My Archive Of Languages (2018 Edition) - Timo Schmitz - ebook
Opis

When I was very young, I started to collect phrases and words in many different languges and within the years I created a big archive. In the first edition of "My Archive Of Languages" (2016), I opened the archive to the public. This new edition contains updates, more phrases, new exercises, more languages and for the first time, almost all languages are explained in English which makes it better to use. The work is divided in the so called ‘manuscripts’ which contains all words and phrases thatwere collected, and an appendix with ‘Notes’. These notes contain useful information about the languages, grammatical features, explanations to the phrases, etc., making it a general reference work. It is intended for polyglots who want to get a glimpse in different languages and work with them on their own. The languages that can be found in this book: Abkhaz, Albanian, Arabic dialects, Avar, Azerbaijani, Bakossi, Balochi, Bambara, Bashkir, Burmese, Buyang, Cameroon Pidgin (Kamtok), Chechen and Ingush (+ Kist), Circassian (Adyge and Kabardian), Farsi and Dari, Fiji Hindi, Georgian, Greenlandic, Imeretian, Indonesian/ Malay, Irish Gaelic, Jeju, Jingpo (Myanmar/ China), Karakalpak, Karone, Kazakh (Kazakhstan/ China), Korean, Kreyol (St. Lucia), Kumyk, Kurdish (Sorani), Kyrgyz (Kyrgyzstan/ China), Lezgin, Lingao, Lingala, Lisu, Lithuanian, Pular/ Fulfulde, Malagasy, Mbuwing/ Awing, Miao (China/ Laos/ Vietnam), Mingrelian/ Megrelian, Monegasque (Monegascu), Mongolian, Nigerian Pidgin English, Nogay, Ossetian, Pashto, Romani/ Romanes, Samoan, Serbo-Croatian, Serer, Slovenian, Swedish, Swiss German, Tahitian, Tajik, Tatar (Volga Tatar), Tibetan (mainly Eastern and Northern Kam), Tokelauan, Tongan, Toucouleur, Turkish (Turkey), Turkmen (Turkmenistan/ Iran), Ukrainian, Urdu, Uyghur, Uzbek, Vietnamese, Wa/ Va, Wallisian, Wolof.

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Podobne


Bambara

Karoninka (Karone)

Pular

Fulfulde

Serer

Toucouleur

Wolof

1 – Salaamaalekum!

2 – Yeksil  ak diam!

Bakossi

Mbuwing/ Awing

1 – pourchime

2 – nho le gok chi eg

3 – o te fa ake?

4 – à picg chie a awinge

Cameroon Pidgin (Kamtok)

Lingala

1 – Mboté

2 – Ozo sala nini?

3 – Na ké kolala

4 – Kombo na yo nini?

Nigerian Pidgin English

Malagasy

Farsi/ Dari – درى /فارسی

0 – Alphabet and Pronounciation

1 – Salâm (Farsi)

2 – Salâm (Dari)

3 – Mersi!

4 – Sobh bexayr (Farsi)

5 – Sobh baxir (Dari)

6 – Question words in Farsi

7 – Question words in Dari

8 – Numbers from 0 to 12 in Farsi

9 – Numbers from 0 to 12 in Dari

A – Words in Persian Dialects

Tajik – تاجیکی /тоҷикӣ

0 – Orthography and Pronounciation

1 – Салом

2 - коро зур

3 – Cyбҳ ба xaйр

Pashto - پښتو

Balochi - بلؤچی

Kurdish (Sorani) – یکورد

1 – Slaw

2 – Har Bash Bit

Urdu – اردو

Turkish (Turkey) – Türkçe

Azerbaijani – Azərbaycanca

1 - Xoş gəlmişsiniz!

2- Çox maraqlı məktub yazıbsan

3- Bu dəfə sən Azərbaycan dilindən çox az şey soruşdun

4 - Ümid edirəm ki hər şey yaxşıdır

5- Sən haralısan?

6 - Mən səni gözlədim

Check yourself (Paragraphs 1-5)

7 - Nə gülürsən?

Check yourself (Paragraphs 6-7)

8 - səndə vəziyyət necədir?

Turkmen – Türkmence

1 – Siziň adyňyz näme?

2 – Men uniwersiteta gidip baryaryn

Golestan Turkmen (Iran) – تورکمنچه

Uzbek – O’zbekcha

Kazakh (Kazakhstan) – қазақша

1 - Сәлем!

2 - Кайда сен турасын?

Check yourself (1)

3 - Mende zhanalyktar zhok

Kazakh (China) – قازاقشا

Kyrgyz (Kyrgyzstan) – кыргызча

1 – Саламатсыздар

2 - Ким болуп иштейсин?

Kyrgyz (China) – قىرعىزچه

Karakalpak

Tatar (Volga Tatar) – татарча

1 – Сэлэм!

Check yourself (I)

2 - Хэерле кон!

Bashkir – башҡорт

Kumyk – къумукъ

Nogay – ногай

Uyghur – ئۇيغۇرچە

1 – Assalamu Alaykum (Pinyin)

2  – Assalamu Alaykum (Perso-Arabic)

Mongolian - монгол хэл

0 – Orthography and Pronounciation

1 - Сайн байна уу?

2 - Чиний нэр хэн бэ?

3 - Та ямар ажил хийдэг вэ?

Tibetan- བོད་སྐད་

Tibetanalphabetandtranscription

KamDialectofKangding (StandardKamTibetan)/ EasternKham - ཁམས་སྐད

Quick introduction into a few Tibetan dialects

Kam Tibetan of Yajiang (probably Eastern Kham) - ཉག་ཆུ་ཁ་སྐད

Kam Tibetan of Yüshu/ Northern Kham - ཡུལ་ཤུལ་སྐད

Zhuang/ Buyi – Vahcuengh/ Vahyaix

1 – Mwngzndei! (Colloquial Standard Zhuang)

2 – romh (Colloquial Standard Zhuang)

3 – sou ndei (Colloquial Standard Zhuang)

4 – Baihmwngz mwhneix gijlai diemj? (Colloquial Standard Zhuang)

5 – Mwngz  lij caengz bae ninz? (Colloquial Standard Zhuang)

6 – Mwngz nauq ninz har? (Colloquial Standard Zhuang)

7 – Leeuxboz ndei (Colloquial Buyi)

8 – Mwngz hag sawcuengh ndaej geijlai nanz lor? (Colloquial Standard Zhuang)

9 – Lomslais (Colloquial Standard Buyi)

10 – Mwngz rox gijlai coenz vahcuengh? (Colloquial Standard Zhuang)

11 – Mwngz baenzlawz rox?  (Colloquial Zhuang)

12 – gou yawj saw (Colloquial Standard Zhuang)

13 –  Mong he wu ge gam meng (Pingguo Zhuang of Baise)

14 – Chào pì nọong (Nung dialect of Thài Nguyen)

A – Zhuang Tones

B – Zhuang letters

C – Buyi Tones

D – Luocheng Zhuang

E – Donglan Zhuang

F – Damaoshan Zhuang

G – Northern Laibin Zhuang

H – Southern Laibin Zhuang

I – Du’an Zhuang

J – Wuming Zhuang

K – South Guangnan Zhuang

Buyang – Vahyaengz

Lingao – Vo Limgau

0 – Alphabet

1 – hau ai mw!

Check yourself (I)

2 – men di kuai gaen kua voai nyenn ha ?

3 – venn noy ba liau

Miao

1 – meng wu ma (Hmu – Guizhou/ China)

2 – meng ni ji lei? (Xong – Hunan/ China)

3 – Nyob zoo (Hmong – Vietnam, Laos)

4 – Koj yog leej twg? (Hmong – Vietnam, Laos)

5 – Moux chud jib nangd? (Chinese Miao)

6 – No yog dab tsi? (Hmong – Vietnam, Laos)

Jingpo/ Kachin (Myanmar) – Jinghpaw

Jingpo (China) – Jinghpo

Lisu

1 – Basic conversation (Nujiang Lisu)

2 – Personal pronouns and Numbers (Myanmar)

Wa/ Va

Burmese

Burmese Language Notes

Randomly Collected Words and Phrases

Vietnamese - Tiếng Việt

Korean – 한국어/ 조선어

North Korean문화어

South Korean (Seoul Dialect)

Jeju – 제주어/濟州語

Indonesian/ Malay – Bahasa Indonesia/ Bahasa Melayu

1 – Greetings and first meeting

2 – Talking about someone’s mood, Basic expressions

3 – Work and Business

4 – Question words

Samoan – Gagana fa’asamoa

1 – Talofa

2 – o a mai le taeao

3 – manuia lava faafetai

4 – faaliliu mai i le gagana lea

5 – umi le aso ae le umi tele foi

6 – O ii lau pule?

7 – a fai e te alofa

8 – lelava le malolo

9 – o au lea

Tokelauan – Fakatokealu

Competence 1: malo

Competence 2: akafetai

Competence 3: hea te taimi e fano ai koe ki te galuega

Competence 4: oka koe te lelei

Competence 5: toe fetaui ai ni te uo

Tongan – Lea fakatonga

Competence 1: Malo e lelei!

Competence 2: Ha me'a fai?

Competence 3: Fefe 'ea?

Competence 4: Teu 'alu 'o 'eva

Competence 5: Malo aupito e tohi

Wallisian – Fakauvea

Tahitian – Reo Tahiti

Fiji Hindi

Romani/ Romanes

Algerian Arabic – Djazaîri 

1 – hel min jadid

2 – anta min ay balad

3 – mada taf3al

4 – la youjad jadid

5 - و انا من الجزائر

6 – kiraha familtik

Moroccan Arabic – Darija, maghribiya

1 – Salam

2 – achnou smiytek?

3 – Kidayr koulchi?

4 – madahkich rani serious

Tunisian Arabic – Tounisi/ Derja

Yemeni Arabic

Egyptian Arabic – Masri

Chechen/ Ingush – Нохчийн/ ГIалгIайн

1 – Маршалла (Chechen)

2 – Хьо мичахь 1аш ву? (Chechen)

Check yourself (I)

3 – Хьо нохчий вуй? (Chechen)

Check yourself  (II)

4 – Изтханкерттераг1алаю (Chechen)

5 – Нохчийнмоттхазабу! (Chechen)

Check yourself (III)

6 – Хьотенгаваха? (Chechen)

7 – 1уьйредикйойлахьа! (Chechen)

Check yourself (IV)

8 – Сокист1иеву (Kist)

9 – Хьамасшудаьннад? (Ingush)

10 – Hô Franceh xilliy? (Chechen)

Avar – Авар

Ossetian – Ирон æвзаг

1 – салам

2 – бузныг

3 - маешаерриши

Adyge (West Circassian) – Адыгабзэ

Kabardian (East Circassian) – къэбэрдейбзэ

Abkhaz – Апсуа

Lezgin – Лезги

Georgian

1 – გამარჯობა

2 – შენჩემიყველაფერიხარ

3 – რაგააკეთე?

4 – სახლშივიყავი

Imeretian

Mingrelian/ Megrelian

1 - გომორძგუა

2 - მუნერამინდირე

3 - შულადირვორექ

4 – ვამიჩქ

5 – მუშენ?

Slovenian

Serbo-Croatian

1 – Dobardan (Croatian)

2 – Ja sam iz Bosne i Hercegovine (Bosnian)

3 – Zašto ti treba hrvatski?  (Croatian)

4 – Lepo pišeš srpski (Serbian)

5 – Dobro došli (Croatian)

6 - Dobro jutro (Croatian)

7 - Kako je bilo u školi? (Croatian/ Serbian)

8 - Dobar Tek (Croatian/ Serbian/ Bosnian)

9 – Vozdra! (Serbian/ Bosnian)

Ukrainian

Lithuanian

1 – Sveiki!

2 – man patinka

Swedish

Swiss German

Monegasque (Monegascu)

Irish Gaelic

Albanian

Greenlandic

Kreyol (St. Lucia)

Notes on the languages

Notes on Bambara

Notes on Karone

Notes on Pular

Notes on Fulfulde

Notes on Serer

Notes on Toucouleur

Notes on Wolof

Notes on Bakossi

Notes on Mbuwing

Notes on Cameroon Pidgin (Kamtok)

Notes on Lingala

Notes on Nigerian Pidgin English

Notes on Malagasy

Notes on Persian

Notes on Pashto

Notes on Balochi

Notes on Sorani Kurdish

Notes on Urdu

Notes on Turkic languages

Notes on Mongolian

Notes on Tibetan

Notes on Zhuang and Buyi

Notes on Buyang

Notes on Lingao

Notes on Miao

Notes on Jingpo

Notes on Lisu

Notes on Wa/ Va

Notes on Burmese

Notes on Vietnamese

Notes on Korean

Notes on Indonesian and Malay

Notes on Polynesian languages

Notes on Fiji Hindi

Notes on Romani

Notes on Arabic

Notes on Vainakh

Notes on Avar

Notes on Ossetian

Notes on Circassian

Notes on Abkhaz

Notes on Lezgin

Notes on Georgian

Notes on Imeretian

Notes on Mingrelian

Notes on South Slavic languages

Notes on Ukrainian

Notes on Lithuanian

Notes on Swedish

Notes on Swiss German

Notes on Monegasque

Notes on Irish Gaelic

Notes on Albanian

Notes on Greenlandic

Notes on Saint Lucian Creole

Bambara

 

Spoken in: Mali, Burkina Faso, Senegal, Gambia, Guinea, Mauretania, Ivory Coast

Official language in: Mali (national language), Burkina Faso (recognized minority language)

Speakers: c. 10 million

Scripts: Latin, N’Ko

 

I ni sógóma – Good morning!

I – you

ni – and

sógóma – morning

I ni tile – Good morning! (during the day, especially around noon)

tile – sun

wula – afternoon

I ni su – Good evening!

I ni ce – Hello!

ce – work

I tó gó? – What’s your name?

N tó gó ... – My name is ...

E doun? – And you?

i ka kéné wa? – How are you?

n ka kéné i yéré doun – I’m fine, thanks, and you?

n se e yéré doun – I’m fine, thanks, and you?

yéré doun –  and you ?

toro si té  – peace only

A ka nyi! – That’s fine!

I ka so bé min? – Where do you live?

Haké to – Excuse me!

Kan ben – Goodbye!

 

Conversation:

 

Félicie: I ni sógóma!

Caroline: I ni se. I tó gó?

Félicie: N tó gó Félicie. E doun?

Caroline: N tó gó Caroline. I ka kéné wa?

Félicie: N ka kéné, i yéré doun?

Caroline: Toro si té.

Félicie: A ka nyi!

Caroline: Kan ben!

 

Exercises:

 

I. Build a greeting for eeach day time.

 

I ni...

...sógóma

...tile

...wula

...su

...ce

 

II. Vocabulary

 

1. morning

2. sun

3. afternoon

4. you

5. and

6. work

 

III. Sentences

 

1. How are you?

2. I’m fine!

3. What’s your name?

4. That’s fine!

5. Where do you live?

 

Karoninka (Karone)

 

Spoken in: Senegal, Gambia

Official language in: –

Speakers: probably less than 20,000

Scripts: Latin (no official orthography)

 

Alunkaw – Hello

Punme sokeh? – How are you?

Kasumai? – How areyou?

kasumai-lama – I am fine

aweme? – And you?

timpa-timpa – Thank you

aaaaaaaaaa –  Yes

hani –  no

Lubes? – Are there any news?

wah tom – nothing

foneka – There are no news

yov, hamna wollof nga – I thought you’re Wolof.

 

achunkeh – red

afuleh – blue

watanye – yellow

ahina – white

abana – black

 

sumutam – I’m sad

sumam sum – I’m happy

 

tuku – don’t

hane – no

netat – not

 

teimeh afe kai te university ya – When are you going to university?

teimeh afe tak class – When will you have class?

tak – have

 

yonol – 1

susubog – 2

sihajil – 3

sipakil – 4

esak – 5

esakiyonol – 6

esakisusubog – 7

esakisihajil – 8

esakisipakil – 9

nysuwan – 10

 

wemeh yakeh – What are you doing?

 

Personal pronouns

 

Inji – I

Aweh –  you (sg.)

ayen – he

a'l – she

eh – it

unei – we

unei or aweh – you (pl.)

poko – they

 

Upa – am

unei ahai– we are

poko ahai– they are

 

aweh hi li – you are eating  (the hi stands for “are”)

aweh pa hein – you are working (the pa stands for “are”)

the 'are' always matches the verb (maybe it is sometimes spelled “he” instead of “hi”)

 

'is' is also determined by the preceding verb. It can be pronounced in many ways depending on what word follows next.

 

Different tenses

 

I’m at home:

tenuf inji yeniyeh (in the past)

tenuf inji yem (in the present)

inji fa yeno tenuf (in the future)

 

I am going/ I go (in all tenses):

inji pi kayu  (I am going)

inji fa kai (I will go)

inji kayakai (I went)

 

List with words and phrases in alphabetical order

 

aaaaaaaaaa  –  yes

alunkaw  –  Hello

ana sa yay  –  Where is your mum?

aweh hi li  –  you are eating

aweh pa hein  –  you are working

aweme?  –  And you?                      

bahna  –  good, fine

chi dekandorr ye  –  in the neighbour room

foneka  –  Nothing’s new

hane  –  no

hani  –  no

hawuma  –  I don’t know  

inji  –  I (myself)

inji fa nyohoni ti si minit nyasuwan  –  Maybe I'm back in 10 minutes

inji upa tenuf  –  I’m at home

inji upa ti  –  I’m in the class internet room

kasumai  –  How are you?

kasumai-lama  –  I’m fine

kinchakoli  – It was just a joke

lubes  –  Are there any news?

lumoi def  –  What is she doing?

man hawuma  –  I don’t know

mangi chi kerrgi  –  I’m at home

mangi janga  –  I’m a student

netat  –  not

pemeh yem  –  Where are you?

punme sokeh?  –  How are you?

sawala  –  apreciation accepted,  (you are) welcome, thank you too

sumam sum  –  I’m happy

sumutam  –  I’m sad

tak  –  have

tak kasumai fuoi  –  Have a nice day!

teimeh afe kai te university ya  –  When are you going to university?

teimeh afe tak class  –  When will you have class?

timpa-timpa  – thank you

tuku  –  don’t

wah tom  –  nothing

yomeh an yeneneh  –  What religion do you have?

yov ak kanafa neka  –  Who is there with you?

 

Pular

 

Spoken in: Guinea, Mali, Sierra Leone, Guinea-Bissau

Official language in: no data available

Speakers: c. 3 million

Scripts: Latin

 

A jaraama. – Hello! / Thank you!

On jaraama. – Hello (plural/ formal)

Tanna alaa ton? – Is there no evil?

Jam tun! –  Peace only!

allah diarama – Thank God!

no wa'i? – How’s it going?

allah wo no wa –  reply to „No wa’i?“

Onon le? – And you?

Hii-hi. – Yes

Eyyo – No!

 

Fulfulde

 

Spoken in: Guinea, Mali, Sierra Leone, Guinea-Bissau, Senegal, Mauretania, Chad, Benin, Sudan, Central African Republic, Togo, Ghana, Cameroon, Gambia, Nigeria, Niger

Official language in: Nigeria (locally), Senegal (national language), Guinea (national language), Mauretania (national language), Niger (national language), Gambia (national language), Azawad

Speakers: c. 20 million

Scripts: Latin

 

Sannu! – Hello!  

Jam na? – How are you? 

Jam. – Fine

Na – yes

Jam koo dume. – Fine, thank you.

Noy innde ma? – What’s your name?

Innde am – My name is…

Useni – Please

Useko – Thank you

Noy sukle? – How’s your work?

Noy – how

Sukle – work

 

 

Serer

 

Spoken in: Senegal, Gambia, Mauretania, probably Mali

Official language in: Senegal (minority language)

Speakers: over 1 million

Scripts: Latin

 

Nafeyo –  Hello

Mbaldo ko – Hello!

Nafeyo? – How are you?

Nam fiyo? – How are you?

Mehemen  –   I am fine.

Mi it – Me too!

Harr hewo?  –  Any news?

refe tig  –  Nothing.

Tam refo – Where are you?

Mehe mbina – I’m at home

Dioka ndial – Thank you

Iyo – Okay!

 

Conversation:

 

Marie: Mbaldo ko!

Jean: Nafeyo?

Marie: Mehemen, dioka ndial. Nam fiyo?

Jean: Mi it, mehemen.

Marie: Harr hewo?

Jean: Refe tig. Tam refo?

Marie: Mehe mbina.

Jean: Iyo!

 

 

Toucouleur

 

Spokenin: Senegal, Gambia, Mauretania, Mali, Guinea-Bissau

Officiallanguagein: –

Speakers: c. 3-4 million

Scripts: Latin

 

No mada  – Hello

A séli? – Hello, how are you?

Diam tane – I’m fine.

Ko mbada  – What are you doing?

Éye – Yes

Ala – No

A diarama – Thanks

Mi yidi miame – I want to eat…

Mi yidi yardé – I want to drink…

Oto – not

Goto  – one

Didi  – two

Tati – three

Naye – four

 

Wolof

 

Spoken in: Senegal, Gambia, Mauretania

Official language in: Senegal (national language), probably national language in Gambia

Speakers: c. 4 million

Scripts: Latin, Arabic (historical)

 

1 – Salaamaalekum!

 

Salaamaalekum! – Hello!

Maalekumsalaam! – Hello! (Reply)

Naka nga def? – How are you? (polite)

Nan nga def? – How are you?

Maa ngi fi/ Ma ngui fi – I am fine.

Maa ngi fi rekk. – I am fine.

Jàmm rekk, Alxamdulilaay. – Very fine, thanks to God!

Alxamdulilaay – Grace to God!

Dieredieuf! – Thank you!

Waaw! – Yes

déedéet – No

tiouk –good

tiouke na! – That’s fine

yow nak – and you?

gnata at nga am? –  How old are you?

gnata  – how much

at – age

am – have

man 29 ans la am – I am 29 years old

gnar fouki at ak djirom gnent  – twenty-nine

ngar – two

fouk – ten

djirom – five

gnent – four

Ba beneen yoon – See you next time!

Jàmm ag jàmm – Go in peace! (Goodbye!)

Be subeu ak diam – à demain inch allah

 

2 – Yeksil  ak diam!

 

yeksil ak diam – Welcome!

ak - with

diam – god

aksil ak diam – Welcome!

bu la nekhe – Please

diereudieuf – Thank you!

balma – Sorry!/ Excuse me! 

balmeu – Sorry!/ Excuse me!

bal len ma  - Sorry!/ Excuse me! (Plural)

 

Namounala – I miss you!

Mala raw – Me too!

Mala – I, me

Maa – I, me

Mane – I, me

 

Loutakh? – why?

Lane? – what?

Kane? – Who?

ATTENTION: There’s a false friend, kane means who (or French: qui), but “ki” meaans “his” (like French “lui”), so do not mix up French ‘qui’ and Wolof ‘ki’.

 

Kanla? – Who’s this?

Lanla? – What’s this?

 

Naka nga touda? – What’s your name ?

Mangui touda … - My name is ...

Fen nga jogay? – Where are you from?

Mangui jogay... – I am from...

Lan moy sa legaye? – What do you work?

Man ... la – I am...

Ben denay nga topa? – Which religion do you have?

Julit – Muslim

Catholique – Catholic (Senegal)

Cathologic – Catholic (Gmbia)

Gouremet – Protestant

Da nga saye? – What’s your marital status?,Are you married?

Am nga ... – Do you have ...?

faré – boyfriend

janga – girlfriend

 

Conversation:

A: Salaamaalekum!

B: Maalekumsalaam! Naka nga def?

A: Ma ngui fi, dieredieuf! Yow nak?

B: Jàmm rekk, alxamdulilaay.

A: Tiouke na! Gnata at nga am?

B: Man gnar fouki at ak djirom gnent la am.

A: Fen nga jogay?

B: Mangui jogay Dakar. Lan moy sa legaye?

A: Man professeur la, lan moy sa legaye?

B: Man écrivain la. Ben denay nga topa?

A: Man julit la. Ben denay nga topa?

B: Man catholique la.

A: Be subeu ak diam, jàmm ag jàmm!

B: Deredieuf! Ba beneen yoon!

 

Bakossi

 

Spoken in: Cameroon

Official language in: –

Speakers: 50,000 – 100,000

Scripts: Latin

 

asange – Good morning

muteh mbwam – Good afternoon

ahène – Good evening

chan mekan – How are you?

nlele – I’m ok

 

chan – what, how, why (the latter one only related to people)

kechan – anyhow

cha – why?

che – what, why

nzé – who, which

nzé modé – who? (question)

awe – who, which (relative pronoun)

hee, wé – where 

atim – however

-teng – how many?, how much?

 

mé – I

m- – I (prefix)

nyi, wéé, emong – you

nyumé – you (dual)

bumé – you two (out of more than two people)

mee – he, she, it

a- – he, she, it (prefix)

se – we

etum – you (formal)

be- – they (prefix)

me – them

 

Mbuwing/ Awing

 

Spoken in: Awing (Cameroon)

Official language in: –

Speakers: unknown

Scripts: Latin

 

1 – pourchime

pourchime – Good morning

apele? – How are you?

a pong – I’m fine

o' henefou? – Where are you going?

lenhwo a woh? – What’s your name?

ndambe – Thank you

piteme – Ask me!

pite a yi – Ask him!

nko shipur – I don’t know!  

Pronounciation

a /a/   e.g. aponge /apoŋ/

e /e/   e.g. apele /apel/  (the “e” isn’t pronounced at the end of a word)

nh /n/   e.g. nhu /nu/

qu  /k/  e.g. ou fa-alaque /u fa alak/

ee /i/   e.g. o lee /o li/

cz /ch/   e.g. czeleke /chelek/

2 – nho le gok chi eg

nho le gok chi eg – How old are you?

oh chiwoh – Are you there?

oh czeleke a dehnwale – What do you study in school?

ing zehne – I see

piabe – Wait!

ing mbene – I'm back!

mbuc o zchekem ne a chebe german – Can you teach me German language?

ou fa-alaque  – What are you doing?

o pei ne faake – What were you doing?

pou hed le – What should we do?

nded sho le ke – What’s your time now?

i sa le 19;14 – Mine is 19:14

O lee? – How did you sleep?

o lee a zu – Reply to “O lee”

O piec gechke – What did you take for lunch?

aponge – good

ho – you

nkoshipor – I don’t know

piabe – to wait

ndone a mee ghene – I want to go, I gotta go

nji te zan à mee – I’m hungry

nhu too – and you?

nhu – you

nhu too meaning “you too?”. The sentence is mixed with English.   

Grammar

Personal pronouns

mang – I, me

nhur – you

yi, yeh, czheré – he, she, it

penée, pene – we

pur, porh – you (plural)

porh – they     

dur – one, Frencch: ‘on’

3 – o te fa ake?

 

o te fa ake? – What are you doing?

o pie chi nvo – Where were you ?

mang te printe document – I’m printing a document

pou lee – good night

’n chi echichigne – I’m okay, I’m doing great

mang too nko shipur – I also don’t know

o pog ndee – Did you really sleep well?

mbog ou faque cisd nhane – Can you do it now?

Uhn – Yes

nbig nange television – I watched tv

ig ngi nange televisione – I will watch tv

ig nange television – I’m watching television

mbieg te czhebe peg ’nchebiame a japan  – I was chatting with my elder sister in Japan

 

Grammar

 

nbig te – I was

O picg – you were

à picg – he was

à picg chie – she was

a picg – it was

pege picg – one was

 

ngi – expresses future

mang yi – I will

O yi – you will

a yi – he will, she will, it will

 

4 – à picg chie a awinge

 

à picg chie a awinge – She was in Awinge

mumege – girl

mubiegne – boy

a chume – it

nzang pi sugne – How to say ... in Mbuwing

o chimne – Good morning

o pinge eh – You’ve been missing

o lee suh – Reply to “O lee”

Fiteme – Tell me!

pogne diee – Sleep well!

o pog diey – Did you sleep well?

ing doné mer typing document – I want to type a document

afa – work

unt te faa – I work

afaa ou la ke – What's your job?

i len a faa – I am (name of job)

o te – you are

ou pong ndie – Did you sleep well?

i len nem lei – My name is…

ig dor lei – I’m from ...

 

Question words

 

 

nteke – why?        

nle – how?

ake – what?

evoh – where?

 

o tefaake?

you areworkingwhat?

 

Question words are always at the end of a sentence.

 

Imperative

 

pitea yi

askhim, her, it

 

fitea yi

tellhim

 

The personal pronoun comes after the verb.

 

Lingala

 

Spoken in: Congo (DR Congo and Republic Congo), Central Africa, Angola

Official language in: DR Congo (national language), Republic of Congo (regional language)

Speakers: c. 12 million

Scripts: Latin

 

1 – Mboté

 

Mboté – Hello

Ndengué nini? – How are you?

Malamu? – How are you?

Malamu – I’m fine

Na yo? – And you?

Na za pe malamu – I’m fine as well

pe – too, also

melesi – Thank you!

essengo ez ya nga – You’re welcome!

Sango nini? – What’s new?

Sango té – There are no news

Likambo té – Nothing special

è – yes

té – no

nandimi – Okay (I accept)

botikala – Good bye!

na zo zongua – I’m coming back

na zongui – I’m back!

to monana – Till later!

essengueli nakendé – I gotta go

boutou malamou – Good evening

to koutana mikolo mikoya – Till next time

 

Dialogue:

 

Mboté.

- Mboté. Malamu ?

Malamu, melesi. Na yo ?

- Malamu! Sango nini ?

Sango té. Na yo ?

- Likambo té.

Essengueli nakendé, butu malamu.

- To kutana mikolo mikoya.

 

2 – Ozo sala nini?

 

ozo sala nini? – What are you doing?

nazo sala – I work

to – one, cp. French ‘on’

to za – we are

bo za – you are (pl.)

ba za – they are

balobi nini? – How to say …?

na – I

o – you

yo – he, she

na ko linga – I like

na ko sepela – I’d like

 

 

Dialogue:

 

Mboté.

- Mboté. Malamu ?

Malamu, melesi. Na yo ?

- Malamu! Sango nini ?

Sango té. Na yo ?

- Likambo té.

Ozo sala nini ?

- Nazo sala.

Essengueli nakendé, butu malamu.

- To kutana mikolo mikoya.

 

3 – Na ké kolala

 

na ké kolala – I am going to sleep.

to monana – Till later!/ See you!

 

kozala – to have

 

na – I have

oza – you have

aza – he, she has

to za – one has

to za – we have

bo za na – you have (pl.)

 

ké – being gone

ko kendé – to go away

ko yaka – to come

na ko yaka – I will come

na zo kendé – I go

kendé nini ? – Where do you go?

soki olingi – if you want

 

Dialogue:

 

Mboté.

- Mboté. Malamu ?

Malamu, melesi. Na yo ?

- Malamu! Sango nini ?

Sango té. Na yo ?

- Likambo té.

Kendé nini ? Ozo sala nini ?

- Nazo sala.

Essengueli nakendé, butu malamu. To monana !

- Na ké kolala, to kutana mikolo mikoya.

 

4 – Kombo na yo nini?

 

kombo na yo nini ? – What’s your name?

ba bengaka yo nani? – What’s your name?

yo nani ? – Who are you?

oza nani? – Who are you?

na za... – I am…

kombo na nga eza... – My name is…

ofandaka wapi? – Where do you live?

na fandaka na... – I live in …

na ké – Good night!

butu malamu  – a way of saying good bye

Na zo tala tv – I’m watching tv.

Na zo kanga suki – I’m binding a pigtail. 

kanga  – to braid

suki – hairs

 

Exercise:

Try to put as many new sentences in the dialogue as you can.

 

Nigerian Pidgin English

 

Spoken in: Nigeria

Official language in: – 

Speakers: at least 30 million speakers

Scripts: Latin (no official orthography)

 

How far? – How are you?

How you dey? – How are you?

Wetin dey? – What’s up?

My name na… - My name is…

I from … - I am from…

You don chop? – Have you eaten?

don – past word (done)

don + infinitive – Nigerian simple past

The man dey run? – The man is running?

dey – the Nigerian verb ‘to be’

I dey fine – I am fine

Na so? – Isn’t it?

I no gree – I disagree

no + infinitive – Nigerian negation, e.g. I no sabi (I don’t know), I no chop (I don’t eat), etc.

o’boy – friend

kele – young woman

you dey talk plenty – you talk too much (talk sounds like tok)

banky – babe

ma le – mother

pa le – father

kolobi – ambush/ kidnap

no yawa – no problem

Abeg! – Please!

paper – money

wahala – trouble, problem

mugu – fool

fall hand – to be disappointed, to be embarrassed, to feel ashamed

paper no rest – being broke, having no money

kpianse – witch

chikala – young girl

okpukpuru – owl

e don tey – It’s been long

crash – to sleep

e be like say – It seems to be like that (it seems to be as was said)

naija – Nigeria

jigolo – gigolo

where you dey? – Where are you?

I no no – I don’t know

azin – like, as in

waka – to walk

Na only you waka come? – You are the only one who came?

 

Malagasy

 

Spoken in: Madagascar

Official language in: Madagascar

Speakers: no reliable number of speakers available

Scripts: Latin

 

Manao ahoana – Hello!

Fahasalamana? – How are you?

Salama ve? – How are you ?

Tsara fa misaotra, ary ianao? – I am fine, thanks, and you?

Iza no anaranao? – What’s your name?

Ny anarako dia ... – My name is …

Avy aiza ianao? – Where are you from?

Avy any ... – I am from …

Faly mahalala anao – Nice to meet you!

 

manja ianao – you are beautiful

malala – honey

tsotra be ianao – you are nice

mahafinaritra ianao – you are the best

anjeliko ianao – you are my angel

tontoloko ianao – you are my universe

manina anao aho – I miss you

tiako ianao – I love you

 

Farsi/ Dari – درى / فارسی

Persian in general:

Spoken in: Iran (Farsi), Iraq (Farsi), Afghanistan (Dari), Tajikistan (Tajik), Uzbekistan (Tajik), Kyrgyzstan (Tajik), Kazakhstan (Tajik), Russia (several Iranian people including Persians), Azerbaijan (Tat and Judeo-Tat), Pakistan (Hazaras)

Official language in: Iran (Farsi), Afghanistan (Dari), Tajikistan (Tajik)

Speakers: c. 110 million (all Persian varieties)

Scripts: Cyrillic (Tat and Tajik), Latin (Tajik), Persian-Arabic (Farsi, Dari, Tajik), Hebrew (Jewish dialects)

0 – Alphabet and Pronounciation

 

ﺎا ا

â [ɒ]

 

ﺑ ـﺒ ـب

b [b]

 

ﭘ ـﭙ ـپ

p [p]

 

ﺗ ـﺘ ـت

t [t]

 

ﺛ ـﺜ ـث

s’ [s]

 

ﺞﺟ ـﺠ

j [ʒ]

 

ﭻـﭽﭼ

ch [ʃ]

 

ﺣ ـﺤﺢ 

h’ [h]

 

ﺧ ـﺨﺦ

x [x]

 

د د ـد

d [d]

 

ذ ـذذ

z’ [z]

 

ر ر ـر

r [ɾ]

 

ز ز ـز

z [z]

 

ژ ژ ـژ

zh [ʒ]

 

ـﺴ ـسﺳ

s [s]

 

ﺷ ـﺸ ـش

sh [ʃ]

 

ﺻ ـﺼ ـص

s[s]

 

ﺿ ـﻀ ـض

z [z]

 

ﻃ ـﻄـ ـط

t [t]

 

ﻇ ـﻈـ ـظ

z [z]

 

ﻋﻌﻊ

(eyn) ’ [ʔ]

 

ﻏﻐﻎ

gh [ɣ]

 

ﻓ ـﻔ ـف

f [f]

 

ﻗ ـﻘ ـق

q [ɢ]

 

ﻛ ـﻜ ـک

k [k]

 

ﮔ ـﮕ ـگ

g [ɡ]

 

ﻟ ـﻠ ـل

l [l]

 

ﻣ ـﻤ ـم

m [m]

 

ﻧ ـﻨ ـن

n [n]

 

و و ـو

w, u, o, v

[v],  [uː] , [o] , [ow] (Farsi)

[w], [uː],[aw], [oː] (Dari)

 

ﻫﻬﻪ

h [h]

 

ﯾ ـﯿﯽ

y, i (Farsi) / y, i, e (Dari)

[j],[i],[ɒː], [aj], [eː]

 

ء

(hamza) ’ [ʔ] Diacritic

 

1 – Salâm (Farsi)

 

سلام

Salâm

Hello, Hi 

 

اسمتان چيست

esmetân ch’îst?

What is your name?

 

است___ اسمم

esmam ___ ast

My name is…

 

خوشبختم

xoshbaxtam

Nice to meet you.

 

حالِ شما چطور است

Hâle shomâ chetor ast?

How are you?

 

خوبم، خیلی ممنون

xubam, xeyli mamnun

Fine, thank you.

 

2 – Salâm (Dari)

 

سلام

Salâm/ Salom

Hello, Hi!

 

NOTE: Farsi ‘a’ often changes to ‘o’ in Dari, Farsi ‘i’ changes to ‘e’.

 

نامتان چيست؟

Nametan ch’îst?

What’s your name?

 

نام من ... است

Nâmetan … ast

My name is …

 

نام من ... است

Nâme ma(n) ... ast.

My name is ...

 

NOTE: Though it is written with ‘a’, the pronounciation ‘nome ma ast’ is more ommon. The ‘n’ which is written might be dopped in colloquial speech.

 

خشحال شدم از ملاقات شما Xoshâl shodom az molâqât/mulâqât e shoma/ shuma

Nice to meet you!

 

چي تر

Chitori?/ Chetori?

How are you?

 

خوب تشكر؟

Xobi/ Xubi, tashakor!

I am fine, thanks!

 

NOTE: In some dialects, it is pronounced ‘tashakar’, however, this is rather a rare pronounciation. One can see that Dari is the switch between Nothern Persian and formal Persian, as in Tajik, the switch from ‘a’ to ‘o’ is alreadyy fulfilled, while Afghanistan is the center in between. As fist rule one could say, as more one goes to the north as more the a/o and i/e switch can be found in its finest form.

 

Conversation (not formally, but colloquially):

 

Salom!

- Salom!

Chetori?

- Xuvam, tashakor, chotori?

Xubam, tashakar.

Nome tu ch’ist?

- Nome ma ... ast.

Xoshâl shodom az molâqât e shoma

 

Conversation (formally):

 

Salâm!

- Salâm!

Chitori?

- Xubam, tashakor, chetor asti?

Xubam tashakor.

- Nâmetan ch’ist?

Nâmetan ... ast.

Xoshâl shodom az mulâqât e shuma

 

3 – Mersi!

 

لطفا

Lutfân (Farsi)/ Lotfân (Dari)

Please

 

تشكر

Tashakor (Dari)

Thank you

 

مرسي

Mersi (Farsi)

Thank you!

 

ممنونم

Mamnûnam (Farsi)

Thank you!

 

.قابل تشکرنيست

Qabele tashakor nest (Dari)

You're welcome. 

 

NOTE: In colloquial speech, one simply says ‘Qabelesh nest’.

 

خواهش میکنم

Xâhesh mikonam (Farsi)

You’re welcome.

 

بله

Bali (Farsi)/ Bale (Dari)

Yes

 

NOTE: In Afghanistan, one often uses ‘aan’ to say ‘yes’ on the streets.

 

نه

Na (Farsi)/ Ne (Dari)

No

 

4 – Sobh bexayr (Farsi)

 

صبح بخیر

Sobh bexayr

Good morning

 

عصر بخیر

Asr bexayr

Good evening

 

شب بخير

Shab bexayr

Good night

 

صبح خوش

Sobh xosh

Good morning

 

شب خوش

Shab xosh

Good night

 

چه خبر؟

Ch’e xabar?

Are there any news?, What’s new?

 

خبری نیست

Xabari nist

Nothing much

 

ببخشید

Bebaxshid

Excuse me

 

متاسفم!

Motasefam!

I’m sorry

 

بدرود

Bedrud!

Goodbye!

 

خداحافظ

Xoda hafez!

Goodbye!

 

5 – Sobh baxir (Dari)

 

صبح بخیر

Sobh baxir

Good morning

 

چست بخير

Xast baxir

Good evening

 

شب بخير

Shab baxir

Good night!

 

ميبخشين

Mebaxshen

Excuse me

 

محذرت ميخواهم

Mazrat mexwaham

I’m sorry

 

تا دیدار بعد

Tâ didâr ba’ad

Goodbye!

 

خداحافظ

Xud(a) hafez!

Goodbye!

(compare with Kurdish ‘Xuahafiz’ and Balochi ‘Khuda hafez’ meaning ‘God be with you’)

 

NOTE: In colloquial speech one says ‘xodafez’ in Afghanistan and ‘xudafiz’ in Iran.

 

6 – Question words in Farsi

 

چگونه؟

chekona?

How?

 

چتور

chetor?

How?

 

چه؟

cha?/ che?

What?

 

کی؟

ki?

Who?

 

چرا

cherâ?

Why?

 

کجا

kejâ?/ kojâ?

Where?

 

7 – Question words in Dari

چطور

chetor?

How?

چی

chi?

What?

کی

ki?

Who?

چرا

cherâ?

Why?

8 – Numbers from 0 to 12 in Farsi

 

0 – صفر (sefr)

1 – یک (yek) – compare Romani ‘yek’

2 – دو (do) – compare Pashto ‘dwa’, Romani ‘dui’

3 – سه (se)

4 – چهار (chahâr) – comapre Romani ‘štar’

5 – پنج (panj) – compare Pakistani Pashto ‘pindžə’, compare Romani ‘panč’

6 – شش (shesh)

7 – هفت (haft)

8 – هشت (hasht)

9 – نه (ne/ na)

10 –  ده (dah)

11 – یازده (yazdah)

12 – دوازده (davâzadah)

 

9 – Numbers from 0 to 12 in Dari

 

Note that the spelling in Persian script is the same as in Farsi, except ‘nine’ which is written ﻨﻮ

 

0 – sefr

1 – yek, yak

2 – du (comapre Romani ‘dui’)

3 – se

4 – chahâr (written), chohor (spoken), chôr (collquial)

5 – panj (compare Pakistani Pashto ‘pindžə’, compare Romani ‘panč’)

6 – shesh, shash

7 – haft

8 – hasht

9 – no

10 – da

11 – yâzda

12 – dwâzda

 

Tajik – تاجیکی/тоҷикӣ

 

Spoken in: Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan

Official language in: Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan (minority language), Kazakhstan (minority language)

Speakers: c. 8 million

Scripts: Cyrillic, Latin, Persian-Arabic

 

0 – Orthography and Pronounciation

 

Аа/æ/ a

Б б /b/ b

В в /v/ v

Г г /ɡ/ g

Ғ ғ /ʁ/ ġ

Д д /d/ d

Е е/jeː, eː; jɔ/ e

Ж ж /ʒ/ zh

З з /z/ z

И и /i/ i

Й й /j/ y

К к /k; q/ k

Л л /l/ l

М м /m/ m

Н н /n/ n

О о /ɔː/ o

П п /p/ p

Р р /r/ r

С с /s/ s

Т т /t/ t

У у /u; ɵː/ u

Ф ф /f/ f

Х х /χ; h/ h, x

Ч ч /tʃ; dʒ/ ch

Ш ш /ʃ/ sh

Ъ ъ /ʔ/ -

Э э /eː/ ê

Ю ю /ju/ yu (û)

Яя/jæ/ ya (â)

 

Ӣ ӣ for /i/

Ӯ ӯ for /ɵː/ (o’)

Ёё for /jɔ/

Қ қ for /q/ (q)

Ҳ ҳ for /h/ (h)

Ҷ ҷ for /dʒ/ (j)

 

Fist rule: The long letters are mainly used, when the letter is written in Persian alphabet. When the letter is omitted in Persian Arabic script, then the short version is used.

For instance чӣ (with long i ӣ), because it is ‘chi’ (چی) in Persian-Arabic, where the ‘i’ is written.

1 - Салом

 

Салом – Hello!  (comapre colloquial Dari ‘salom’)          

Корочӣхел?  –  How are you?

Шумо чӣ xeл? –  How are you?

нағз – good

хуб – good (compare Farsi/ Dari ‘xub’ خوب ) – untypical for Northern Persian (Farsification)

 

Номатчӣ –  What’s your name?

Hоми шумо чист? –  What’s your name? (comapre Dari ‘nome shoma ch’ist?’)

Hоми ту чист? –  What’s your name? (comapre Dari ‘nome tu ch’ist?’)

Номитучӣ–  What’s your name?

номат –name

ту –you

Номиман… –  My name is…

номи – my name

ман –I, me, my

номиман –my name

номиту – your name (compare Dari ‘nome tu’)

номивай – his name, her name (collquially номаш)

 

Рахмат – Thank you!, Thanks!

Ташаккур– Thank you!, Thanks! (compare Dari ‘tashakor’, Darsi ‘tashakar’, Turkish ‘teşekkür’) – probably a Farsificiation

Намеарзад – You are welcome!

Саломат бошед – You are welcome!

(Farsi ‘mikonam’ میکنم, Dari ‘qabele tashakor nest’ قابل تشکرنيست/ ‘qabelesh nest’)

 

Ҳa – Yes

Бале – Yes (comapre Dari ‘bale’ بله)

Не – (compare Dari ‘ne’ نه)

Лутфан – Please! (compare Farsi/ Dari: lutfan/ lotfan; Turkish: lütfen; Arabic: lotfan)

Тобоздид –  See you next time!

хайр –Goodbye, Bye!

 

Чӣнавигари? –What’s new?

навигари – news

азтучӣ ? –and you?

азманам –me too

соз  –  good

 

Хисобкунед?  –  Can I have the bill?

хисоб  –  account, bill

Чандсумхамин?  –  How much is it?

Чанд– how much? (compare Farsi/ Dari ‘chand’)

Кадомашарзонтар?  –  Which one is cheaper?

 

2 - корозур

 

Саломатичӣ хел? –How is your health?

азтучӣ хел? –  and how are you doing?

корозур  –everything is fine

воалейкумсалом –reply to „салом“

Дарпанохихудобоши –May God protect you!

 

дасти рост – направо/ turn right

дасти чап – на лево/ turn left

тарафи рост – на левую сторону/ ontheleftside

дасти – сторону/ side

 

Шумо метавонед ин маколаро пур кардан? – Canyoufillinthisdocument, please?

Чироманбояддаринчопуркунам? – WhatshallIfillinhere?

хуччат  – document

санад  – document

кардан – do

Маннамефахмам! – I don’t understand

Маннафахмидам! – I don’t understand

Шумометавонедбамангуфтанинчист? – Can you tell me, what does it mean in Russian?

 

чӣ хел – how? (Farsi/ Dari ‘chetor’ چطور, colloquial Tajik чӣ тавр (chitor))

чӣ – what? (compare Farsi ‘che’ چه and Dari ‘chi’ چی)

кӣ – who? (comapre Farsi/ Dari ‘ki’ کی)

чаро – why? (compare Farsi/ Dari ‘cherâ’ چرا)

барои чӣ – why?/ what for?

кай – when?

 

3 – Cyбҳба xaйр

 

Cyбҳ ба xaйр – Good morning

Рӯз ба хайр! – Good afternoon

Шаб ба хайр – Good evening!

Хоби ширин – Good night! (comapre Dari ‘xob’, Farsi ‘xub’)

Шаби хуш – Good night!

Aз вохуриамон шод ҳастам – Nice to meet you!

 

Conversation:

 

Салом!

- Салом! Коро чӣ хел?

Нағз, рахмат, чӣ ҳол доред?

- Нағз, рахмат! Aз вохуриамон шод ҳастам!

Номат чӣ?

- Номи ман Ахмад! номи тучӣ?

Номи ман Фатима!

- Хоби ширин!

 Шаби хуш!

 

0 – сифр (compare Farsi/ Dari ‘sefr’)

1 – як (compare Dari ‘yak’)

2 – ду (compare Dari ‘du’)

3 – се

4 – чор (compare colloquial Dari), чаҳор (Farsification)

5 – панҷ

6 – шаш (compare Dari ‘shash’)

7 – ҳафт

8 – ҳашт

9 - нӯҳ

10 – даҳ (compare Farsi ‘dah’)

11 – ёздаҳ

12 – дувоздаҳ

 

 

 

Pashto - پښتو‎

 

Spoken in: Afghanistan, Pakistan

Official language in: Afghanistan, Pakistan (recognised minority language)

Speakers: c. 60 million

Scripts: Persian-Arabic

 

پخير

pakheyr

Welcome!

 

سلام

salam

Hello!

 

څنگه يې؟

ta sanga ye?

How are you?

 

یم

yǝm

I am

 

ئې

ye

you are

 

ته د كوم خاى يې؟

Ta da kom zay ye?

Where are you from?

 

زه د ... يم

Za da …yem

I am from …

 

يو

yau, yaw

one

 

دوه

dwa

two

 

درې

dre

three

 

مننه

manana

Thank you!

 

deyra manana – Thank you very much

deyr – much

der – much (Kandahar dialect)

nahîn – no (Pakistan)

ne – not

calor, šalor – four (Afghanistan)

salor – four (Pakistan)

pindzə - five (mainly Afghanistan)

pindžə - five (Pakistan)

dušamba – Monday (Afghanistan)

došamba – Monday (Pakistan)

čāršamba – Tuesday

pantšambî, pantšambe – Thursday (Kandahar dialect)

panjšamba – Thursday (Afghanistan)

punjšamba – Thursday (Pakistan)

nen – today

non – today (Pakistan)

parun – yesterday

mal – friend

zeh mutaasif yum – Sorry

wali – why?

 

ستا نون څه

stā num tsa?

What is your name?

 

زما نون ... دى

zama num … dy

My name is…

 

Balochi - بلؤچی

 

Spoken in: Pakistan, Iran, Afghanistan, probably also by a very small community in Turkmenistan

Official language in: Balochistan (Iran), Balochistan (Pakistan), Nimroz Province (Afghanistan)

Speakers: c. 7.5 million

Scripts: Persian-Arabic, Urdu-Arabic

 

Tho chonay? – How are you?

Man washun – I am fine

Man wash naun – I am not fine

Man pareshanun – I am sad

Tho mana dosth bay – I like you!

Goontho millag wash lageth – Nice to meet you!

Mehrbani – Thank you!

Mana mauf bekan – I am sorry!

 

Kurdish (Sorani) – یکورد

 

Spoken in: Iraq, Iran, probably Southern Turkmenistan

Official language in: Iraq (minority language)

Speakers: c. 10 million

Scripts: Latin, Modified Persian-Arabic

 

2 - Har Bash Bit

 

Har Bash Bit – May you always feel well!

Mnish bashm supas – I am fine, thanks!

Chi akait brakam? – What are you doing, bro?

Zor supas brakam, tosh harwaha – Thank you very much, bro, you too!

Bibure (ببورە) – Sorry

Tenagem (تێ ناگەم) – I don’t understand

 

 

Urdu – اردو

 

Spoken in: Pakistan, India, Nepal, Mauritius, Bangladesh

Official language in: Pakistan, India (locally), Nepal (recognised minority language), Mauritius (recognised minority language)

Speakers: c. 95 million

Scripts: Urdu-Arabic

 

خوش آمديد

khush aamdeed

Welcome!

 

صبح بخير

subha bakhair

Good morning!

(compare with Farsi ‘subh bakhair’, Arabic ‘sabh bekhayr’ – concerning ‘bakhair’ also compare Pashto ‘pakheyr’)

 

روز بخير

roz bakhair

Good evening!

(compare Tajik ‘ruz baxayr’)

 

آداب

aadab

Hello!

 

كيا حال ہيںآپکا

apka kya hal hain

How are you?

 

آپ کيسے ہيں؟

ap kaise hain

How are you? (said to men)

 

آپ کیسی ہيں؟

ap kaisi hain

How are you? (said to women)

 

main thiek hoon – I’m fine

apka nam kya hai – What’s your name?

mera nam ... – My name is ...

ap sy mil kr acha lga – Nice to meet you!

apka taluq kahan se hai? – Where you from?

mera taluq ... se hai – I’m from …

Shukriya – Thank you!

Tashakkur (تشکر) – Thank you! (compare Farsi ‘tashakar’, Dari ‘tashakor’, Turkish ‘teşekkür’)

Bahut Bahut Shukriya! – Thank you very much!

Koi Nai Khabar? – Are there any news?

Maaf Karna! – Excuse me!

Khuda hafiz! – Bye! (compare Persian ‘xudahafiz’ and Kurdish ‘huafiz’/ ‘huahafiz’)

Jihaan – yes!

Haan – yes! (compare Dari ‘aan’)

bale (بله) – yes! (compare Farsi ‘bali’, Dari ‘bale’)

Nahin – no! (compare Pashto: nahîn)

koi baat nahin – You are welcome!

 

Aik – one

Dow – two (compare Farsi ‘do’)

Teen – three (compare Romani ‘trin’)

Chaar – four (compare Farsi ‘chahâr’, Romani ‘štar’)

Paanch – five (compare Farsi ‘panj’, Romani ‘panč’)

Chay – six

Saat – seven

 

musawir – painter

Main tumse pyar karti hoon – I love you!

Acha! – Great!

 

Kya nayi taazi hai? – Are there any news?, What’s new?

Koi bhi nayi taazi nai hai – I have no news.

Ap sunae – and you?

koi bhi nai – nothing

koi – something

bhi – something

Kya kar rahi ho? – What are you doing? (said to women)

Kya kar rahe ho? – What are you doing? (said to men)

Kitaab par rahi hoon – I am reading a book.

bilkul – absolutely

bilkul theek thaak – absolutely fine

 

Conversation:

 

Mahmood: Salam!

Laila: Salam.

Mahmood: Ap kaisi hain?

Laila: Theek hoon, ap kaise hain?

Mahmood: Theek hoon, shukriya. Kya nayi taazi hai?

Laila: Koi bhi nayi taazi nai hai, ap sunae?

Mahmood: Koi bhi nai.

Laila: Acha!

Mahmood: Kya kar rahi ho?

Laila: Kitaab par rahi hoon

 

Turkish (Turkey) – Türkçe

 

Spoken in: Turkey, Northern Cyprus, Cyprus, Bosnia-Hercegovina, Serbia, Macedonia, Romania, Greece, Albania, Azerbaijan, smaller communities in Iraq and Syria, as well as Iran

Official language in: Turkey, Northern Cyprus, Cyprus, Iraq (minority language), Bosnia-Hercegovina (minority language), Macedonia (minority language), Romania (minority language)

Speakers: c. 80 million

Scripts: Latin

 

Merhaba – Hello

Selam – Hello (informal)

Nasılsınız? – How are you? (formal)

Nasılsın? – How are you? (informal)

Naber? – How are you? (very informal)

İyiyim – I’m good, I’m fine

Kötü – bad

Kötüyüm – I’m (feeling) bad

(Benim) adım ... – My name is …

Teşekkürler – Thank you!

Rica ederim – You are welcome

Lütfen – Please!

Günaydın – Good morning!

Tünaydın – Good afternoon!

İyi günler – Good day! (greeting)/ Good afternoon!

İyi akşamlar – Good evening!

İyi geceler – Good night!

Hoşçakal – Goodbye!

Adınız ne? – What’s your name? (formal)

İsminiz nedir? – What’s your name? (formal)

Adın ne? – What’s your name? (informal)

İsmin ne? – What’s your name? (informal)

Benim adım... – My name is …

İsmim ... – My name is?

Nerelisiniz? – Where are you from? (formal)

Nerelisin? – Where are you from? (informal)

...dan – I am from ...

Evet – Yes

Hayır – no

Tanıştıǧımıza memnun oldum – Nice to meet you!

Azerbaijani – Azərbaycanca

 

Spoken in: Azerbaijan, Russia (Dagestan), Iran (West Azerbaijan, East Azerbaijan); smaller communities in Iraq, Syria and Turkey

Official language in: Azerbaijan, Dagestan (Russia)

Speakers: c. 25 million

Scripts: Cyrillic (in Russia), Latin (in Azerbaijan and Turkey), Persian-Arabic (in Iran and Iraq)

 

1 - Xoş gəlmişsiniz!

 

Xoş gəlmişsiniz! – Welcome!

Salam əleyküm – Hello!

Əleyküm salam – Hello! (Reply)

Necəsiz? – How are you? (polite)

Sən necəsən? – How are you? (to friends)

Yaxşıyam – i am fine

Sizin adınız nədir? – What’s your name? (polite)

Sənin adın nədir? – What’s your name?

Mənim adım ... – My name is…

 

hə – yes

eledir - this is so, that’s right

mənim .... yaşım var – I am ... years old

mən – I

mənim – my, mine

e.g. mənim itim – my dog

yaş – year

yaşım – my years

-ım, -im – suffixes showing the possession

 

Possesive pronouns

 

mənim – mine

sənin – yours

onun – his

onların – theirs

Suffixes:  - im - ım - un -ın

Usage: The suffixes are added to the personal pronouns making them possesive pronouns.

 

 

If there is an ə, i, ü in the last syllable then -im is used, e.g. the word mən contains an ə  so the ending has to be -im: mənim, but after a, o, u the ending is either -un or –ım

 

Sağ ol! - Thank you! (informal)

Sağ olun! – Thank you (formal)

minnətdaram – I am grateful to you (most respectful)

 

Grammar note: the –m in the word minnətdaram already means “I am”, so there is no need to add mən in front of it!

 

Görüşərik! – See you!

 

 

2- Çox maraqlı məktub yazıbsan

Təzə nə xəbər var? –Are there any news?, Is there any news?

təzə – new

nə – what

xəbər – news

Xəbər varmı? – Are there any news

var – there is/ are

-mı  – is there? (question particle)

Sən dünən nə edibsən? – What did you do yesterday?

sən – you (informal)

dünən – yesterday

nə – what?

etmək – do

-ib – did (suffix of edibsən)

Həftəsonunu necə keçiribsən? – How was your weekend?

həftə – week

son – end

həftəsonu – weekend

necə – how

-ib – past suffix

Bu gün çox məşğulam – I am very busy today

bu – this

gün – day

bugün – today

çox – very

məşğul olmaq – to be busy, məşğulam – I am busy

(I is shown at the last suffix -m, this -m means mən)

olmaq – to be

such as in: məşğul olmaq – to be busy,  xəstə olmaq – to be sick, evdə olmaq – to be home

Hava necədir? – What’s the weather like?, How is the weather?

hava – weather

Possible replies: 

günəşli – sunny (günəş – sun)

yağışlı – rainy (yağış – rain)

soyuq – cold

bu gün istidir – It is warm today (isti – warm)

soyuqdur – It is cold

qar yağır – it is snowing (qar – snow)

Conjugating the verb ‘to do’ (etmək)

mən etmişəm

sən edibsən

o edib

biz etmişik

siz etmişsiniz

onlar etmişlər

Çox maraqlı məktub yazıbsan – You wrote a very interesting message/ letter

Keçək suallarına – Let’s move on to your questions

keçək – let’s move

sual – question

lar –  plural suffix

suallar – questions

-ına (sənin) – yours

suallarına – your questions

3- Bu dəfə sən Azərbaycan dilindən çox az şey soruşdun

 

Bu dəfə sən Azərbaycan dilindən çox az şey soruşdun – This time you asked very little about Azerbaijani language

bu – this

dəfə – time

sən – you

-dən – from

çox – very

az – little

 

O nə vaxtgələcək? – At what time he will come? 

o – he

vaxt – time

gəlmək – come

gələcək – will come

 

Conjugation of the verb ‘to come’ (gəlmək)

 

mən gələcəm

sən gələcəksən

o gələcək

biz gələcəyik

siz gələcəksiniz

onlar gələcəklər

 

Axırıncı mailimi oxuyubsan? – Have you read my last E-mail?

axırıncı – last

oxuyubsan – have read

oxu – read

oxumaq – to read

 

məktub – letter  

mesaj – message

 

4 - Ümid edirəm ki hər şey yaxşıdır

 

Ümid edirəm ki hər şey yaxşıdır - I hope that everthing is okay!

ümid – hope  

ümid etmək – to hope (literally: do hope)

ki – that

hər – every

şey – thing

hər şey – everything

yaxşı – good

-dır – is

yaxşıdır – is good

 

... hardan tapa bilərəm? – Where can I find...?

harda – where from

tap – find

tapmaq – to find

bilmək – can, know

 

Mən hər şeyi bilirəm – I know everything.

ð In this case “bilmək” means “to know”. 

Neçəyədir? – How much costs?

neçə – how much

 

Be careful, if it is written neçə it means ‘how much’, but if it is written necə it means ‘how’!

 

pomidor – tomato

ð By adding -lar, one can build the plural, pomidorlar – tomatoes

kartoflar – potatoes

salat – lettuce

çiyələk – strawberrys ð no plural

limonlar – lemons

portağal – oranges

 

Həmişə təmizlikdə! – Be always clean and pure!

 

Possessive pronouns (overview)

 

mənim(which consists of mən + im)

sənin(which consists of sən + in)

onun(which consists of o + nun)

bizim(which consists of biz + im)

sizin(which consists of siz + in)

onların(which consists of onlar + ın)

 

1) If there is e, ə, i, in the last syllable, you use –in   

Examples: sənin, müəllimin(müəllim – teacher, müəllimin – the teacher’s), elmin (elm – science, elmin – of science)

2) If there is ö or ü, you use -ün

Examples: öküzün (öküz – bull), ütünün (ütü – iron).

3) If there is a or ı,  you use -ın 

Examples: ayının(ayı –bear)

4) If there is o or u, you have to use use -un

Examples: duzun(duz – salt, duzun – of salt), otun(ot – grass, otun – of grass)

 

If the word ends with a vowel you should add -nın, -nin, -nun, -nün.

 

Possession is also shown in the word that is possessed, so one does not have to add the possessive pronoun always. 

For instance, one can say “kitabım” (my book), instead of “mənim kitabım”, or “kitabımız” (our book) instead of “bizim kitabımız”.

 

qapının açarı – key of the door 

qapı – door

açar – key

qapının – of the door

 

To make “qapı” possessive, one has to add –nın, thus it is “qapının”.

However, the second word has to be transformed into possessive, too: thus it is açarı (by adding the -ı).

 

məktəbin binası – building of school (= school building)

məktəb – school

bina – building

 

Let’s take an overview over the suffixes that have to be added: 

-ın

-in

-un

-ün

-nın (for vowel endings)

-nin (for vowel endings)

-nun (for vowel endings)

-nün (for vowel endings)

 

1st person sg.: -ım, -im, -um, -üm  (kitabım, məktəbim)

2nd person sg.: -ın, -in, -un, -ün (kitabı, məktəbi)

3rd person sg.: -ı, -i, -u, -ü (kitabı, məktəbi)  

1st person pl.: -mız, -miz, -muz, müz (kitabımız, məktəbimiz)

2nd person pl.: -nız, -niz, -nuz, nüz (kitabınız, məktəbiniz)

3rd person pl.: -ları, -ləri (kitabları, məktəbləri)

 

5- Sən haralısan?

 

Sən haralısan? – Where are you from?  Mən Lüksemburqadanam – I am from Luxembourg

ð Lüksemburq is the country, -dan means from and -am is refering to “I” (mən) Sənin neçə yaşın var? – How old are you?

Hansı rəngi sevirsən? – Which is your favorite color?

hansı – which

rəng – color

sevmək – to love, to like

sevirsən – you like

 

yaşıl – green

sarı – yellow

mavi – blue

qırmızı – red

ağ – white

qara – black

qəhvəyi – brown

narıncı – orange

boz – grey, gray

 

Almaniya – Germany

Avstriya – Austria

Fransa – France

Belçika – Belgium

Niderland – The Netherlands

Ermənistan – Armenia

 

Helelik – See you!

heç nə – nothing

Dünən qonaqlarımız var idi – Yesterday we had guests qonaq – guest qonaqlar – guests qonaqlarımız – our guests

 

6 - Mən səni gözlədim

 

Mən səni gözlədim – I have waited for you

işləmişəm – I was working

Hələ yoxdur – No news yet

Nə ile meşqulsan – What are you doing?

Mən de soruşuram  – I am also busy

hem de yaxşı gezmişəm – I also came well

gelmişdi – had come

Sənin keçən həftə etməli çox işin var idi? – There were many things you had to do in the last days?

Bəli etməli çox işim var idi – Yes, there were many things to do

Sən məşqulsan? – Are you busy?

Mən səni narahat etmirəm? – Am I disturbing you?

 

Check yourself (Paragraphs 1-5)

 

I. Translate into English.

 

1. Necəsiz? 2. Sən necəsən?

3. Sənin adın nədir?

4. Mənim adım ...

5. Haralısan?

6. Mən Lüksemburqadanam.

7. Tanış olmağıma çox şadam

8. Sağ olun

 

II. Translate into Azeri.

 

1. Are there any news?

2. How was your weekend?

3. You are very busy.

4. How is the weather?

 

III. Vocabulary

 

1. cold

2. time

3. (to) read

4. hope

5. everything

6. (to) find

7. potatoes

8. oranges

 

IV. possessive pronouns

 

1. After e, ə, i one uses ____.