Special Education Vocabulary in Use - Bronisław Treger, Anna Treger - ebook

Special Education Vocabulary in Use ebook

Bronisław Treger, Anna Treger

0,0

Opis

Język angielski - poziom B2-C1

Podręcznik stanowi użyteczną pomoc w zdobywaniu i doskonaleniu sprawności językowych polegających na znajomości słownictwa, biegłości stylistycznej oraz swobodnym i dokładnym rozumieniu dłuższych wypowiedzi z zakresu pedagogiki specjalnej w języku angielskim. Przeznaczony jest nie tylko dla studentów pedagogiki specjalnej, ale także dla studentów powiązanych dyscyplin badawczych i praktycznych, takich jak praca socjalna, psychologia, socjologia, fizjoterapia oraz pielęgniarstwo.

Podręcznik został opracowany tak, aby mógł służyć zarówno do nauki w grupie pod opieką lektora, jak i samokształcenia.

ŁATWA NAUKA
Każdy z rozdziałów po tekście wprowadzającym zawiera zestaw ćwiczeń i zadań umożliwiających utrwalenie biegłości językowej w zakresie angielskiej terminologii pedagogiki specjalnej. Ćwiczenia są urozmaicone. Jedne z nich sprawdzają rozumienie tekstu czytanego (pytania typu prawda/fałsz, quizy), inne to zadania wielokrotnego wyboru, ćwiczenia ze słowotwórstwa, dopasowywanie słów do definicji/opisów i zastępowanie wyrażeń z języka potocznego terminami naukowymi. W każdym z tekstów wprowadzających i niektórych ćwiczeniach wytłuszczone zostały terminy mające kluczowe znaczenie dla danej problematyki pedagogicznej.

Na stronie internetowej wydawnictwa jest dostępne do ściągnięcia gratisowe nagranie AUDIO obszernych fragmentów podręcznika w formie pliku mp3, dokonane przez native speakera.

W książce stosowane są zasady ortografii brytyjskiej (British English). Korzystanie z niej wymaga opanowania kursu General English przynajmniej na poziomie średniozaawansowanym.

***

Anna Treger – anglistka, wykładowca w Studium Praktycznej Nauki Języków Obcych Akademii Pedagogiki Specjalnej im. Marii Grzegorzewskiej w Warszawie. Autorka kilkunastu podręczników do nauki języka angielskiego.

Bronisław Treger – profesor na Wydziale Stosowanych Nauk Społecznych Akademii Pedagogiki Specjalnej.

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Liczba stron: 216

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Popularność




Redakcja naukowa

prof. dr hab. Joanna Głodkowska

wraz ze specjalistami z Instytutu Pedagogiki Specjalnej APS:

dr hab., prof. APS Bernadetą Szczupał, dr Antoniną Adamowicz-Hummel,

dr Danutą Al-Khamisy, dr Mileną Miałkowską-Kozaryną, dr Joanną Smogorzewską,

dr Grażyną Walczak, mgr Martą Lewandowską, mgr Iwoną Omelańczuk

Weryfikacja językowa

Terence Clark-Ward

Redakcja

Anna Żółcińska

Projekt okładki

Amadeusz Targoński

Rysunki

Studio KARANDASZ

Skład

Protext

Opracowanie wersji elektronicznej

Nagranie i realizacja dźwięku

www.maxx-audio.com

Lektor

Mark Fordham

Copyright © 2018 by Anna Treger i Bronisław Treger

Copyright © 2018 by Poltext Sp. z o.o.

Wszelkie prawa zastrzeżone. Nieautoryzowane rozpowszechnianie całości lub fragmentów niniejszej publikacji w jakiejkolwiek postaci zabronione. Wykonywanie kopii metodą elektroniczną, fotograficzną, a także kopiowanie książki na nośniku filmowym, magnetycznym, optycznym lub innym powoduje naruszenie praw autorskich niniejszej publikacji. Niniejsza publikacja została elektronicznie zabezpieczona przed nieautoryzowanym kopiowaniem, dystrybucją i użytkowaniem. Usuwanie, omijanie lub zmiana zabezpieczeń stanowi naruszenie prawa.

Warszawa 2019

Poltext Sp. z o.o.

www.poltext.pl

[email protected]

ISBN 978-83-8175-036-3 (format epub) 

ISBN 978-83-8175-037-0 (format mobi) 

Wstęp

Autorzy mają nadzieję, że publikacja Special Education Vocabulary in Use. Podręcznik do nauki angielskiego słownictwa z zakresu pedagogiki specjalnej będzie użyteczną pomocą w pracy nad rozbudowaniem sprawności językowych polegających na znajomości słownictwa, biegłości stylistycznej oraz swobodnym i dokładnym rozumieniu dłuższych wypowiedzi z zakresu pedagogiki specjalnej zarówno w mowie (przykładowo: wykład, opinia, konwersacja), jak i w piśmie (podręcznik, artykuł, informacja internetowa) formułowanych w języku angielskim.

Niniejsza książka w zamyśle autorów ma służyć nie tylko studentom pedagogiki specjalnej, lecz także innych kierunków nauk o wychowaniu oraz dalszych powiązanych dyscyplin badawczych i praktycznych, takich jak praca socjalna, psychologia, socjologia, fizjoterapia, pielęgniarstwo…

Może być również przydatna dla tych rodziców, rodzeństwa, krewnych, wolontariuszy bezinteresownie i dzielnie wspomagających osoby z niepełnosprawnością, którzy by lepiej spełniać rolę wsparcia, zamierzają systematycznie aktualizować swą wiedzę o postępach pedagogiki specjalnej nie tylko w Polsce, ale i w czołowych ośrodkach zagranicznych. To również ze względu na nich podręcznik został opracowany tak, aby mógł być pożyteczną pomocą zarówno do nauki w grupie pod opieką lektora, jak i dla osób przedkładających samokształcenie. Autodydaktom test sprawdzający, a także dokładny i szczegółowy klucz znajdujące się na końcu książki będą pozwalały na kontrolę postępów w opanowaniu materiału.

„Nie ma kaleki, jest człowiek” – podkreślała niezmiennie i stanowczo Maria Grzegorzewska (1888–1967), uczona, która jak mało kto przyczyniła się do ukształtowania pedagogiki specjalnej w naszym kraju. Jedną z rzeczy najcenniejszych w dziedzictwie pozostawionym przez Grzegorzewską jest bez wątpienia koncepcja humanistycznych fundamentów aksjologicznych pedagogiki specjalnej. W codziennej działalności zarówno naukowej, jak i wychowawczej przekłada się to m.in. na staranne unikanie mowy wykluczającej. Do problemu eliminowania języka naznaczającego przykłada się dziś dużą wagę w pedagogice anglosaskiej. Znalazło to odzwierciedlenie w niniejszym podręczniku – tak w uwagach o dziejach edukacji specjalnej i przemianach terminologii, jak i w odpowiednich ćwiczeniach.

Struktura książki i ćwiczeń jest podobna do kompozycji wcześniej opublikowanej w wydawnictwie Poltext pozycji Psychology Vocabulary in Use. Podręcznik do nauki angielskiej terminologii psychologicznej (II wydanie, Warszawa 2018). Niniejsza publikacja liczy dziesięć rozdziałów poświęconych wybranym ważnym działom pedagogiki specjalnej. O kluczu i teście była już wzmianka powyżej. Całość zamykają dodatkowe ćwiczenia i słownik z podstawową terminologią. Każdy z rozdziałów po tekście wprowadzającym zawiera zestaw ćwiczeń i zadań umożliwiających poznanie angielskiej terminologii pedagogiki specjalnej i utrwalenie biegłości językowej w tym zakresie. Ćwiczenia są urozmaicone. Jedne z nich sprawdzają rozumienie tekstu czytanego (pytania typu prawda/fałsz, quizy), inne to zadania wielokrotnego wyboru, uzupełniania luk własnymi odpowiedziami, ćwiczenia ze słowotwórstwa, dopasowywanie słów do definicji/opisów i zastępowanie wyrażeń z języka potocznego terminami naukowymi. W każdym z tekstów wprowadzających i w niektórych ćwiczeniach wytłuszczone zostały terminy mające kluczowe znaczenie dla danej problematyki pedagogicznej.

Książka odwołuje się do zasad ortografii brytyjskiej. Jest przeznaczona w zasadzie dla osób, które opanowały kurs General English przynajmniej na poziomie średnio zaawansowanym.

Nagrania mp3 wybranych tekstów z książki można pobrać bezpłatnie ze strony internetowej wydawnictwa po wpisaniu w okienko kodu, który znajduje się na przednim skrzydełku okładki.

Autorzy dziękują za rzeczowe rady, wsparcie redakcyjne i słowa zachęty, które były nieocenioną pomocą przy pisaniu tej książki.

Przede wszystkim dziękujemy Pani Profesor Joannie Głodkowskiej, dyrektor Instytutu Pedagogiki Specjalnej APS – bez Jej aprobaty nie przystąpilibyśmy do prac nad podręcznikiem. Rzecz jasna wyrazy wdzięczności odnoszą się również do wszystkich pozostałych uczestniczek zespołu redakcji naukowej wymienionych na stronach tytułowych publikacji. Dziękujemy także za życzliwą pomoc Profesorowi Grzegorzowi Szumskiemu, Doktor Justynie Gasik, Susan Carton z St. Angela’s College, Sligo oraz Terence’owi Clark-Wardowi.

Doskonale układała się nam współpraca z wydawnictwem Poltext dzięki niekwestionowanemu profesjonalizmowi Państwa Redaktorów Marka Rostockiego i Anny Żółcińskiej.

Nie musimy dodawać, że za wszystkie niedociągnięcia i ewentualne błędy wyłączną odpowiedzialność ponoszą autorzy podręcznika.

Warszawa, Tri Studničky 2018

UNIT 1.WHAT’S IN THE NAME? DISABILITY

Exercise 1

Read the text and underline the correct word from the three in italics.

WHAT IS DISABILITY?

Disability is a diverse, multi-dimensional and multi-factorial phenomenon, which continues to be the subject of interest, study and much debate among professionals. This interest brought about two distinct models of disability: medical and social. In the medical model, disability is perceived to be caused by physical inabilities/impairments/deprivations (1) resulting from anatomical, physiological and psychological abnormalities/deformities/limitations(2), which reduce an individual’s quality of life and lead to difficulties in dealing with everyday situations. In the social model of disability, ‘disability’ is a social state and not a physical condition. Here, the emphasis is placed on the disadvantage/dependence/disorder(3) experienced by people with impairments as a result of socio-structural barriers that prevent them from full participation in mainstream society and the failure of society to cater for them as equal citizens.

These two models are harmonised in the definition of disability provided by the World Health Organisation:

‘Disabilities is an umbrella term, covering impairments, activity limitations, and participation restrictions. An impairment is a problem in body behaviour/performance/function (4) or structure; an activity limitation is a difficulty encountered by an individual in executing a task or action; while a participation restriction is a problem experienced by an individual in involvement in life situations.

Disability is thus not just a health problem. It is a complex phenomenon, reflecting the interaction between features of a person’s body and features of the society in which he or she lives. Overcoming the difficulties faced by people with disabilities requires interventions to remove environmental and social barriers.’

Disability may be developmental, sensory, intellectual, psychological or physical, or a combination of some of these. It may be genetics/genetic/genetical(5)or acquired, obvious to a casual observer, such as a loss of a limp/lisp/limb (6),or not immediately obvious (hidden), such as dyslexia. It may range from mild to moderate, severe to profound.

Disability may arise directly from a definite/specific/concrete(7) health condition, such as vision loss due to cataract (primary disability), or be the result of a preexisting impairment, such as vision loss due to diabetes (secondary disability).

Finally, according to a school-based category, disability can be divided into two broad groupings: high- and low-incidence. High-incidence disabilities (e.g. speech and language disorders) are the most prevalent/average/popular (8) among children and youth with disabilities, whereas low-incidence disabilities (e.g. deafblindness) are those which are relatively seldom encountered.

Exercise 2

Read the text and decide if the statements below are true (T) or false (F).

A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE FIELD

Impairment has existed since the dawn of time, however the way people perceived it varied significantly from one community to another. Throughout centuries people have shared different beliefs, attitudes and values, therefore there is no single response to impairment. As a matter of fact, what is regarded as an impairment in one society, may not be thought of as an impairment in another (e.g. deafness on Martha’s Vineyard).

In the beliefs of ancient people, the gods infused every aspect of human daily life, including well-being and health. In Ancient Greece and Early Roman Republic, infants born with congenital deformities were typically abandoned or killed after birth for economic, religious and eugenic reasons. Society at large regarded deformed infants as an indication that their parents angered the gods. People who weren’t born with physical impairments but became impaired later in life were allowed to live, but – unless they were very wealthy – existed on the margins of society, often condemned to poverty and deprivation. Those who escaped death were also exploited for amusement and entertainment, either in the houses of the wealthy or public places. For example, Balbus Blaesus the Stutterer was exhibited in a cage along Appian Way, the Rome’s most important road, so that travellers could be amused by his speechimpairment.

In Classical Greece, physicians like Hippocrates offered a more reasonable explanation for impairment. They rejected the view that impairments and illnesses were a sign of the gods’ punishment or demonic possession. They believed that people’s health was related to bodily fluids called four humours: blood, phlegm, yellow bile and black bile, and that certain personality traits and conditions arose from them. For instance, various forms of mental disorders were thought to be caused by an excess of black bile.

As the Roman Empire aged, its strict laws on impairment loosened. People with impairments became more accepted in their communities. For instance, a ruling by Ulpian, a Roman jurist, declared that infants with impairments should be nurtured and looked after by their parents. By the third century A.D. child exposure was viewed the way it would be viewed today: as a murder.

Impairment was socially acceptable in Ancient Mesopotamia. People with impairments were not excluded from society (with the exception of people with skin conditions, i.e. leprosy and dropsy), but they were assigned productive roles to make a living. A man with physical impairment could become a silversmith, a blind man a musician, and a man with mental retardation a courtier. Similarly in Egypt, people with impairments weren’t denied a participation in the life of their community. On the contrary, the ancient Egyptians were one of the most humane societies with regard to impairment. They directed considerable attention to blindness, deafness, mental retardation and other impairments as well as social well-being of citizens with impairments. Egyptians also respected dwarfs (or rather people with restricted growth) who held elite status in society.

Early Christians, in keeping with Judaic concepts of charity, provided for the less fortunate and treated them with sympathy and pity. To many, impairment was indication of impurity, which could be purged through worship or religious rituals. During the Middle Ages, attitudes towards impairment were mixed and reflected – to a large extent – individual feelings rather than the teachings of the Catholic Church. Impairment was widely believed to be inflicted by God or a supernatural power. People with impairments were treated in monasteries and hospitals where they were subjected to such actions as exorcism, incantation and purging. As the Middle Ages progressed, people with impairments became feared, and some of them (e.g. those with mental disorders or visible malformations) were persecuted and executed for witchcraft.

The early modern period brought a gradual progress towards more rational thinking about impairment. It began to change from being viewed as demonic possession or as divine punishment to being viewed as an illness requiring treatment. Yet, the early modern period, like other periods before it, represented contradictory attitudes to impairment. On the one hand, it initiated the education, institutionalised care and treatment of people with impairments, and on the other, the belief in evil spirits as a cause of some impairments was still alive and witchcraft continued to be practised. People with impairments began to be commonly accepted into monasteries, mental hospitals, almshouses and other facilities, not only to be cared for but also to be isolated from society. In spite of all these achievements, many of the mental hospitals were notorious for cruel treatment and inhumane living conditions.

At the close of the 18th century, special education became a recognised branch of education and residential schools were opened for children with special needs. The world’s first special schools were opened in Paris: the deaf institution (Institut National des Sourds-Muets) in 1760, and the blind institution (Institut National des Jeunes Aveugles) in 1784. Subsequently, other schools for the Deaf and blind were opened across Europe and in North America. Schools that exclusively served children with physical impairments were opened later than those for the Deaf and blind. The first school for children with physical impairments was opened in Bavaria in 1832. The 19th century also witnessed significant advancement in the education of people with other types of impairments.

The modern history of a specific field of impairment will be discussed in the respective chapters.

Ancient

Greeks and Romans practised infanticide of children with congenital impairments.

In

the ancient world, people with impairments were often used for entertainment purposes.

In

Ancient Egypt, dwarfs were kept at court to provide amusement.

Compassion

was the prevailing attitude towards people with impairments in the Late Middle Ages.

The

practice of witchcraft stopped with the coming of the early modern period.

First

institutions for mentally ill individuals became notorious for deplorable living conditions and abusive treatment.

Special

schools for deaf, blind and otherwise disabled children were established roughly at the same time.

Note!

Never

use words such as

cripple/cripple

d

,

invali

d

,

retard/retarde

d

,

deforme

d

,

defectiv

e

,

dumb

,

deaf-mut

e

,

lame

,

poo

r

,

handicappe

d

,

slow

, or

special

ed

in

reference to a person’s impairment. They are offensive.

Handicap is synonymous with disadvantage or barrier. You may say, ‘Stairs present a handicap for people with physical impairments’, ‘A lack of closed captioning on TV is a real handicap for him.’

Use

the person first, e.g. ‘a person with an impairment’, ‘a man who has a hearing impairment’, ‘a woman who is using a wheelchair/a wheelchair user.’ Don’t say, ‘a hearing impaired man’ or ‘a wheelchair bound woman/a woman confined to a wheelchair.’

Descriptive

words should be used as adjectives, not as nouns, therefore do not refer to people with impairments as

the

disabled

,

the

hearing

impaired

,

the

mentally disturbed

. You

don’t want to make the impression that their impairments define them.

There are some exceptions to this rule, such as the Deaf andthe blind.

Do

not say ‘he suffers from’, ‘she is afflicted/stricken with’, ‘they are victims of.’ Instead use

have

,

experienc

e

, or

live

with

, e.g. ‘he

has

cerebral palsy’, ‘she has experienced arthritis’, ‘the man is living with muscular dystrophy.’

Avoid

referring to a person without an impairment as

norma

l

,

able-bodie

d

or

health

y

. It

implies that people with impairments are abnormal and strange. Use

non-disabled

or

a person

without an impairment

instead.

When

talking about places designed and equipped to meet the needs of people with impairments, use the word

accessibl

e

, e.g. ‘an

accessible

parking place’, ‘accessible toilets’ or ‘accessible entrance.’ You may also say that a place, such as a restaurant or museum, is ‘wheelchair accessible.’

Exercise 3

a) Match the words in column A to the words in column B to make correct impairment-related terms. More than one match is possible.

A

B

1. mental

a) loss

2. communication

b) impediment

3. speech

c) retardation

4.hearing

d) delay

5.birth

e) disorder

6.developmental

f) defect

b) Complete the sentences below with the terms from exercise 3a. Use the plural form if necessary.

Some

babies are born with _________________ that range from relatively minor problems, such as cleft lip, to significant ones, such as clubbed feet or a missing limb.

Individuals

with _________________ have lowered intellectual functioning in areas related to thinking and learning, and as a result they have trouble meeting the demands of independent life.

A _________________ includes any symptoms that result in a person

having problems with vocal communication. The most common examples of such problems are choppy or slurred speech, stuttering and cluttering.

Children

with _________________ have difficulties exchanging information with others due to, for example, their limited vocabulary, poorly developed conversational skills or speech disruption (such as stuttering or lisping).

_________________

is either a partial or full decrease in the ability to receive and interpret sound. It may be genetic but it may also appear at any time in an individual’s lifetime as a result of a disease, trauma, exposure to loud noise, or ageing.

A

 

_______________

is diagnosed when an individual’s performance lags significantly in one or a few domains, such as cognition, language, motor skills, emotion, socialisation, and everyday life activities, as compared with norms.

Exercise 4

a) Put the names of impairments into the correct column.

retinal detachment, oppositional defiant disorder, deafness, semantic disorders, fragile X syndrome, dyscalculia, glaucoma, spinal cord injuries, phenylketonuria, polio, cerebral palsy, eating disorders, phonological disorders, muscular dystrophy (MD), dyslexia, anxiety disorders, ADHD, articulation disorders, hearing loss, fluency disorders, retinitis pigmentosa (RP), Down syndrome, Williams syndrome, dysgraphia, cataract

GENERAL TYPES OF DISABILITIES

Physical Impairments

Visual Impairments

Hearing Impairments

Learning Disabilities

Speech and Language Impairments

Intellectual Disabilities

Emotional or Behavioural Disorders

b) Match the names of the impairments from exercise 4a to their descriptions below.

Matilda

is a 9-year-old girl who has clumsy use of her limbs, irregular posture, poor balance and coordination. As a result, she has trouble walking, sitting, doing up her shoes or picking up dropped items. She can’t even go to the toilet on her own. Actually, she needs a constant help with just about everything physical.

Greg

has been paralysed from the chest down after diving into a shallow lake and breaking his neck. The boy has had several operations but the injuries he has sustained are so severe that he is expected to spend the rest of his life bound to a wheelchair. In the worst case scenario, he may not even be able to breathe without a ventilator.

Oscar

seems not to be able to sit still and pay attention to a task for more than 10 minutes at a time. He often talks, squirms in his seat and gets out of his chair to draw on the board with a chalk or to play on the floor. His teachers complain that he disrupts classes and has a bad influence on other children. For this reason he has been sent to the head teacher’s office on many occasions, but it seems to have no effect.

17-year-old

Kelly is very afraid to put on weight. She often checks how she looks in the mirror for any signs of excess fat and is always convinced that her thighs are too big or her stomach bulges out. She exercises excessively and refuses to eat most foods even though she has a BMI of 19 and looks frighteningly thin.

9-year-old

Julius is a bright boy, but his speech seems to be behind other children his age. He has trouble producing sounds made in the back of the mouth, like ‘k’ and ‘g’, so he substitutes them for sounds he can produce, such as ‘t’ and ‘d’, and says ‘tate’ for ‘cake’ and ‘date’ for ‘gate.’ It can be difficult for others to understand him, especially when context is not known.

Natalie

dislikes any assignment requiring writing because she has trouble putting her ideas into words and her handwriting is very hard to read. As a matter of fact, it is worse than you would normally see in most children her age, with numerous spelling mistakes, words squashed together and with very little in the way of punctuation.

Ruby

is a remarkably friendly pixie-faced girl. She smiles all the time and is happiest when she is around other people. She is completely unafraid of strangers. On the contrary, she exchanges hellos with everyone and strikes up a conversation with anyone who shows an interest. Apart from being overly social, she has a strong feeling for language, and yet may never learn to put on clothes the right way or pay for a bus ticket.

Clive

is a 15-year-old myopic boy. He’s been wearing glasses since he was two years old, but in the last few months he has noticed a change in his condition. His night vision has got worse than his day vision and it’s still decreasing. In addition, he’s been gradually losing his peripheral vision – the ability to see to the side without turning his head – so he is frequently running into things.

Exercise 5

Read the text and choose the answer (a, b, c or d) which you think fits best.

VICTOR, THE WILD BOY OF AVEYRON

On a cold December day, just a few days into the year 1800, a small boy was found in the woods of Aveyron in southern France. He was naked, dirty and growling like an animal. The boy was around the age of 12, though at four feet and a half he was short for his age. The boy’s peculiar behaviour and lack of _________ (1) suggested that he had been living alone in the wild for most of his life.

No one knew the child, so there were intense speculations about him. For instance, people thought that he was abandoned as a baby in the woods because he was _________ (2). Although he wasn’t deaf, he was taken to the National Institute of the Deaf in Paris, for the purpose of evaluation and study. The physicians at the institute soon lost interest in him, considering him mentally _________ (3) from birth and thus unteachable. Eventually, the boy was taken care of by a young instructor Jean Marc Gaspard Itard. Itard named the boy Victor, but locally he was often referred to as ‘the wild boy of Aveyron.’ Itard believed that Victor’s _________ (4) resulted from severe social and emotional _________ (5) and that he would benefit from an enriched environment. He developed a systematic educational programme, whose main goals were to teach Victor to speak, to awaken his senses, to teach him ideas, and to interest him in social life. Despite all efforts, Victor never became ‘normal.’ Even though he did show some progress, language was beyond his grasp and all he ever actually learnt to say was ‘lait’ (milk) and ‘Oh Dieu’ (oh God). Discouraged, Itard gave up and the boy went on to live with Madame Guerin, the physician’s housekeeper, until 1828 when he died at the age of 40.

Itard regarded his work with Victor as a failure, yet his attempts at _________ (6) the boy laid the groundwork for the education of developmentally _________ (7)individuals. In fact, over two centuries later, many of his methods of teaching are still applied in special education.

1.

a) talk

b) speech

c) voice

2.

a) mute

b) uncommunicative

c) quiet

3.

a) retarded

b) insecure

c) unstable

4.

a) neglect

b) disease

c) deficiency

5.

a) dependence

b) deprivation

c) discrimination

6.

a) restoring

b) civilising

c) rehabilitating

7.

a) depraved

b) delayed

c) distressed

Exercise 6

a) Complete the table with the correct forms of the missing parts of speech.

ADJECTIVE

NOUN

defect

handicapped

impairment

delay

abnormal

disturbed

deformed

retardation

infirmed

disability

b) Complete the sentences below with the words from the table. Sometimes there is more than one answer. Use the plural form if necessary.

In

some societies in the ancient world, infants with congenital

____________

_

were

legitimately killed.

Tommy

is clearly demonstrating a developmental

____________

_

, therefore

he is eligible for special education services.

Even

though his

____________

_

confined

him to a wheelchair, Stephen Hawking was arguably the most famous and celebrated scientist of his time.

7-year-old

Hazel has severe dyslexia, which constitutes a 

____________

_

as

compared to other children in her class. Unless she develops a strategy to compensate for her reading difficulties (e.g. listening to audio books), she may fall behind even further.

Like

most people with vision

____________

_

Robin

has to rely on assistance and support to move around and function relatively independently in society.

Throughout

much of history, mentally

____________

_

people

were regarded as a menace to society and locked up in asylums and other institutions.

Exercise 7

Replace the inappropriate or offensive terms with ones accepted by people with impairments.

The

other day I witnessed a scene on a bus where a woman using the wheelchair space for her baby in a pushchair refused to move to make way for

an

invalid

.

Although

many eating establishments are accessible for

handicapped

people

, some

restaurants still don’t recognise guide dogs for

the

blind

.

In

spite of discrimination, people

who

suffer from vision loss

have

a far better quality of life than they have ever had before.

Since

he became a double amputee due to a nearly fatal accident, Rob has been dreaming of competing in the Olympics alongside

norma

l

athletes.

Tim

has

been afflicted with paraplegia

due

to a spinal injury. The world that he knew came crashing down, but he is slowly finding his way back to life.

Amy

is a victim

of Down syndrome

and

last year she started a local school where

special

ed

childre

n

have

their own classroom.

The

woman couldn’t park in the

disable

d

spot

in a busy shopping centre because there was already a car there without the blue badge.

A wheelchair

bound boy

couldn’t

see

‘The Theory of Everything,’ a biographical film about Stephen Hawking, in his local cinema due to the cinema’s lack of wheelchair accessible spaces.

REVISE AND CHECK

Exercise 1

Complete the following sentences with the correct word or expression. More than one answer may be possible.

Craig

has a 

______________

_

following

a low-back injury. He does not have the use of his legs and uses a wheelchair.

Willie

is often mistaken for being drunk because his

______________

_

makes

his voice sound unclear.

The

_______________

that

Mike has endured for most of his life makes it difficult for him to understand speech in noisy listening situations, e.g. in a large group of people.

Linda

was born with a cleft palate, a fairly common

______________

_

, which

has affected her self-esteem to the point that she avoids social interactions, especially with men.

The

biggest _______________ for people with impairments is the lack of basic facilities, such as accessible ramps, lifts or parking spaces.

Due

to his

______________

_

, 7-year-old

Harry struggles to articulate specific sounds clearly and needs speech therapy to correct his errors.

Adele

has a(n)

_______________.

Even

though she is 17 years old, her academic skills are at about the same level as her 8-year-old brother, in spite of years of specialised schooling and assistance.

Exercise 2

Complete the sentences below with the words derived from those in brackets. Add a suitable prefix, if needed.

In

Ancient Greece and Rome infants with congenital _______________ were either killed or abandoned immediately after birth. (normal)

Joanne

had her first IQ test at the age of 6. It yielded a score of below 70, which qualified her as having mental _______________. (retard)

Due

to severe social and educational _______________, the wild boy never adapted to social life. (deprive)

Chester

was born with a severe _______________ of both feet. (form)

Ellen, a hard of hearing 11-year-old, studies alongside her _______________ peers, but receives additional assistance by a special education teacher. (able)

Because

of her auditory _______________, Michelle has difficulty recognising and interpreting the sounds she hears, especially in noisy places. (deficient)

All

areas of the hotel are _______________ to people with impairments, including those who use wheelchairs. (access)

Klucz ⇒

UNIT 2.HARD OF HEARING AND DEAFNESS

Exercise 1

Read the text and choose the answer (a, b, c or d) which you think fits best.

HEARING LOSS

Hearing loss, also known as hearing _______________ (1) or deafness, is a complex disability. It ranges from mild to profound and can affect one ear (unilateral) or both ears (bilateral). Those with mild or moderate hearing loss are called ‘hard of hearing’, whilst those with profound hearing loss are called ‘deaf.’

There are different ways to describe hearing loss. The most basic distinction is between conductive hearing loss and sensorineural hearing loss. Conductive hearing loss occurs when sound waves are prevented from travelling to the inner ear due to blockage or damage in the outer or middle ear. Sensorineural hearing loss occurs when sound waves cannot be converted into electrical signals due to problems in the inner ear, ___________ (2) nerve or nerve pathways to the brain. This type of hearing loss, unlike conductive type, is not correctable with medications or surgery. An individual may have both types present at the same time. When this is the case, he or she has mixedhearing loss.

In terms of age of onset, hearing loss can be described as pre-lingual, peri-lingual, and post-lingual. A child who has lost his or her hearing before acquiring speech is said to have pre-lingual hearing loss. A child who has lost his or her hearing after acquiring some speech is said to have peri-lingual hearing loss. And finally, a child with post-lingual hearing loss has incurred the loss after he or she has learnt to speak. The earlier the age at which hearing loss occurs, the more adverse are its effects on children’s oral and literacy skills. Post-lingually deaf children have had a period of normal _______________ (3)experience unlike pre-lingually deaf and peri-lingually deaf children who have had none or little of it.

Hearing loss can be _______________ (4) (from birth) or _______________ (5) (after birth). Congenital hearing loss may be due to genetic (_______________ (6))and nongenetic factors. Genetic hearing loss can be further classified as syndromic or nonsyndromic. When hearing loss is accompanied by other medical problems, it is said to be syndromic. For instance, some individuals with hearing loss may also have problems with the heart, kidneys, arthritis, thyroid or eyes. When there are no other medical problems, hearing loss is nonsyndromic. Nonsyndromic hearing loss is by far more common, accounting for more than 70% of all genetic hearing losses.

For any trait to be inherited, genes must be passed down from parent to child. Genes are stretches of a chemical substance called DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and are packed into small structures called chromosomes. Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes, including a pair of sex chromosomes, and each pair consists of one chromosome inherited from the mother and another chromosome from the father. Genes can acquire mutation, leading to different forms, known as alleles. Some mutations are _______________ (7), meaning that they don’t have any effect on the organism at all. Others can be either beneficial or harmful.

There are different ways in which genetic deafness can be inherited. The autosomal recessive hearing loss is the most common type, occurring in approximately 75–80% people, with autosomal dominant inheritance next in frequency, occurring in about 20%. The remaining 2% are associated with other types of genetic inheritance (e.g. X-linked recessive, X-linked dominant, and mitochondrial). In the case of dominantly inherited hearing loss, only one mutated gene is needed for the trait to appear. In the case of recessively inherited hearing loss, two such genes are needed.

Nongenetic causes of hearing loss include: maternal infections during pregnancy (such as cytomegalovirus or rubella), maternal diabetes, prematurity, birth injuries, jaundice at birth and lack of oxygen (anoxia). Acquired hearing loss can occur at any time in one’s life as a result of – among other causes – ear infections (otitis media), _______________ (8) and bacterial infections (such as flu, measles, mumps, chickenpox or meningitis), head _______________ (9),exposure to loud noises and _______________ (10) medicines.

Finally, hearing loss may be classified as either progressive or sudden. Progressive hearing loss gets worse over time, while sudden hearing loss occurs rapidly in a matter of few hours or, at the very most, few days.

1. a) impairment b) injury c) infirmity 2. a) hearing b) auditory c) acoustic 3. a) linguistic b) spoken c) lingual 4. a) genetic b) innate c) congenital 5. a) environmental b) acquired c) familial 6. a) inherited b) inherent c) hereditary 7. a) neuronal b) neutral c) natural 8. a) viral b) virus c) virulent 9. a) pain b) damage c) trauma 10. a) orthodox b) ototoxic c) toxicant

Note!

Don’t confuse hereditary with congenital hearing loss. Hereditary hearing loss is genetically passed from parent to child, and congenital hearing loss is present at birth due to genetic reasons (e.g. mutations or hereditary conditions) or non-genetic reasons (e.g. complications at birth or postnatal infections). Therefore, congenital hearing loss may be, but doesn’t have to be hereditary.

Also, hereditary hearing loss doesn’t have to be congenital – some babies inherit the tendency to develop hearing loss later on in life.

Exercise 2

Identify the type of hearing loss described in each case below.

Adam developed a ______________ hearing loss due to a viral infection before he was two years old. Because of his condition, his speech and language skills are not well developed and he communicates mainly by signing.A 19-year-old patient presented to an otolaryngologist complaining of bad hearing in one ear. He thought it was due to a cold that he was suffering from at the time, but the reason was more serious. On examination, the doctor found evidence of head injury, which the man sustained in a fall from a ladder, and diagnosed the patient with a moderate _______________ hearing loss.Tony wasn’t born deaf – he sustained a _______________ hearing loss at the age of seven due to meningitis – but he has the same problems understanding speech as children who were born deaf. Unlike those with _______________ hearing loss, however, Tony experienced sound in his early years and acquired spoken language.The woman has developed a ______________ hearing loss, which is caused by her ears’ inability to conduct sound waves. She is wearing hearing aids, which compensate for her impairment, but has some problems understanding people in less-than-ideal listening situations, e.g. on the phone.Claire has a _______________ hearing loss. In addition to her impairment, she is affected by Waardenburg syndrome, which causes abnormal pigmentation in her hair and skin.A 45-year-old patient has experienced a _______________ hearing loss. The hearing loss is too severe to be helped with conventional hearing aids, but it may be correctable with a cochlear implant.Frank has a _______________ hearing loss. His hearing has been worsening gradually so he wasn’t aware of it for a time. It was only when his mother started to complain that he watched TV too loud and asked her to repeat what she’d just said that he acknowledged his hearing problems.

Exercise 3

Read the text and decide if the statements below are true (T) or false (F).

MARTHA’S VINEYARD DEAFNESS

In 1694 Jonathan Lambert and his wife, Elizabeth, moved from Barnstable on Cape Cod to Martha’s Vineyard, an island off the coast of Massachusetts. His wife’s family had already settled there several years earlier along with other people. The reason why Lambert is still remembered is because he was the first known deaf settler and a carrier of a recessive gene for deafness. Jonathan Lambert is commonly believed to be the index person for deafness on Martha’s Vineyard, however, he is not the only person to whom the deafness on the island can be traced back to. Both his parents were carriers and shared a common ancestor in the county of Kent, England, who carried the gene. What’s more, Jonathan and his wife (unaffectedcarrier) were also related and two of their seven children were born deaf.

People on Martha’s Vineyard led a cloistered life. They married within their tight communities and lived separated from the outside world. This isolation preserved the recessive gene, which resulted in the high rate of hereditary deafness on the island for over two centuries. In 1854 one in 155 babies was born deaf on Martha’s Vineyard. In the town of Chilmark, it was one in 25 and in Squibnocket (a section of Chilmark) one in four. In comparison, the national average was one deaf baby in 5,728.

Because deaf people constituted a considerable part of their communities, they were involved in all aspects of daily life and held the same jobs as everyone else. They were neither excluded nor treated in a special way. This probably wouldn’t be possible without a common means of communication, but everyone on the island spoke sign language. Actually, signing became the only language that everyone there knew.

In the late 19th century, the prevalence of hereditary deafness on Martha’s Vineyard began to decline due to an influx of mainlanders who didn’t carry the recessive gene to the island. As a result, the island population became more diverse. In the meanwhile, an increasing number of islanders migrated to the mainland. By 1900 only fifteen deaf people remained on Martha’s Vineyard and just one by 1952 when the last deaf person born on the island died.

A deaf person’s biggest problem is not that he or she cannot hear but that he or she is socially isolated from hearing people. The difficulty in communication, prejudices and ignorance about the nature of the impairment creates a barrier between the Deaf and the hearing worlds. There was no such barrier on Martha’s Vineyard and everybody was comfortable with deafness. For this reason, deafness was not perceived there as an impairment, but as an individual characteristic, such as being left-handed. On the mainland, however, deafness was considered a real handicap.

Disability is thus a relative concept, depending to a large extent on the community in which it appears, its attitudes and beliefs. Unfortunately, places like Martha’s Vineyard no longer exist and a large proportion of people with impairments maintain a separate identity almost everywhere in the world.

Genetic deafness on Martha’s Vineyard can be traced back to England.It was normal to be deaf on Martha’s Vineyard.Both deaf and hearing children learnt sign language.Deafness was equally distributed on the island.There was a Deaf community on Martha’s Vineyard.The decline of the deaf population was due to an excess of deaths.

Note!

Use deaf (written with lower case ‘d’) to refer to deafness or hearing loss in medical terms, and Deaf (written with upper case ‘D’) to refer to Deaf culture and people who consider themselves as having a distinct cultural identity, e.g. ‘Matthew wasn’t born deaf, but he lost all of his hearing due to nerve damage at the age of 14. He didn’t learn sign language and doesn’t consider himself part of the Deaf world.’

Exercise 4

Complete the paragraphs with words in the boxes.

a) Dominant Inheritance

mutation, mutated, dominant, unaltered

Steve and his wife Alison have four children – two girls: Peggy and Susan, and two boys: Mike and Jack. Steve is deaf and has a _______________ (1) for hearing loss on one gene carried on one chromosome, whereas his wife is unaffected. The four of their children inherited one chromosome from Steve and one chromosome from Alison. Because Alison has two copies of _______________ (2) chromosomes, all the children inherited a normal chromosome from her. Steve has a _______________ (3) gene on one of his chromosomes, therefore the children had one in two (50%) chance of inheriting this gene from him. As a result, two of their children – Susan and Mike, inherited _______________ (4) genes for deafness and are deaf from birth.

b) Recessive Inheritance