Ebooka przeczytasz w aplikacjach Legimi na:
Odsłuch ebooka (TTS) dostępny w abonamencie „ebooki+audiobooki bez limitu” w aplikacji Legimi na:
MOTIVATION IN THE WORKPLACE: A PROCTER AND GAMBLE CASE STUDY
Translated by Jacqueline Skewes
“MOTIVATION IN THE WORKPLACE: A PROCTER AND GAMBLE CASE STUDY”
Written By Gabriele Napolitano
Copyright © 2014 mconnors, IMGP6071.JPG, http://mrg.bz/iZA8xu
All rights reserved
Distributed by Babelcube, Inc.
Translated by Jacqueline Skewes
“Babelcube Books” and “Babelcube” are trademarks of Babelcube Inc.
A particular thank you goes to Professor Luca Gnan for allowing the publication of this dissertation.
Another thank you goes to all those who shared this path with me, making it faster and more enjoyable than I had imagined.
And last but not least, thanks go to my family. To my parents who have always supported me (and not just financially) and to my siblings - whose advice and assistance made everything else seem easier.
The topic of motivation in the workplace is becoming recognized as an issue of growing importance not just for employees, but also for organizations themselves. This dissertation was born of an interest in the practical actions that can lead to an increase in staff motivation, rather than in the many and varied motivational theories which exist. Because of this I chose to undertake a behavioral analysis of a company which is not just a market leader in their own industry (consumer products) but which is also one of the most important and influential companies on a global scale; Procter & Gamble. As such, we will discuss the type of results which emerge from this company’s conduct and initiatives in regards to workplace motivation, paying particular attention to their in-house initiatives of Promote from Within and Diversity and Inclusion.
1.2 MOTIVATIONAL THEORIES
2 FOSTERING CONDITIONS TO ENCOURAGE MOTIVATION
2.1 EMOTIONAL MOTIVATION
2.2 ECONOMIC MOTIVATION
2.4 ORGANIZATIONAL VALUES AND CULTURE
2.5 HOW TO CHOOSE A MANAGER
2.6 A MANAGER’S RESPONSIBILITIES
3 PROCTER & GAMBLE CASE STUDY
3.1 THE HISTORY OF PROCTER & GAMBLE
3.2 PROMOTE FROM WITHIN
3.3 DIVERSITY AND INCLUSION
Motivation is an articulation of the forces which drive an individual to pursue a particular course of action. From a psychological point of view motivation can be defined as a combination of dynamic factors at any given moment, which influence an individual’s behavior towards a goal in time. When understood this way, any action that is taken without motivation risks failure as a result.
Motivation primarily performs two functions: initiating specific behaviors and directing behaviors. The first refers to the active element which is the motivation to begin a task. The second refers to the directional component which orients the course that behavior will take.
An initial distinction can be made between innate biological motivations (which refer to physiological aspects) and psycho-cognitive motivations (which evolve during the experience). Motivational mechanics explain how these two elements continually interact. There is also a second fundamental distinction based on the dual concepts of intrinsic motivation (or intrinsic reasoning) where the subject is not always or fully consciously aware of their thought process, and extrinsic motivation where the subject can verbally articulate their reasoning.
The term motivation should be understood as an internal state of affairs which initiates, directs and sustains the behavior of an individual over time. Motivation is a quite broad concept which can be divided into three principal branches: extrinsic motivation, intrinsic motivation and directional motivation.
Numerous theories explore the subject of motivation by emphasizing different components and delving into different aspects of the complex construct which is motivation. While each theory has merit, one could say that the real talent is in understanding how to apply one theory or another, at the right time with people who are demonstrating particular characteristics.
This work is divided into 3 principal sections.
The first chapter concerns itself with discussing the principal motivational theories which are the currently accepted models. Particular attention is given to Maslow’s theory in which the perceived needs of an individual can be summarized in five categories which are ordered according to a strict hierarchy. In this theory, an individual’s particular need will not be motivational unless they have already satisfied the preceding subordinate needs from the lower levels of the hierarchical scale. Herzel prefers to place importance on hygiene factors in his theory. He defines hygiene factors as those elements which are not motivational per se, but whose absence will create discontent or dissatisfaction. This category includes supervisory procedures, company policies, administrative procedures, work conditions (rosters, days off and pay conditions), relationships with superiors, peers and subordinates, status, job security and the effect that these things have on an individual’s personal life. Another important theory is that of McGregor, who elaborates on Maslow’s theory and its application to management. He shows how the behavior of a manager is affected by the understanding that he has of mankind, and recognizes two distinct models which he names Theory X and Theory Y. In any case further motivational theories will then be explored, such as those of Skinner, Vroom, Argyris and McClelland.
The second chapter concentrates its attention on the highly important subject of leadership; accordingly it discusses the role of a manager and begins to define a manager’s functions. It does this by first defining two important factors which must be increased in order to improve motivation in the workforce - economic and emotional motivation. Leadership will then be defined. The leadership process occurs in the interactions of those people who occupy the highest positions in an organizational structure with respect to the rest of the group. One core feature of leaders is that they propose ideas and activities for the group, using their abilities in this field to influence members of the group and modify their behavior. In summary, what most characterizes leaders is that they are able to influence members of the group more than they are influenced themselves. Then, after a discussion of company culture, we will next delve into the detail surrounding the role of a manager and subsequently explore how a manager is chosen and what tasks they should undertake.
In the third chapter we enter into the heart of this dissertation by beginning to examine the company Procter & Gamble as a specific case study. Above all else this part begins by introducing the company and telling its story. P&G was founded in 1837 by two European emigrants to the USA: an English candle maker named William Procter (1801-1884) and an Irish soap maker named James Gamble (1803-1891). After this we will analyze the two company policies employed by P&G which are fundamentally important to the topic of motivation in the workplace: the policies of Promote from Within