Running Injuries - Jeff Galloway - ebook

Running Injuries ebook

Jeff Galloway



"Running Injuries - Treatment and Prevention" offers easy to access tips on treating and avoiding injuries. It is written in a language that is easy to understand. The book will help runners and walkers understand how injuries occur, how to prevent them, how to heal them: knee, foot, calf, iliotibial band, plantar fascia, achilles tendon, neuroma, and much more. There is also a section on coming back from an injury and exercising while injured.

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Medical Disclaimer: The information in this book is intended as a general guide, and in no way should be seen as a substitute for your doctor’s own advice. All care is taken to ensure the information is free from error or omissions. No responsibility, however, can be accepted by the author, editor, publisher, or any other person involved in the preparation of the material for loss occasioned to any person acting or refraining from action as a result of the published information. Before commencing any new health program, diet or exercise, always consult your doctor.

Running Injuries

Treatment and Prevention

Jeff Galloway & David Hannaford DPM

British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data

A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library

Jeff Galloway, David Hannaford

Running Injuries

Maidenhead: Meyer & Meyer Sport (UK) Ltd., 2010

ISBN 978-1-84126-737-1

All rights reserved, especially the right to copy and distribute, including the translation rights.

No part of this work may be reproduced – including by photocopy, microfilm or any other means – processed, stored electronically, copied or distributed in any form whatsoever without the written permission of the publisher.

© 2010 Meyer & Meyer Sport (UK) Ltd.

Aachen, Adelaide, Auckland, Budapest, Cape Town, Graz, Indianapolis, Maidenhead, Olten (CH), Singapore, Toronto

Member of the World

Sport Publishers’ Association (WSPA)

Printed and bound by: B.O.S.S Druck und Medien GmbH, Germany

Also available in print.

Print-ISBN 978-1-84126-284-0

E-Mail: [email protected]



Injury-Free for Over 30 Years

by Olympian Jeff Galloway

Why Do We Get Injured...and How to Avoid the Risks

by Olympian Jeff Galloway

What Causes Injuries?

Be Sensitive to Your “Weak Links”

Common Weak Links

Why Do Micro-tears Accumulate?

Common Causes of Injuries

Aggravating Factors

How Do You Know if You Are Injured?

You Can Take 5 Days Off from Running with no Significant Loss in Conditioning

Quick Action Can Reduce Recovery Time Needed

How to Lower the Chance of Injury

Staying in Shape when Injured

How to Return to Running

Injuries from Running Form Mistakes

Troubleshooting Form-related Injuries

The “Shuffle”

Speedwork Increases Injury Risk

Correct Posture Can Reduce Aches and Pains

Suggestions for Running Smoother, Reducing Irritation to Weak Links

Cramps in the Muscles?

Here Are Several Ways of Dealing with Cramps

Exercises that Can Prevent/Treat Injuries

Preventing Speed Injuries


Treatment of Injuries

by Dr. David Hannaford

About the list of injuries


Toe Nails – Discolored Toe Nails


Anywhere on Foot


Toe Numbness, Pain and Tissue Damage


Front of Foot – Base of Toes, Occasionally Top of Foot


Front of Foot on Bottom – May Include Toes


The Second or Third Toe Joint



Pain in Outer Top of Foot and Up to Ankle Crease


Foot – Front to Middle


Behind Big Toe – Top of the Foot at the Instep


Pain that Is Deep Inside the Big Toe Joint


Outside of Foot – Midway on the Prominent Bone


Outer Side of Heel –

Also Below Ankle Bone Moving Toward Mid Foot on Outside


Inside of Foot – at Ankle Bone


Bottom of Heel – May Extend Along Bottom of Arch all the Way to Front of Foot


Back of Heel – Sometimes Underneath


Area 2 - THE ANKLE

Outside of the Ankle Mostly – But Can Be Inside


On or Around the Outer Ankle Bone


Inside of Ankle – Just Above the Ankle Bone


Throughout the Ankle – No Specific Area


The Tendon Just Above the Back of the Heel Bone



Front of the Lower Leg – Outside of the Shin Bone


Front of the Shin – on the Inside Inner Edge


Outside of the Lower Leg, Above the Ankle to Just Below the Knee


Various Pains in the Calf Muscle


Area 4 - THE KNEE

Pain at the Kneecap, or at the Muscle Attachment to the Kneecap


The Area Directly Behind the Knee and Toward the Inside


On the Outside of the Knee



On the Inside of the Upper Leg – From the Groin or Lower Butt Muscle – In the Direction of the Knee


Outside of the Thigh from the Bony Knob on the Outside of the Hip, Going Down


From the Upper Butt Muscle Down the Backside of the Upper Leg to the Knee


Front of the Hip, Where the Leg Attaches – Just Above or Just Below


Butt Muscle Pain from the Waist to the Lower Fold in the Butt


Area 6 - THE BACK

Various Problems in the Lower Back



Over-the-counter Drug Issues





Galloway’s Injury Prevention Tools

The Galloway Run-Walk-Run ™ Method

The Right Pace/Run-Walk-Run Ratio Reduces Injury Risk Dramatically

The “Magic Mile”

Prediction Formulas

Choosing the Best Shoe for You

Photo & Illustration Credits:

Cover Photos: © fotolia, Mike Graffigna 2008 & imago, Sportfotodienst

Cover Design: Sabine Groten

Injury-Free for Over 30 Years

by Olympian Jeff Galloway

Over 50 years ago I literally took the first steps in a life-changing experience: I started running. As a fat and lazy 13 year old, I enrolled in a required conditioning program at my school, fully expecting that running was going to hurt, and that I would quit after 10 weeks of punishment. To my surprise, I felt really good during and after most of my runs. My vitality and positive attitude was better than at any other time of the day. My new running friends were energetic, mentally alert and fun. As I pushed back the distance barriers, I discovered positive feelings and resources I had never experienced. When I was running correctly, I experienced a sense of freedom and well-being that was wonderful and unique. Running helped me be happy.

I became hooked on running and competition. But male ego and testosterone led me into a series of aches, pains and significant injuries. Not wanting to give up the wonderful benefits, and lacking perspective, I often went into denial at the onset of an injury and was forced to stop running after a few more runs due to breakdown of muscles, tendons, etc. The worst part was the psychological letdown during every “vacation” from running (about every 3-4 weeks). The withdrawal from endorphins inspired a desire to eliminate injury. This book is my latest step in that direction.

In 1978 I faced the reality that I would probably never run as fast as I had during my first 20 years of running. My new goal was to stay free of overuse injuries. I’m proud to say that for more than 30 years, I’ve done this. Chances are, you can be mostly injury free, too. In this book I will tell you the principles and steps that have kept me and over 250,000 clients away from the doctor’s office for the most part.

Every week most runners have some aches, pains or injury issues, or questions about whether they have an injury. When I give advice it is from one runner to another. Get medical advice from a doctor who has treated a great number of athletes with the same injury, successfully. Dr. David Hannaford is my top choice for almost any ailment associated with running. At my Tahoe running retreat I’ve seen him diagnose and treat injuries over and over that other specialists missed. He is as addicted to running as I am and wants to get every injured runner back on the road or trail as soon as possible. He has a gift for communicating his knowledge in ways that non-doctors can understand.

Both of us want you to understand why injuries occur, how to avoid them and that there are successful ways to prevent and treat them. We want you to gain control over your ailments.

Jeff Galloway

Why Do We Get Injured…

and How to Avoid the Risks

Plus: How to return to running... staying in shape while injured.... troubleshooting running form... and more.

by Olympian Jeff Galloway

What Causes Injuries?

Our bodies are programmed to adapt to running and walking, by making constant “upgrades” to withstand stress and perform more efficiently. Regular and small increases in workload, followed by recovery periods, promote rebuilding and improved capacity. The factor that is most commonly neglected is rest, but it is crucial: It is during the recovery period that the rebuilding takes place.

But each of us has a few “weak links” that take on more stress when we work out. These are the areas that ache, hurt or don’t work correctly when we start a new activity, increase training, or don’t provide sufficient rest after a hard workout. In some cases, pain-killing hormones, such as endorphins, will mask the damage. Most commonly, exercisers go into denial, ignore the first signs of irritation and continue training until the stressed area breaks down.

To sustain progress and avoid injury, we simply need to follow a simple pattern: 1) A slight increase in training produces a minor breakdown of tissue. 2) If the after-workout rest period is sufficient, the muscles, tendons, cardiovascular system rebuild/restructure to handle a higher level of performance. 3) All body parts continue to adapt in structure, efficiency and performance when there is a balance between workout stress and rest.

Running improvement continues if...

we don’t push too far beyond current capabilities. ụ

we engage in regular workouts.

we provide enough rest after the stressful sessions.

Be Sensitive to Your “Weak Links”

Most of the aches and pains experienced by my runners and walkers are located in their “weak link” areas—the muscles, joints, tendons, etc. that take more stress due to our individual range of motion. The process starts during a normal workout when micro-tears develop, in muscles and tendons, due to the focused stress of continued movement/irritation of these key parts. The number of these tiny injuries will increase on long or faster workouts, especially during the last third. But in most cases, the rest period after a workout will allow for healing of most or all of this damage.

Common Weak Links

Joints—knee, hip, ankle

Muscles—calf, hamstring, quadriceps

Tendons—Achilles, knee, ankle

Fascia—especially around joints, foot

Bones—foot and leg

Nerve tissue—foot and leg

Feet—just about any area can be overstressed

There is often no sensation of pain during or immediately after the workout because the body has a number of pain-killing mechanisms (including endorphins) which will temporarily mask the symptoms. But when a critical mass of these broken fibers has accumulated in one area, you have produced more damage than the body can repair in 48 hours—you have an injury.

Why Do Micro-tears Accumulate?

Constant use

Prior damage

Speed work

Too many races

Doing something different

Sudden increase of workload

Inadequate rest between workouts

Not enough walk breaks during runs

Stretching (yes, stretching causes a lot of injuries)

Heavy body weight

Common Causes of Injuries

It’s a physiological fact that the constant use of a muscle, tendon, joint, etc., without a break, will result in earlier fatigue and reduced work potential. Continuing to run/walk when the muscle is extremely fatigued increases the quantity of micro-tears dramatically and is a major cause of injury.

By pacing conservatively and by inserting walk breaks early and often, you will gain a great deal of control over the fatigue process. You’ll empower the muscles to maintain resiliency and capacity. This lowers the chance of breakdown, by significantly reducing the accumulating damage that leads to injury. Here are some “tools” that can give you control over your aches and pains:

The pace of the long run is too fast (see pp. 161-162).

Speedwork segments are too fast for current ability (see pp. 161-162).

Pace is too fast for the heat (see p. 114).

Sudden increase in speed/distance (see p. 20).

Insufficient rest days per week (three days reduce injury rate most).

Walk breaks are not taken soon/often enough (see pp. 159-161, top reason for injury).

Stretching causes many injuries and aggravates many more, be careful.

Changing form or technique (see p. 16).

Shoes—seldom a cause, but can aggravate a weak link (see pp. 165-167).

Changing from a worn-out shoe to a new shoe.

Trauma—running on a slanted or uneven surface, stepping off a curb, in a hole, etc. This happens rarely, but be careful.

Aggravating Factors

Prior damage—especially due to accident trauma, football, soccer, skiing, etc. It may not be possible for all of the damage to be repaired. In most cases, training adjustments can be made to allow for continued running/walking exercise into the mature years.

Note: Studies show that runners have healthier joints and fewer orthopedic complaints than non-runners after decades of running. See RUNNING UNTIL YOU’RE 100 for more information.

Body weight—every 5 pounds of weight gain above average per age puts significantly more stress on the joints, weak links, etc. With much more frequent walk breaks, however, weight stress can be reduced significantly.

Speed—Speed training and frequent racing increases stress on the weak links significantly. The elimination of speed work can significantly reduce injury risk. When working with e-coach clients, I have found individual adjustments allowing some form of faster training while managing the risk, in most cases.

Stride length—longer strides increase risk. A shorter stride may not slow you down if you will increase cadence or turnover.

Bounce off the ground—the higher the bounce, the more stress on the push-off muscles. The higher the bounce, the more shock to be absorbed upon landing. Stay low to the ground, touching lightly.

Stretching—I have heard from thousands of runners who have been injured or had injuries aggravated by stretching. In general, I do not recommend stretching. There are individuals who benefit from certain stretches, however. Be careful if you choose to stretch. Stretching is not generally recommended as a warm-up or immediately after running. Trying to stretch out fatigue-induced tightness often results in injury or prolonged recovery.

Note: Those who have iliotibial band injury can often get relief from a few specific stretches that act as a “quick fix” to keep you running. Even when doing these, be careful. The foam roller treatment has been the mode that has reduced healing time for this injury. There is a picture on our website ( that shows how to use this.

Continuing to work out when an injury has begun can dramatically increase the damage in a few minutes. It is always better to stop the exercise immediately if there is an indication that you have an injury.

Avoid certain exercises that aggravate your weak links.

The “Toe Squincher.” Everyone should do this exercise every day to reduce/eliminate the chance of having a plantar fascia injury—or other foot problems. Point your foot down and contract the muscles in the forefoot/midfoot region. This strengthens the many little muscles in your feet that will provide extra support.

How Do You Know if You Are Injured?

Continuing to exercise when you feel that you might have an injury puts you at great risk of an extended layoff from running. In most cases that I’ve monitored, when I suspect that there is an injury, it usually is an injury. Be sensitive to your weak links. When you notice any of the symptoms below, take at least a day or two off from running.

Inflammation—swelling, puffiness or thickening.

Loss of function—the area doesn’t work correctly or move normally.

Pain—if the pain does not go away as you get warmed up and walk slowly, or the pain increases, STOP!

You Can Take 5 Days Off from Running with no Significant Loss in Conditioning

It is always better to err on the conservative side of injury repair. If you take an extra day off at the beginning of an injury, you won’t lose any conditioning. But if you continue training with an injury, you may increase the healing time by a week or a month for each day you try to push through pain.

Quick Action Can Reduce Recovery Time Needed

Some minor irritation may require just one day off from running. As the pain level increases, so does the need for more recovery days, because there is usually more damage.

How to Lower the Chance of Injury

Insert walk/shuffle breaks from the beginning.

Work out every other day (lowest rate of injury).

Avoid faster running or gently ease into faster running.

Don’t stretch (unless you have certain stretches that work for you and don’t hurt you).

Staying in Shape when Injured

Many running injuries will heal while you continue to run, if you stay below the threshold of further irritation. Talk to your doctor about this issue to ensure that the healing has started and that you are not irritating the injury as you start back.

Cross training—pick an activity that does not aggravate the injury. Walking and water running are the best for maintaining running conditioning. To hold current endurance, schedule a long walk/water run session that is the same distance of your long run (same number of water running minutes you would spend running your current long run). Some runners have been able to maintain speed conditioning by doing a speed running workout in the water, once a week.

Swimming, cycling, etc. are good for overall fitness, but don’t have a lot of direct benefit to runners.

Activities to avoid: Anything that irritates the injury.

If you can walk, walk for at least an hour, every other day.

How to Return to Running

Check with your doctor to ensure that enough healing has occurred to begin running again.

Stay below the threshold of irritation.

You want to see progress, week by week, in reduction of pain.

Stay in touch with your doctor and ask questions if you suspect that you are aggravating the injury.

Avoid exercising if you are “favoring” the injured area, or limping. Running in an abnormal way can result in a worse injury in another location.

If you haven’t been exercising, start by walking. Build up to a 30 minute walk.

Insert small segments of running into a walk (run 5-10 seconds, walk the rest of the minute). If there is no aggravation, you could increase 5 seconds on the running segment while decreasing 5 seconds on the walking segment—after using each new ratio for at least 3 workouts.

Avoid anything that could aggravate the injured area.

First increase should be in the duration of the long run, by 5-10 minutes, every other week. Keep the run-walk-run ratio mostly walking for the first month and slowly increase.

Injuries from Running Form Mistakes

While the body adapts and adjusts to the running motion, workouts or races that are long and strenuous can result in irregularities in our normal form. Since the body is not adapted to these “wobbles,” weak links can be irritated. Continued use, using an unaccustomed range of motion, can lead to injury. Here are some of the common ones. For more information see HALF-MARATHON, GALLOWAY’S 5K/10K RUNNING, RUNNING – A YEAR ROUND PLAN.

Troubleshooting Form-Related Injuries

Lower back—Caused by forward lean, overstride, too few walk breaks

Neck pain—Caused by forward lean, head placed too far forward or back

Hamstring pain—Caused by striding too long, stretching

Shin pain on front—Caused by stride length too long, especially on downhills or at end of run

Shin pain on inside—Caused by over-pronation

Achilles—Caused by stretching, speedwork, overpronation

Calf pain—Caused by stretching, speedwork, inadequate number of walk breaks

Knee pain—Caused by too few walk breaks, over-pronation

The “Shuffle”

The most efficient and gentle running form is a “shuffle”: The feet stay next to the ground, touching lightly with a relatively short stride. When running at the most relaxed range of the shuffling motion, the ankle mechanism does a great deal of the work, and little effort is required from the calf muscle. But when the foot pushes harder and bounces more, and the stride increases, there are often more aches, pains and injuries.

Speedwork Increases Injury Risk

Time goal runners need to run faster in some workouts, and this means some increase in stride length, greater bounce and foot pushing is needed. By gradually increasing the intensity of speed training (with sufficient rest intervals and rest days between) feet and legs can adapt. But there is still a risk of injury. Be sensitive to your weak links and don’t keep running if there is the chance that you may have the beginnings of an injury (see also p. 30).

Correct Posture Can Reduce Aches and Pains

Posture is an individual issue. Most of the runners I’ve worked with find that an upright posture (like a “puppet on a string”) is best in all ways. When runners use a forward lean there is a tendency to develop lower back pain and neck pain. A small minority of runners naturally run with a forward lean with no problems. In this case, one should run the way that is most natural.

Suggestions for Running Smoother, Reducing Irritation to Weak Links

Feet—low to the ground, using a light touch of the foot.

Try not to bounce more than an inch off the ground.

Let your feet move the way that is natural for them. If you tend to land on your heel and roll forward, do so.

If you have motion control issues, a foot device can provide minor correction to bring you into alignment and avoid irritating a weak link. A supportive shoe is also needed.

Legs—maintain a gentle stride that allows your leg muscles to stay relaxed. In general, it’s better to have a shorter stride, and focus on quicker turnover if you want to speed up.

Water running can help in eliminating flips and turns of the feet and legs—which sometimes cause injuries, aches and pains. With a flotation device, run in the deep end of the pool so that your foot does not touch the bottom. Even one session of 15 minutes, once a week can be beneficial.

Cramps in the Muscles?

At some point, most people who run will experience at least an occasional cramp. These muscle contractions usually occur in the feet or the calf muscles and may come during a run or walk, or they may hit at random, afterward. Very commonly, they will occur at night, or when you are sitting around at your desk or watching TV in the afternoon or evening. When severe cramps occur during a run, you will have to stop or significantly slow down. Medications, especially the statin drugs, often cause cramping during exercise. If this is a possible cause, talk to your doctor—there may be a medication that allows you to run cramp-free. An over-the-counter salt tablet called SUCCEED has been very effective.

Cramps vary in severity. Most are mild but some can grab so hard that they shut down the muscles and hurt when they seize up. Light massage can relax the muscle and allow it to get back to work. Stretching usually increases the damage from the cramp, tearing the muscle fibers, according to my experience.

Most cramps are due to overuse—doing more than in the recent past, or continuing to put yourself at your limit, especially in warm weather. Look at the pace and distance of your runs and workouts in your training journal to see if you have been running too far, or too fast, or both. Remember to adjust pace for heat: 30 sec a mile slower for each 5 °F of temperature increase above 60 °F—or 20 sec/kilometer slower for every 2 °C of temperature increase above 14 °C.

Continuous running increases cramping. Taking walk breaks more often can reduce or eliminate them. Numerous runners who used to cramp when they ran continuously stopped cramping with a 1 minute walk break after 1-3 minutes of running during a long or fast run.

During hot weather, a good electrolyte beverage (consumed during the day, during the 24 hours after a long or hard run) can help to replace the fluids and electrolytes that your body loses in sweating. Accelerade has been the most effective in my experience. Drink about 6-8 oz every 2-4 hours, throughout the day.

On extremely long hikes, walks or runs, (especially during hot weather) the continuous sweating can push your sodium levels too low and trigger a fatigue cramp more quickly. If this happens regularly, a buffered salt tablet has helped greatly—a product like Succeed. If you have any blood pressure or other sodium issues, check with your doctor first.

Here Are Several Ways of Dealing with Cramps:


Take a longer and more gentle warmup.


Shorten your run segment—or take walk breaks more often.


Slow down your walk, and walk more.


Shorten the distance on a hot/humid day for your maintenance runs.


Break your run up into two segments (but not long runs or speed workouts).


Look at any other exercise that could be causing the cramps.


Take a buffered salt tablet during your long workouts (follow the directions on the label).


Don’t push off as hard, or bounce as high off the ground.


During speed workouts on hot days, walk more during the rest interval.

Exercises that Can Prevent/Treat Injuries

Plantar Fascia and Foot Injuries—the Toe Squincher

This strengthens the many muscles in the foot, promoting a strong push off, reducing foot fatigue, and reducing foot damage. Point your foot down and contract the muscles of the foot, which will cause the toes to curl in. Keep the contraction until the foot cramps. This can be done when wearing shoes or not, 15-20 times a day.

Back and Shoulder Soreness and Pain—Arm Running/ the Crunch

Holding dumbbells (hand held weights) in each hand, go through a slightly exaggerated motion one would use when running, for a set of 10 (one left and one right equals one repetition). Pick a weight that is heavy enough so that you feel you have strengthened the shoulder and neck muscles, but don’t have to struggle to finish the last two repetitions.

I-T Band—Foam Roller

This is the only treatment I’ve found that can speed the healing of the I-T band. Use a cylinder of dense foam (illustrated on Lie down on your side, where the I-T pain is felt. Rest your body weight on the roller and move your body with your hands so that you’re rolling from below the pain site to just above it. Roll for 5 minutes before the run, 5 minutes after the run and 5 minutes before bed at night (probably the most effective).

Ice Massage for Achilles and Other Tendons Next to the Skin

Freeze a paper cup or Styrofoam cup. Peel off the outer layer at the top to form a Popsicle of ice. Rub the ice constantly over the tendon for 15 minutes. The area should be numb after the treatment.

Night Treatments May Help More than Others

Experts tell me that most healing occurs overnight. If you perform one of these treatments before you go to bed, you may speed up the healing process.

Preventing Speed Injuries

Running faster than your “comfortable” pace for that day will increase injury risk. The further and faster you go in a speed workout or race, the greater the risk. But since you must run faster during some workouts to run faster in races, here are some ways of reducing this risk.

Warm up thoroughly.


Walk for 3 minutes.


Then run and walk for 10 minutes using a lot more frequent walk breaks than you use in a normal run. If you use a 3-1 normally, do the first 10 minutes at a 1-1 (run a minute and walk a minute).


Next, run for 5 minutes starting slowly and gradually picking up the pace to a normal short run pace.


Finally, do 4-8 acceleration gliders: run for 15 steps at a slow jog, then 15 steps at a faster jog, gradually accelerate to workout pace over 15 steps and then glide or coast back down to a jog over 30-40 steps. Take a 30-60 second walk/jog and repeat. After 4-8 of these, walk for 2-3 minutes and start the workout or line up for the race.

Ease into the speed for the day. Run the first repetition at a pace that is 15 sec/mile slower than you want to run in the middle of the workout. Run the first mile of your race about 15-30 seconds slower than your goal pace for that race.

Insert walk breaks from the beginning. These will vary based upon pace and race distance or repetition distance. For more information, see my books RUNNING – TESTING YOURSELF (1mi, 2mi, 5K, 1.5mi), GALLOWAY’S 5K/10K RUNNING, HALF-MARATHON, & RUNNING – A YEAR ROUND PLAN.

Walk to recover between speed repetitions. The amount of walking will vary depending upon the distance of the goal race and the pace. It is better to err on the side of walking longer if you feel the need early, there are more aches than usual, or the temperature is above 70 °F (21°C).

Never run through pain, swelling, or loss of function—stop the workout. After walking for a few minutes, if the pain goes away, resume the workout with caution. If you start to limp in any way, stop.

Stay smooth even when tired. If your form is changing due to fatigue, slow down.

Run the last repetition 15 sec/mi slower than the pace of the middle repetitions.

Don’t run too many speed workouts, races, or other fast runs too close together. For more information, see the books listed above.

If you are sensitive to your weak links, take the appropriate walk breaks/rest days, stop training when there could be an injury, and treat a damaged body part, you may avoid all serious injuries. This will bestow the greatest reward from running: enjoyment of every run.

Jeff Galloway

US Olympian

Treatment of Injuries

by Dr. David Hannaford

About the List of Injuries

This list of injuries represents the most common seen in my sports injury practice. There are many other less common injuries. The treatments recommended are not a complete list and are changing as time passes. The approach recommended here is from the perspective of a sports podiatrist. Other practitioners may emphasize different therapies. I have tried to include the treatments that are performed by most other professions, but surely some have unintentionally been omitted.