineage. He also mentions that when death approached Adam, he made a covenant with his son Seth, and taught him the hours of the day and night, and the acts of worship for those hours. He also informed him about 'The Great Flood' to come after him.
Seth took charge of his mission, and he was a Prophet, as is narrated from Abu Dhar (R) attributing it to the Prophet (S) where he says:
"Allah sent down one hundred and four Scriptures, of them were fifty upon Seth." (Saheeh Ibn Hibban)
Before his death, Seth entrusted the charge to his son Enos, who carried out his mission after him. Then after him his son Kenan and then his son Mahalalel took charge. Mahalalel is the one whom the Persians claimed to be the King of Seven Regions, and that he was the first to cut trees, build cities and big castles. He built the city of Babylon (Babul) and the farthest city of Sus. He defeated Iblees and his army and then scattered them into mountains and valleys, and killed a huge number of them. He had a splendid crown and his rule lasted for forty years.
After his death, his son Jared took the charge of his mission, and then his son Enoch, who is known as Idrees.
END OF STORY
03 The Story of Enoch (Idrees)
A FEW WORDS ABOUT HIM
He is Enoch bin Jared bin Mahalalel bin Kenan bin Enos bin Seth bin Adam.
Allah says in the Noble Qur'an:
"And mention in the Book (Qur'an) Idrees, he was a truthful Prophet. And We raised him to a high station." (19:56,57)
Allah has praised Enoch in this Verse and described him as a Prophet and Truthful. Our Prophet's ancestral line meets him, as many of the genealogists mentioned it. After Adam and Seth, he was the first man to be sent as a Prophet.
Ibn Ishaq said that he was the first man to write with a pen. He was born while Adam still had three hundred and eight years of his life to live.
Ka'b (R) mentioned regarding the second Verse from above that it meant: Allah revealed to Enoch that He would raise for him every day the same amount of deeds of all Adam's children (perhaps meaning of his time only). So Enoch wanted to increase his deeds and devotion.
So, once a friend of his from the angels visited him and Enoch said to him: "Allah has revealed to me such and such, so could you please speak to the Angel of Death, so I could increase my deeds?" The angel carried him on his wings and went up into the Heaven. When it was the Fourth Heaven, they met the Angel of Death, who was descending down to Earth. The angel spoke to him about what Enoch had spoken to him before. The Angel of Death replied: "But where is Enoch?" He replied: "He is upon my back." The Angel of Death said: "How astonishing! I was sent and told to seize his soul in the Fourth Heaven. I kept thinking how could I seize it in the Fourth Heaven when he was on Earth?" Then he took his soul there out of his body.
In Saheeh Al-Bukhari and Saheeh Muslim it is also mentioned, regarding the Night Journey, that the Prophet (S) passed by him in the Fourth Heaven.
END OF STORY
04 The Story of Noah (Nuh)
HIS BIRTH AND LINEAGE
He is Noah bin Lamech bin Methuselah bin Enoch bin Jared bin Mahalalel bin Kenan bin Enos bin Seth bin Adam (peace be upon them all).
He was born after one hundred and twenty-six years from the death of Adam, as Ibn Jareer mentioned it. He was also the first Messenger to be sent upon this Earth.
Ibn 'Abbaas (R) reported that the Prophet (S) said:
"There were ten centuries (Qarn) between Adam and Noah, and they all lived according to Islam." (Al-Haakim)
If one hundred years is meant by a Qarn, as is generally thought by many people, then there must be at least one thousand years between them. However, it could be more, as Ibn 'Abbaas (R) specified those centuries as being to be according to Islam. So there should be later centuries, which did not live according to the Islamic Teachings, and which required the sending of a Messenger.
Noah was sent by Allah when his people started worshipping idols and false gods, and fell into the depth of darkness and ignorance. Noah called his people to worship Allah Alone, without associating with Him any partner. He asked them not to worship any idols, any statue, and any false deities. He required of them to believe in the Oneness of Allah, with no God other than Him, just as Allah sent every Messenger with the same mission after him.
The Qur'an has mentioned that Noah called them to the way of Allah with different means, day and night, in public and in private. But none of these means succeeded. They carried on in their error and deviation, and worshipping of idols. They treated Noah and his followers as their enemies and held them in utter contempt. They threatened them with stoning and expulsion from their town.
WHAT WENT WRONG WITH HIS PEOPLE
Let us firstly understand what went wrong with his people. (Three opinions below).
"And they have said: 'Do not forsake your gods, and do not forsake Wadd nor Suwa', neither Yaguth nor Ya'uq nor Nasr.'" (71:23)
Ibn 'Abbaas (R) explains that those were names of pious people from among them. Following their death, Satan inspired their people to erect statues in the places where they used to sit, and to name the statues with the names of those men. They did so, but they were not worshipped until that generation died and the knowledge of what those statues were erected for was lost. Then, the statues were worshipped. (He further said that the Arabs afterwards worshipped those idols that were among the people of Noah).
Ibn Jareer reported from Muhammad bin Qays saying that those were names of pious people (not from among them), but of the period between Adam and Noah, and they had followers who took them as their models. When they died, their followers said: "If we could make statues of them, it will encourage us to worship Allah whenever we remember them." So they built statues of them. But when these followers died and other generations came after them, Iblees crept into their minds saying: "Your forefathers used to worship them, and through them they sought rain." Hence, they began to worship these statues.
And it is reported from Abul-Mutahhir who said that Wadd was a pious man, loved by his people. When he died, they converged around his grave in Babylon and were overwhelmed with grief. When Iblees saw their sorrow caused by his death, he came to them disguised as a man, and said: "I have seen your grief on the death of this man, so shall I make a statue like him which could be erected in your place of assembly, thus you may remember him by it?" They answered, "Yes!" So he made a statue like him. They erected it up in their assembly, and so they remembered him.
Iblees then suggested: "Shall I build a statue of him in the homes of everyone of you, so that each one of you could remember him in his home?" They agreed. So, he made a statue like him for every family. Then, they accepted this and began to remember him by it. Then came the generation of their children who saw what their fathers did with it for their remembrance. However, the children’s children came and they had no idea of how their fathers remembered them, and so gradually they took it as a god, worshipping it instead of Allah. So, the first one to be worshipped instead of Allah was the idol they named Wadd.
Those were three opinions regarding how Noah's people went astray by the influence of Iblees. Nevertheless, the corollary of this point is that every idol was worshipped by a different group of people. And after long ages had passed by, people started making idols of them for themselves, so that their authority could be fully recognized, and so they were worshipped instead of Allah.
NOAH ADDRESSES HIS PEOPLE, AND THEIR REACTION
Let us now take a look at some Verses of the Qur'an whereby he addresses his people, as Allah says that Noah said to them:
"O my people! Worship Allah. You have no God worthy of worship other than Him. Truly I fear for you the chastisement of a Momentous Day." (7:59)
"O my people! There is no error in me, but I am a Messenger from the Lord of the Worlds. I bring you the Messages of my Lord, and I advise you, and I know from Allah what you do not know. Do you wonder that an admonition came to you from your Lord by a man from among you, so he may warn you, and that you may fear Allah, and that you may find mercy." (7:61-63)
"O my people! Just consider, if I have a clear sign from my Lord, and He has bestowed His Mercy upon me, which has been obscured from your sight, shall we compel you to accept it when you are averse to it? O my people! I do not ask of you any reward for this, my reward rests only with Allah. I shall not drive away those who believe, indeed they shall meet their Lord, but I see you are ignorant people. O my people! Who would save me from Allah if I drive them away? Will you not understand? And I do not say that I possess the Treasures of Allah, or that I know the Unseen, or that I am an angel, nor do I say to those your eyes despite, that Allah will not grant them any good. Allah knows best what is in their souls, and if I did that, I would be among the unjust." (11:28-31)
We have read from the above Verses, the effort he has put into trying to help his people. Let us now take a look at several Verses regarding their reaction.
"The leaders of his people said: 'We see you are in obvious error.'" (7:60)
"We see nothing in you but a man like ourselves, and we see none following you but the most abject of us, apparently, nor do we think that you have any superiority over us, rather we think you are liars." (11:27)
"And they have said: 'Do not forsake your gods, and do not forsake Wadd nor Suwa', neither Yaguth nor Ya'uq nor Nasr.'" (71:23)
"How should we believe in you while only the meanest followed you?" (26:111)
"The leaders of the disbelievers among his people said: 'He is no more than a human like yourselves, who wishes to gain superiority over you. Had Allah willed, He would have sent down angels, we have not heard of this among our forefathers. He is only a man possessed, so wait for him for a time.'" (23:24,25)
"O Noah, if you do not desist, you will be stoned." (26:116)
"O Noah! Certainly you have disputed with us, and have prolonged our disputation. So bring now that which you have threatened us with, if you are speaking the truth." (11:32,33)
Regarding this last Verse where they asked Noah to bring that which he threatened them with, he replied to them, as Allah says:
"Allah will bring it to you if He Wills, and you will not be able to frustrate it. All my advice to you would be of no benefit to you if Allah has ordained for you to be left astray, even if it is my desire to advise you. He is your Lord and to Him shall you return."(11:34)
Ages passed by, but the arguments continued between Noah and his people, and they rejected his call, as Allah says in the Qur'an: "… and he lived among them one thousand years less fifty ..." After such a long time only a few of them believed in him.
Whenever a generation passed, it advised the succeeding one not to heed Noah or believe in him, and to fight him and oppose him. When a child was grown up, he was warned by his father that he should never believe in Noah. It became their characteristics to refuse belief in Allah and not to follow the way of truth. After Noah sees that all efforts have failed and that he will never be successful with them, he supplicates to Allah.
HIS SUPPLICATION TO ALLAH AGAINST THEM
Mentioned below are some extracted Verses from the Noble Qur'an regarding the supplication of Noah.
"O my Lord! I have called my people night and day, but my calling has only increased them in aversion. And whenever I have called them, that You might forgive them, they put their fingers in their ears, and covered themselves up with their clothes, and persisted, and given themselves up to arrogance. Then indeed I invited them openly. Further I have spoken to them in public, and I have appealed to them in private, and I have said: Ask for forgiveness from your Lord, indeed He is the Most Forgiving. He will send rain to you in abundance, and He will bestow upon you wealth and sons, and provide for you gardens, and will make for you rivers."(71:5-12)
"My Lord! They have disobeyed me, and followed him whose wealth and children increase him only in loss. And they have devised a tremendous plot."(71:21,22)
"My Lord! Help me for they accuse me of falsehood."(23:26)
"My Lord! My people have rejected me. So make judgement between me and them, and rescue me and the believers with me."(26:117,118)
"My Lord! Leave not even one of the disbelievers upon the Earth. For if You leave them, they will lead astray Your slaves and will not beget any but wicked, ungrateful ones."(71:26,27)
The supplication of Noah was answered, and this is what Allah revealed to him:
"No more of your people shall believe in you other than those who have already believed, so grieve no longer at their misdeeds." (11:36)
This Verse was a comfort for Noah as well as a consolation. His mission is complete and he carried out his duties. Allah addresses him that he should not grieve for them and He will soon be sending His Help for him, and His Punishment for them.
CONSTRUCTION OF THE ARK
Allah says to him:
"Construct the Ark under Our Eyes and according to Our Revelation, and address Me no further on behalf of those who have been unjust, for they shall be drowned." (11:37)
Meaning: "Build it as per Our Command, and as We watch you build it, so We will be guiding you how to construct it in a way that it could cope with this Mighty Flood."
Allah commanded Noah to start constructing the Ark. It was a huge ship with no precedence.
Thauri said that Allah commanded him to build the Ark eighty cubits in length, and to paint it with tar inside and outside, and its bow should be curved, so that it could easily sail in the water.
Qatadah said that its length was three hundred cubits, with a width of fifty cubits. That is how it is in the Torah as he saw it.
Hasan Basri said that its length was six hundred cubits, with a width of three hundred cubits.
Ibn 'Abbaas (R) said that its length was one thousand cubits, with a width of six hundred cubits.
It is also said that its length was two thousand cubits, with a width of one hundred cubits.
These were some of the opinions regarding its length and width. And Allah knows best regarding it.
However, it is reported unanimously that its height was thirty cubits, and it was a three-story deck ship, every deck with a height of ten cubits. The bottom deck was kept for animals and cattle, the middle deck was for human beings, and the upper deck was for birds.
Allah then says:
"So he began to construct the Ark, and whenever the leaders of his people passed him by, they jeered at him." (11:38)
His people could not believe that any such Flood, which could drown all people, will ever happen. The leaders of his people would laugh and mock at him constructing the Ark.
"If you ridicule us now, we shall jeer at you likewise. And you shall soon come to know who will have a chastisement which will disgrace him, and who will be afflicted with the inevitable and lasting calamity."(11:38,39)
Disbelief and stubbornness became their characteristics in this world, and likewise it will be in the Hereafter, as they denied that Noah ever came to them as a Messenger.
Allah then addresses Noah:
"And then when Our Command comes, and the oven gushes forth, take aboard two pairs of every kind and your family, except those of them against whom the Word has already been spoken, and do not plead with Me concerning the evildoers for they shall be drowned." (23:27)
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