Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) - Ofelya Sargsyan - ebook

Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) ebook

Ofelya Sargsyan

0,0

Opis

Now the OSCE has 57 participating states from Europe, Central Asia, and North America, and its area spans from Vancouver to Vladivostok. 1st August, 2015 marked the 40th anniversary of the Helsinki Final Act. Since the signing of this agreement, the relevance of the OSCE in the European security architecture has only increased. That being said, the current paper seeks to picture how it functions, how it is perceived today by the participating states and what their key issues with regard to the organization are. It describes the various institutions within the OSCE, but also its political emancipatation. The most provoking part may be a forecast about its future and the gaps to be filled. The text is complemented with some official documents.

Ebooka przeczytasz w aplikacjach Legimi na:

Androidzie
iOS
czytnikach certyfikowanych
przez Legimi
czytnikach Kindle™
(dla wybranych pakietów)
Windows
10
Windows
Phone

Liczba stron: 248

Odsłuch ebooka (TTS) dostepny w abonamencie „ebooki+audiobooki bez limitu” w aplikacjach Legimi na:

Androidzie
iOS



Bibliografische Information der Deutschen Bibliothek

Die Deutsche Bibliothek verzeichnet diese Publikation in der Deutschen Nationalbibliografie; detaillierte bibliografische Daten sind im Internet überhttp://dnb.ddb.deabrufbar

Rangendingen, December 2015

© by LIBERTAS - Europäisches Institut GmbH

LIBERTAS – Europäisches Institut GmbH

Lindenweg 37, 72414 Rangendingen, Germany

Tel. +49 7471 984996-0, Fax +49 7471 984996-19

eMail: [email protected]

Internet: www.libertas-institut.com

ISBN 978-3-946119-73-9 (print)

ISBN 978-3-946119-74-6 (epub)

ISBN 978-3-946119-75-3 (MobiPocket)

ISBN 978-3-946119-76-0 (pdf)

Table of Contents

Introduction

The History and Significance of the OSCE

Origins

On the Way to the Helsinki Final Act of 1975

The Ratification of the Helsinki Final Act of 1975

The Importance of the Helsinki Final Act

The Follow-on of the Helsinki 1975 & Impact of the CSCE

The Uniqueness of CSCE

The CSCE becomes the OSCE

The Institutions and Structures of the OSCE

1. The Decision-making Bodies

2. The Operational Institutions

3. Field operations

The OSCE of Today

Possible Future Developments of the OSCE

Recommendations

(from “Reviving Co-operative Security in Europe through the OSCE”, contribution of the OSCE Network of Think Tanks and Academic Institutions to the Panel of Eminent Persons, submitted on p0.2015, edited by Teija Tiilikainen)

Annexes

Conference on Security and Co-Operation in Europe Final Act

Charter of Paris for a New Europe

Rules of Procedure of the Organization for Security and Co-Operation In Europe

European Parliament resolution of 11 November 2010 on strengthening the OSCE – the role of the EU

About the Authors

Introduction

The OSCE has 57 participating states from Europe, Central Asia, and North America, and its areaspans from Vancouver to Vladivostok.August 1, 2015 marked the 40thanniversary of the Helsinki Final Act. Since the signing of this agreement, the relevance of the OSCE in the European security architecture has only increased.To understand how it functions, howit is perceived today by the participating states and what their key issues with regard to the organization are, it is necessary to see how it started.

The OSCE has 57 participating States from Europe, Central Asia and North America:

Albania

Austria

Belgium

Canada

Czech Republic

Finland

Germany

Hungary

Italy

Latvia

Luxembourg

Monaco

Norway

Romania

Serbia

Spain

Tajikistan

Turkmenistan

United States

Andorra

Azerbaijan

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Croatia

Denmark

France

Greece

Iceland

Kazakhstan

Liechtenstein

Malta

Montenegro

Poland

Russian Federation

Slovakia

Sweden

The F

ormer Yugoslav

Republic of Macedonia

Ukraine

Uzbekistan

Armenia

Belarus

Bulgaria

Cyprus

Estonia

Georgia

Ireland

Kyrgyzstan

Lithuania

Moldova

Mongolia

Netherlands

Portugal

San Marino

Slovenia

Switzerland

Turkey

United Kingdom

Source: OSCE Factsheet

Budget history

Since 1993, the OSCE's budget by year (in millions of euros,) has been:

2015 ... €141.1 million

2014 ... €142.3 million

2013 ... €144.8 million

2012 ... €148.4 million

2011 ... €150.0 million

2010 ... €150.7 million

2009 ... €158.6 million

2008 ... €164.1 million

2007 ... €186.2 million

2006 ... €186.2 million

2005 ... €186.6 million

2004 ... €180.8 million

2003 ... €165.5 million

2002 ... €167.5 million

2001 ... €194.5 million

2000 ... €202.7 million

1999 ... €146.1 million

1998 ... €118.7 million

1997 ... €43.3 million

1996 ... €34.9 million

1995 ... €18.9 million

1994 ... €21 million

1993 ... €12 million

Summits of heads of State and Government

Summit

Date

Place

Decisions

I

30.07 - 01.08.1975

Helsinki

Closing of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE). Signing of the Final Act (Helsinki Act).

II

19 - 21.11.1990

Paris

(Second CSCE Summit). Signing of the Charter of Paris for a New Europe (Paris Charter), the Vienna Confidence and Security Building Measures (CSBM) Document and the CFE Treaty.

III

09 -10.07.1992

Helsinki

Final Document: The Challenges of Change. Creation of the High Commissioner on National Minorities, the Forum for Security Co-operation and the Economic Forum. Suspension of FR Yugoslavia from membership.

IV

05 - 06.12.1994

Budapest

Final Document: Towards a Genuine Partnership in a New Era. Approval of a multi-national peace-keeping force to Nagorno-Karabakh. Endorsement of the Code of Conduct on politico-military aspects of security.

V

02 - 03.12.1996

Lisbon

(First OSCE Summit). Lisbon Declaration on a Common and Comprehensive Security Model for Europe for the Twenty-First Century. Adoption of a Framework for Arms Control.

VI

18–19.11.1999

Istanbul

Signing of the Istanbul Document and the Charter for European Security.

VII

01–02.12.2010

Astana

Adoption of the Astana Commemorative Declaration, which reconfirms the Organization's comprehensive approach to security based on trust and transparency.

The History and Significance of the OSCE

Origins

Following World War II, Europe was divided between theSoviet-led bloc of communist regimesinstalled in countries it had occupied at the end of the war, grouped together as military allies inthe Warsaw Pact; the U.S.-led North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) seeking to contain thespread of communism; and several neutral states.

Since the 1950s, the Soviet Union had advocated holding an all-European conference to put a political end to World War II by resolving the "German question," with the goal of ratifying the postwar status quo established in Eastern Europe.

The United States and most of its NATO allies were opposed to a conference with such an agenda. The U.S. countered with a proposal for holding a conference between NATO and the Warsaw Pact states dealing with "hard" arms control in Europe, especially reductions of conventional military forces.

On the Way to the Helsinki Final Act of 1975

In 1969, neutral Finland offered to host a conference on European security. NATO responded tothe Finnish proposal by suggesting that the agenda of a European security conference should also include prior notification of military maneuvers and freer movement of people and ideas across the Cold War divide.

From 1972-73 in Helsinki preparatory meetings for Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE) were launchedwith 35delegations including: the U.S., Canada, and all the states of Europe, with the exceptionof Albania. These states tended to gather into three major groups, reflecting the existing politicalalignments at the time:

• Warsaw Pact
• NATO / European Community
• Neutral / Nonaligned

The preparatory meetings resulted in a detailed outline of the practical organizationalarrangements for the conference.

1973-1975 was the working phase of negotiations duringwhich the issues were grouped into

Lesen Sie weiter in der vollständigen Ausgabe!

Lesen Sie weiter in der vollständigen Ausgabe!

Lesen Sie weiter in der vollständigen Ausgabe!

Lesen Sie weiter in der vollständigen Ausgabe!

Lesen Sie weiter in der vollständigen Ausgabe!

Lesen Sie weiter in der vollständigen Ausgabe!

Lesen Sie weiter in der vollständigen Ausgabe!

Lesen Sie weiter in der vollständigen Ausgabe!

Lesen Sie weiter in der vollständigen Ausgabe!

Lesen Sie weiter in der vollständigen Ausgabe!

Lesen Sie weiter in der vollständigen Ausgabe!

Lesen Sie weiter in der vollständigen Ausgabe!

Lesen Sie weiter in der vollständigen Ausgabe!

Lesen Sie weiter in der vollständigen Ausgabe!

Lesen Sie weiter in der vollständigen Ausgabe!

Lesen Sie weiter in der vollständigen Ausgabe!

Lesen Sie weiter in der vollständigen Ausgabe!

Lesen Sie weiter in der vollständigen Ausgabe!

Lesen Sie weiter in der vollständigen Ausgabe!

Lesen Sie weiter in der vollständigen Ausgabe!

Lesen Sie weiter in der vollständigen Ausgabe!

Lesen Sie weiter in der vollständigen Ausgabe!

Lesen Sie weiter in der vollständigen Ausgabe!