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Leviathan is a book written by Thomas Hobbes (1588–1679) and published in 1651. Its name derives from the biblical Leviathan. The work concerns the structure of society and legitimate government, and is regarded as one of the earliest and most influential examples of social contract theory. Leviathan ranks as a classic western work on statecraft comparable to Machiavelli's The Prince. Written during the English Civil War (1642–1651), Leviathan argues for a social contract and rule by an absolute sovereign.
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Edition 2017 by David De Angelis – all rights reserved
PART 1 OF MAN
CHAPTER I. OF SENSE
CHAPTER II. OF IMAGINATIONMemoryDreamsApparitions Or VisionsUnderstanding
CHAPTER III. OF THE CONSEQUENCE OR TRAYNE OF IMAGINATIONSTrayne Of Thoughts UnguidedTrayne Of Thoughts RegulatedRemembrancePrudenceSignesConjecture Of The Time Past
CHAPTER IV. OF SPEECHOriginal Of SpeechThe Use Of SpeechAbuses Of SpeechNames Proper & Common UniversalSubject To NamesUse Of Names PositiveNegative Names With Their UsesWords InsignificantUnderstandingInconstant Names
CHAPTER V. OF REASON, AND SCIENCEReason What It IsReason DefinedRight Reason WhereThe Use Of ReasonOf Error And AbsurdityCauses Of AbsurditieSciencePrudence & Sapience, With Their DifferenceSignes Of Science
CHAPTER VI. OF THE INTERIOUR BEGINNINGS OF VOLUNTARY MOTIONSMotion Vital And AnimalEndeavour; Appetite; Desire; Hunger; Thirst; AversionContemptGood EvilPulchrum Turpe; Delightful Profitable; Unpleasant UnprofitableDelight DispleasurePleasure OffencePleasures Of Sense; Pleasures Of The Mind; Joy Paine GriefeThe WillFormes Of Speech, In PassionGood And Evil ApparentFelicityPraise Magnification
CHAPTER VII. OF THE ENDS OR RESOLUTIONS OF DISCOURSEJudgement, or Sentence Final; DoubtScience Opinion ConscienceBeliefe Faith
CHAPTER VIII. OF THE VERTUES COMMONLY CALLED INTELLECTUALIntellectuall Vertue DefinedWit, Natural, Or AcquiredGood Wit, Or Fancy; Good Judgement; DiscretionPrudenceCraftAcquired WitGiddinesse MadnesseRageMelancholyInsignificant Speech
CHAPTER IX. OF THE SEVERALL SUBJECTS OF KNOWLEDGE
CHAPTER X. OF POWER, WORTH, DIGNITY, HONOUR AND WORTHINESSPowerWorthDignityTo Honour and DishonourTitles of HonourWorthinesse Fitnesse
CHAPTER XI. OF THE DIFFERENCE OF MANNERSWhat Is Here Meant By MannersA Restlesse Desire Of Power, In All MenLove Of Contention From CompetitionCivil Obedience From Love Of EaseFrom Feare Of Death Or WoundsAnd From Love Of ArtsLove Of Vertue, From Love Of PraiseHate, From Difficulty Of Requiting Great BenefitsAnd From Conscience Of Deserving To Be HatedPromptnesse To Hurt, From FearAnd From Distrust Of Their Own WitVain Undertaking From Vain-gloryAmbition, From Opinion Of SufficiencyIrresolution, From Too Great Valuing Of Small MattersAnd From The Ignorance Of Naturall CausesAnd From Want Of UnderstandingCredulity From Ignorance Of NatureCuriosity To Know, From Care Of Future TimeNatural Religion, From The Same
CHAPTER XII. OF RELIGIONReligion, In Man OnelyFirst, From His Desire Of Knowing CausesFrom The Consideration Of The Beginning Of ThingsFrom His Observation Of The Sequell Of ThingsWhich Makes Them Fear The Power Of Invisible ThingsAnd Suppose Them IncorporealBut Know Not The Way How They Effect AnythingBut Honour Them As They Honour MenAnd Attribute To Them All Extraordinary EventsFoure Things, Naturall Seeds Of ReligionMade Different By CultureThe Absurd Opinion Of GentilismeThe Causes Of Change In ReligionInjoyning Beleefe Of ImpossibilitiesDoing Contrary To The Religion They EstablishWant Of The Testimony Of Miracles
CHAPTER XIII. OF THE NATURALL CONDITION OF MANKINDFrom Equality Proceeds DiffidenceFrom Diffidence WarreOut Of Civil StatesThe Incommodites Of Such A WarIn Such A Warre, Nothing Is UnjustThe Passions That Incline Men To Peace
CHAPTER XIV. OF THE FIRST AND SECOND NATURALL LAWES, AND OF CONTRACTSRight Of Nature WhatLiberty WhatA Law Of Nature WhatNaturally Every Man Has Right To EverythingThe Fundamental Law Of NatureThe Second Law Of NatureWhat it is to lay down a RightRenouncing (or) Transferring Right What; Obligation Duty JusticeNot All Rights Are AlienableContract WhatCovenant WhatFree-giftSignes Of Contract ExpresseSignes Of Contract By InferenceFree Gift Passeth By Words Of The Present Or PastMerit WhatCovenants Of Mutuall Trust, When InvalidRight To The End, Containeth Right To The MeansNo Covenant With BeastsNor With God Without Speciall RevelationNo Covenant, But Of Possible And FutureCovenants How Made VoydCovenants Extorted By Feare Are ValideThe Former Covenant To One, Makes Voyd The Later To AnotherA Mans Covenant Not To Defend Himselfe, Is VoydNo Man Obliged To Accuse HimselfeThe End Of An Oath; The Forme Of As OathNo Oath, But By GodAn Oath Addes Nothing To The Obligation
CHAPTER XV. OF OTHER LAWES OF NATUREThe Third Law Of Nature, JusticeJustice And Injustice WhatJustice Not Contrary To ReasonCovenants Not Discharged By The Vice Of The Person To Whom MadeJustice Of Men, And Justice Of Actions WhatJustice Of Manners, And Justice Of ActionsNothing Done To A Man, By His Own Consent Can Be InjuryJustice Commutative, And DistributiveThe Fourth Law Of Nature, GratitudeThe Fifth, Mutuall accommodation, or CompleasanceThe Sixth, Facility To PardonThe Seventh, That In Revenges, Men Respect Onely The Future GoodThe Eighth, Against ContumelyThe Ninth, Against PrideThe Tenth Against ArroganceThe Eleventh EquityThe Twelfth, Equall Use Of Things CommonThe Thirteenth, Of LotThe Fourteenth, Of Primogeniture, And First SeisingThe Fifteenth, Of MediatorsThe Sixteenth, Of Submission To ArbitrementThe Seventeenth, No Man Is His Own JudgeThe Eighteenth, No Man To Be Judge, That Has In Him Cause Of PartialityThe Nineteenth, Of WitnesseA Rule, By Which The Laws Of Nature May Easily Be ExaminedThe Lawes Of Nature Oblige In Conscience AlwayesThe Laws Of Nature Are EternalAnd Yet EasieThe Science Of These Lawes, Is The True Morall Philosophy
CHAPTER XVI. OF PERSONS, AUTHORS, AND THINGS PERSONATEDPerson Naturall, And ArtificiallThe Word Person, WhenceActor, Author; AuthorityCovenants By Authority, Bind The AuthorBut Not The ActorThe Authority Is To Be ShewneThings Personated, InanimateIrrationalFalse GodsThe True GodA Multitude Of Men, How One PersonEvery One Is AuthorAn Actor May Be Many Men Made One By Plurality Of VoycesRepresentatives, When The Number Is Even, UnprofitableNegative Voyce
PART II. OF COMMON-WEALTH
CHAPTER XVII. OF THE CAUSES, GENERATION, AND DEFINITION OF AThe End Of Common-wealth, Particular SecurityWhich Is Not To Be Had From The Law Of NatureNor From The Conjunction Of A Few Men Or FamilyesNor From A Great Multitude, Unlesse Directed By One JudgementAnd That ContinuallyWhy Certain Creatures Without Reason, Or Speech,Do Neverthelesse Live In Society, Without Any Coercive PowerThe Generation Of A Common-wealthThe Definition Of A Common-wealthSoveraigne, And Subject, What
CHAPTER XVIII. OF THE RIGHTS OF SOVERAIGNES BY INSTITUTIONThe Act Of Instituting A Common-wealth, WhatThe Consequences To Such Institution, AreI. The Subjects Cannot Change The Forme Of GovernmentFrom this Institution of a Common-wealth are derived all the Rights, and2. Soveraigne Power Cannot Be Forfeited3. No Man Can Without Injustice Protest Against The4. The Soveraigns Actions Cannot Be Justly Accused By The Subject5. What Soever The Soveraigne Doth, Is Unpunishable By The Subject6. The Soveraigne Is Judge Of What Is Necessary For The PeaceAnd Judge Of What Doctrines Are Fit To Be Taught Them7. The Right Of Making Rules, Whereby The Subject May8. To Him Also Belongeth The Right Of All Judicature9. And Of Making War, And Peace, As He Shall Think Best:10. And Of Choosing All Counsellours, And Ministers,11. And Of Rewarding, And Punishing, And That (Where No12. And Of Honour And OrderThese Rights Are IndivisibleAnd Can By No Grant Passe Away Without DirectThe Power And Honour Of Subjects Vanisheth In The PresenceSoveraigne Power Not Hurtfull As The Want Of It
CHAPTER XIX. OF THE SEVERALL KINDS OF COMMON-WEALTH BY INSTITUTIONThe Different Formes Of Common-wealths But ThreeTyranny And Oligarchy, But Different Names Of Monarchy, And AristocracySubordinate Representatives DangerousComparison Of Monarchy, With Soveraign AssemblyesOf The Right Of SuccessionSuccession Passeth By Expresse WordsOr, By Not Controlling A CustomeOr, By Presumption Of Naturall AffectionTo Dispose Of The Succession, Though To A King Of Another Nation
CHAPTER XX. OF DOMINION PATERNALL AND DESPOTICALLWherein Different From A Common-wealth By InstitutionThe Rights Of Soveraignty The Same In BothDominion Paternall How Attained Not By Generation, But By ContractOr EducationOr Precedent Subjection Of One Of The Parents To The OtherThe Right Of Succession Followeth The Rules Of The Rights Of PossessionDespoticall Dominion, How AttainedNot By The Victory, But By The Consent Of The VanquishedDifference Between A Family And A KingdomThe Right Of Monarchy From ScriptureSoveraign Power Ought In All Common-wealths To Be Absolute
CHAPTER XXI. OF THE LIBERTY OF SUBJECTSLiberty WhatWhat It Is To Be FreeFeare And Liberty ConsistentLiberty And Necessity ConsistentArtificiall Bonds, Or CovenantsLiberty Of Subjects Consisteth In Liberty From CovenantsLiberty Of The Subject Consistent With Unlimited Power Of The SoveraignThe Liberty Which Writers Praise, Is The Liberty Of SoveraignsLiberty Of The Subject How To Be MeasuredSubjects Have Liberty To Defend Their Own BodiesAre Not Bound To Hurt ThemselvesNor To Warfare, Unless They Voluntarily Undertake ItThe Greatest Liberty Of Subjects, Dependeth On The Silence Of The LawIn What Cases Subjects Absolved Of Their Obedience To Their SoveraignIn Case Of CaptivityIn Case The Soveraign Cast Off The Government From Himself And HeyrsIn Case Of BanishmentIn Case The Soveraign Render Himself Subject To Another
CHAPTER XXII. OF SYSTEMES SUBJECT, POLITICALL, AND PRIVATEThe Divers Sorts Of Systemes Of PeopleIn All Bodies Politique The Power Of The Representative Is LimitedBy Letters PatentsAnd The LawesWhen The Representative Is One Man, His Unwarranted Acts His Own OnelyWhen It Is An Assembly, It Is The Act Of Them That Assented OnelyWhen It Is An Assembly, They Onely Are Liable That Have AssentedIf The Debt Be To One Of The Assembly, The Body Onely Is ObligedProtestation Against The Decrees Of Bodies PolitiqueBodies Politique For Government Of A Province, Colony, Or TownBodies Politique For Ordering Of TradeA Bodie Politique For Counsel To Be Give To The SoveraignA Regular Private Body, Lawfull, As A FamilyPrivate Bodies Regular, But UnlawfullSystemes Irregular, Such As Are Private LeaguesSecret CabalsFeuds Of Private FamiliesFactions For Government
CHAPTER XXIII. OF THE PUBLIQUE MINISTERS OF SOVERAIGN POWERPublique Minister WhoMinisters For The Generall AdministrationFor Speciall Administration, As For OeconomyFor Instruction Of The PeopleFor JudicatureFor ExecutionCounsellers Without Other Employment Then To Advise
CHAPTER XXIV. OF THE NUTRITION, AND PROCREATION OF A COMMON-WEALTHAnd The Right Of Distribution Of ThemAll Private Estates Of Land Proceed OriginallyPropriety Of A Subject Excludes Not The Dominion Of The SoveraignThe Publique Is Not To Be DietedThe Places And Matter Of Traffique Depend, As Their DistributionThe Laws Of Transferring Property Belong Also To The SoveraignMony The Bloud Of A Common-wealthThe Conduits And Way Of Mony To The Publique UseThe Children Of A Common-wealth Colonies
CHAPTER XXV. OF COUNSELLCounsell WhatDifferences Between Command And CounsellExhortation And Dehortation WhatDifferences Of Fit And Unfit Counsellours
CHAPTER XXVI. OF CIVILL LAWESCivill Law whatThe Soveraign Is LegislatorAnd Not Subject To Civill LawUse, A Law Not By Vertue Of Time, But Of The Soveraigns ConsentThe Law Of Nature, And The Civill Law Contain Each OtherProvinciall Lawes Are Not Made By Custome, But By The Soveraign PowerSome Foolish Opinions Of Lawyers Concerning The Making Of LawesLaw Made, If Not Also Made Known, Is No LawUnwritten Lawes Are All Of Them Lawes Of NatureNothing Is Law Where The Legislator Cannot Be KnownDifference Between Verifying And AuthorisingThe Law Verifyed By The Subordinate JudgeBy The Publique RegistersBy Letters Patent, And Publique SealeThe Interpretation Of The Law Dependeth On The Soveraign PowerAll Lawes Need InterpretationThe Authenticall Interpretation Of Law Is Not That Of WritersThe Interpreter Of The Law Is The Judge Giving Sentence Viva VoceThe Sentence Of A Judge, Does Not Bind Him, Or Another JudgeThe Difference Between The Letter And Sentence Of The LawThe Abilities Required In A JudgeDivisions Of LawAnother Division Of LawDivine Positive Law How Made Known To Be LawAnother Division Of LawesA Fundamentall Law WhatDifference Between Law And RightAnd Between A Law And A Charter
CHAPTER XXVII. OF CRIMES, EXCUSES, AND EXTENUATIONSA Crime WhatWhere No Civill Law Is, There Is No CrimeIgnorance Of The Law Of Nature Excuseth No ManIgnorance Of The Civill Law Excuseth SometimesIgnorance Of The Soveraign Excuseth NotIgnorance Of The Penalty Excuseth NotPunishments Declared Before The Fact, Excuse From Greater PunishmentsNothing Can Be Made A Crime By A Law Made After The FactFalse Principles Of Right And Wrong Causes Of CrimeFalse Teachers Mis-interpreting The Law Of Nature Secondly, by falseAnd False Inferences From True Principles, By TeachersBy Their PassionsPresumption Of RichesAnd FriendsWisedomeHatred, Lust, Ambition, Covetousnesse, Causes Of CrimeFear Sometimes Cause Of Crime, As When The Danger Is Neither Present,Crimes Not EquallTotall ExcusesExcuses Against The AuthorPresumption Of Power, AggravatethEvill Teachers, ExtenuateExamples Of Impunity, ExtenuatePraemeditation, AggravatethTacite Approbation Of The Soveraign, ExtenuatesComparison Of Crimes From Their EffectsLaesae MajestasBribery And False TestimonyDepeculationCounterfeiting AuthorityCrimes Against Private Men ComparedPublique Crimes What
CHAPTER XXVIII. OF PUNISHMENTS, AND REWARDSThe Definition Of PunishmentRight To Punish Whence DerivedPrivate Injuries, And Revenges No PunishmentsNor Denyall Of PrefermentNor Pain Inflicted Without Publique HearingNor Pain Inflicted By Usurped PowerNor Pain Inflicted Without Respect To The Future GoodNaturall Evill Consequences, No PunishmentsHurt Inflicted, If Lesse Than The Benefit Of Transgressing,Where The Punishment Is Annexed To The Law, A Greater Hurt Is NotHurt Inflicted For A Fact Done Before The Law, No PunishmentThe Representative Of The Common-wealth UnpunishableHurt To Revolted Subjects Is Done By Right Of War, NotPunishments CorporallCapitallIgnominyImprisonmentExileThe Punishment Of Innocent Subjects Is Contrary To The Law Of NatureBut The Harme Done To Innocents In War, Not SoReward, Is Either Salary, Or GraceBenefits Bestowed For Fear, Are Not RewardsSalaries Certain And Casuall
CHAPTER XXIX. OF THOSE THINGS THAT WEAKEN, OR TEND TO THE DISSOLUTION OFWant Of Absolute PowerPrivate Judgement Of Good and EvillErroneous ConsciencePretence Of InspirationSubjecting The Soveraign Power To Civill LawesAttributing Of Absolute Propriety To The SubjectsDividing Of The Soveraign PowerImitation Of Neighbour NationsImitation Of The Greeks, And RomansMixt GovernmentWant Of MonyMonopolies And Abuses Of PublicansPopular MenExcessive Greatnesse Of A Town, Multitude Of CorporationsLiberty Of Disputing Against Soveraign PowerDissolution Of The Common-wealth
CHAPTER XXX. OF THE OFFICE OF THE SOVERAIGN REPRESENTATIVEThe Procuration Of The Good Of The PeopleBy Instruction & LawesAgainst The Duty Of A Soveraign To Relinquish Any Essentiall RightObjection Of Those That Say There Are No Principles Of Reason ForObjection From The Incapacity Of The VulgarSubjects Are To Be Taught, Not To Affect Change Of GovernmentNor Adhere (Against The Soveraign) To Popular MenAnd To Have Dayes Set Apart To Learn Their DutyAnd To Honour Their ParentsAnd To Avoyd Doing Of InjuryAnd To Do All This Sincerely From The HeartThe Use Of UniversitiesEquall TaxesPublique CharityPrevention Of IdlenesseGood Lawes WhatSuch As Are NecessarySuch As Are PerspicuousPunishmentsRewardsCounselloursCommanders
CHAPTER XXXI. OF THE KINGDOME OF GOD BY NATUREThe Scope Of The Following ChaptersWho Are Subjects In The Kingdome Of GodA Threefold Word Of God, Reason, Revelation, ProphecySinne Not The Cause Of All AfflictionDivine LawesHonour And Worship WhatSeverall Signes Of HonourWorship Naturall And ArbitraryWorship Commanded And FreeWorship Publique And PrivateThe End Of WorshipAttributes Of Divine HonourActions That Are Signes Of Divine HonourPublique Worship Consisteth In UniformityAll Attributes Depend On The Lawes CivillNot All ActionsNaturall PunishmentsThe Conclusion Of The Second Part
PART III. OF A CHRISTIAN COMMON-WEALTH
CHAPTER XXXII. OF THE PRINCIPLES OF CHRISTIAN POLITIQUESWhat It Is To Captivate The UnderstandingHow God Speaketh To MenBy What Marks Prophets Are KnownThe Marks Of A Prophet In The Old Law, Miracles, And DoctrineMiracles Ceasing, Prophets Cease, The Scripture Supplies Their Place
CHAPTER XXXIII. OF THE NUMBER, ANTIQUITY, SCOPE, AUTHORITYOf The Books Of Holy ScriptureTheir AntiquityThe Pentateuch Not Written By MosesThe Book of Joshua Written After His TimeThe Booke Of Judges And Ruth Written Long After The CaptivityThe Like Of The Bookes Of SamuelThe Books Of The Kings, And The ChroniclesEzra And NehemiahEstherJobThe PsalterThe ProverbsEcclesiastes And The CanticlesThe ProphetsThe New TestamentTheir ScopeThe Question Of The Authority Of The Scriptures StatedTheir Authority And Interpretation
CHAPTER XXXIV. OF THE SIGNIFICATION OF SPIRIT, ANGEL, AND INSPIRATION INBody And Spirit How Taken In The ScriptureSpirit Of God Taken In The Scripture Sometimes For A Wind, Or BreathSecondly, For Extraordinary Gifts Of The UnderstandingThirdly, For Extraordinary AffectionsFourthly, For The Gift Of Prediction By Dreams And VisionsFiftly, For LifeSixtly, For A Subordination To AuthoritySeventhly, For Aeriall BodiesAngel WhatInspiration What
CHAPTER XXXV. OF THE SIGNIFICATION IN SCRIPTURE OF KINGDOME OF GOD, OFKingdom Of God Taken By Divines Metaphorically But In The ScripturesThe Originall Of The Kingdome Of GodThat The Kingdome Of God Is Properly His Civill Soveraignty OverSacred WhatDegrees of SanctitySacrament
CHAPTER XXXVI. OF THE WORD OF GOD, AND OF PROPHETSWord WhatThe Words Spoken By God And Concerning God, Both Are Called Gods WordSecondly, For The Effect Of His WordThirdly, For The Words Of Reason And EquityDivers Acceptions Of The Word ProphetPraediction Of Future Contingents, Not Alwaies ProphecyThe Manner How God Hath Spoken To The ProphetsTo The Extraordinary Prophets Of The Old Testament He SpakeGod Sometimes Also Spake By LotsEvery Man Ought To Examine The Probability Of A Pretended ProphetsAll Prophecy But Of The Soveraign Prophet Is To Be Examined
CHAPTER XXXVII. OF MIRACLES, AND THEIR USEA Miracle Is A Work That Causeth AdmirationAnd Must Therefore Be Rare, Whereof There Is No Naturall Cause KnownThat Which Seemeth A Miracle To One Man, May Seem Otherwise To AnotherThe End Of MiraclesThe Definition Of A MiracleThat Men Are Apt To Be Deceived By False MiraclesCautions Against The Imposture Of Miracles
CHAPTER XXXVIII. OF THE SIGNIFICATION IN SCRIPTURE OF ETERNALL LIFEPlace Of Adams Eternity If He Had Not Sinned, The Terrestrial ParadiseTexts Concerning The Place Of Life Eternall For BeleeversAscension Into HeavenThe Place After Judgment, Of Those Who Were Never In The KingdomeThe Congregation Of GiantsLake Of FireUtter DarknesseGehenna, And TophetOf The Literall Sense Of The Scripture Concerning HellSatan, Devill, Not Proper Names, But AppellativesTorments Of HellThe Joyes Of Life Eternall, And Salvation The Same ThingThe Place Of Eternall SalvationRedemption
CHAPTER XXXIX. OF THE SIGNIFICATION IN SCRIPTURE OF THE WORD CHURCHChurch The Lords HouseEcclesia Properly WhatIn What Sense The Church Is One Person Church DefinedA Christian Common-wealth, And A Church All One
CHAPTER XLThe Soveraign Rights Of AbrahamAbraham Had The Sole Power Of Ordering The Religion Of His Own PeopleNo Pretence Of Private Spirit Against The Religion Of AbrahamAbraham Sole Judge, And Interpreter Of What God SpakeThe Authority Of Moses Whereon GroundedMoses Was (Under God) Soveraign Of The Jews, All His Own TimeAll Spirits Were Subordinate To The Spirit Of MosesAfter Moses The Soveraignty Was In The High PriestOf The Soveraign Power Between The Time Of Joshua And Of SaulOf The Rights Of The Kings Of IsraelThe Practice Of Supremacy In Religion, Was Not In The Time Of The KingsAfter The Captivity The Jews Had No Setled Common-wealth
CHAPTER XLI. OF THE OFFICE OF OUR BLESSED SAVIOURThree Parts Of The Office Of ChristHis Office As A RedeemerChrists Kingdome Not Of This WorldThe End Of Christs Comming Was To Renew The Covenant Of The KingdomePart Of His OfficeThe Preaching Of Christ Not Contrary To The Then Law Of The JewsThe Third Part Of His Office Was To Be King (Under His Father)Christs Authority In The Kingdome Of God Subordinate To His FatherOne And The Same God Is The Person Represented By Moses, And By Christ
CHAPTER XLII. OF POWER ECCLESIASTICALLOf The Holy Spirit That Fel On The ApostlesOf The TrinityThe Power Ecclesiasticall Is But The Power To TeachAn Argument Thereof, The Power Of Christ HimselfFrom The Name Of RegenerationFrom The Comparison Of It, With Fishing, Leaven, SeedFrom The Nature Of FaithFrom The Authority Christ Hath Left To Civill PrincesWhat Christians May Do To Avoid PersecutionOf MartyrsArgument From The Points Of Their CommissionTo PreachAnd TeachTo BaptizeAnd To Forgive, And Retain SinnesOf ExcommunicationThe Use Of Excommunication Without Civill PowerOf No Effect Upon An ApostateBut Upon The Faithfull OnlyFor What Fault Lyeth ExcommunicationOf Persons Liable To ExcommunicationOf The Interpreter Of The Scriptures Before Civill SoveraignsOf The Power To Make Scripture LawOf The Ten CommandementsOf The Judicial, And Leviticall LawThe Second LawThe Old Testament, When Made CanonicallOf The Power Of Councells To Make The Scripture LawOf The Right Of Constituting Ecclesiasticall Officers In The TimeMatthias Made Apostle By The CongregationPaul And Barnabas Made Apostles By The Church Of AntiochWhat Offices In The Church Are MagisteriallOrdination Of TeachersMinisters Of The Church WhatAnd How Chosen WhatOf Ecclesiasticall Revenue, Under The Law Of MosesIn Our Saviours Time, And AfterThe Civill Soveraign Being A Christian Hath The Right Of AppointingThe Pastorall Authority Of Soveraigns Only Is De Jure DivinoChristian Kings Have Power To Execute All Manner Of Pastoral FunctionThe Civill Soveraigne If A Christian, Is Head Of The ChurchCardinal Bellarmines Books De Summo Pontifice ConsideredThe First BookThe Second BookThe Third BookThe Fourth BookTexts For The Infallibility Of The Popes Judgement In Points Of FaithTexts For The Same In Point Of MannersOf The Popes Temporall Power
CHAPTER XLIII. OF WHAT IS NECESSARY FOR A MANS RECEPTION INTO THEThe Difficulty Of Obeying God And Man Both At OnceIs None To Them That Distinguish Between What Is, And What Is NotAll That Is Necessary To Salvation Is Contained In Faith And ObedienceWhat Obedience Is NecessaryAnd To What LawsIn The Faith Of A Christian, Who Is The Person BeleevedThe Causes Of Christian FaithFaith Comes By HearingProved From The Scope Of The EvangelistsFrom The Sermons Of The ApostlesFrom The Easinesse Of The DoctrineFrom Formall And Cleer TextsFrom That It Is The Foundation Of All Other ArticlesIn What Sense Other Articles May Be Called NecessaryThat Faith, And Obedience Are Both Of Them Necessary To SalvationWhat Each Of Them Contributes ThereuntoObedience To God And To The Civill Soveraign Not InconsistentOr Infidel
CHAPTER XLIV. OF SPIRITUALL DARKNESSE FROM MISINTERPRETATION OFThe Kingdome Of Darknesse WhatThe Church Not Yet Fully Freed Of DarknesseFour Causes Of Spirituall DarknesseErrors From Misinterpreting The Scriptures, Concerning The KingdomeAs That The Kingdome Of God Is The Present ChurchAnd That The Pope Is His Vicar GenerallAnd That The Pastors Are The ClergyError From Mistaking Consecration For ConjurationIncantation In The Ceremonies Of BaptismeIn Marriage, In Visitation Of The Sick, And In Consecration Of PlacesErrors From Mistaking Eternall Life, And Everlasting DeathAs The Doctrine Of Purgatory, And Exorcismes, And Invocation Of SaintsThe Texts Alledged For The Doctrines Aforementioned Have Been AnsweredAnswer To The Text On Which Beza InferethExplication Of The Place In Mark 9.1Abuse Of Some Other Texts In Defence Of The Power Of The PopeThe Manner Of Consecrations In The Scripture, Was Without ExorcismsThe Immortality Of Mans Soule, Not Proved By Scripture To Be Of NatureEternall Torments WhatAnswer Of The Texts Alledged For PurgatoryPlaces Of The New Testament For Purgatory AnsweredBaptisme For The Dead, How Understood
CHAPTER XLV. OF DAEMONOLOGY, AND OTHER RELIQUES OF THE RELIGION OF THEThe Originall Of DaemonologyWhat Were The Daemons Of The AncientsHow That Doctrine Was SpreadWhy Our Saviour Controlled It NotThe Scriptures Doe Not Teach That Spirits Are IncorporeallThe Power Of Casting Out Devills, Not The Same It Was In The PrimitiveAnother Relique Of Gentilisme, Worshipping Images, Left In The ChurchAnswer To Certain Seeming Texts For ImagesWhat Is WorshipDistinction Between Divine And Civill WorshipAn Image What PhantasmesFictions; Materiall ImagesIdolatry WhatScandalous Worship Of ImagesAnswer To The Argument From The Cherubins, And Brazen SerpentPainting Of Fancies No Idolatry: Abusing Them To Religious Worship IsHow Idolatry Was Left In The ChurchCanonizing Of SaintsThe Name Of PontifexProcession Of ImagesWax Candles, And Torches Lighted
CHAPTER XLVI. OF DARKNESSE FROM VAIN PHILOSOPHY, AND FABULOUS TRADITIONSWhat Philosophy IsPrudence No Part Of PhilosophyNo False Doctrine Is Part Of PhilosophyNor Learning Taken Upon Credit Of AuthorsOf The Beginnings And Progresse Of PhilosophyOf The Schools Of Philosophy Amongst The AtheniansOf The Schools Of The JewsThe Schoole Of Graecians UnprofitableThe Schools Of The Jews UnprofitableUniversity What It IsErrors Brought Into Religion From Aristotles MetaphysiquesErrors Concerning Abstract EssencesNunc-stansOne Body In Many Places, And Many Bodies In One Place At OnceAbsurdities In Naturall Philosophy, As Gravity The Cause Of HeavinesseQuantity Put Into Body Already MadePowring In Of SoulesUbiquity Of ApparitionWill, The Cause Of WillingIgnorance An Occult CauseOne Makes The Things Incongruent, Another The IncongruityPrivate Appetite The Rule Of Publique Good:And That Lawfull Marriage Is UnchastityAnd That All Government But Popular, Is TyrannyThat Not Men, But Law GovernsLaws Over The ConsciencePrivate Interpretation Of LawLanguage Of Schoole-DivinesErrors From TraditionSuppression Of Reason
CHAPTER XLVII. OF THE BENEFIT THAT PROCEEDETH FROM SUCH DARKNESSEHe That Receiveth Benefit By A Fact, Is Presumed To Be The AuthorThat The Church Militant Is The Kingdome Of God, Was First Taught ByAnd Maintained Also By The PresbyteryInfallibilitySubjection Of BishopsExemptions Of The ClergyThe Names Of Sacerdotes, And SacrificesThe Sacramentation Of MarriageThe Single Life Of PriestsAuricular ConfessionCanonization Of Saints, And Declaring Of MartyrsTransubstantiation, Penance, AbsolutionPurgatory, Indulgences, Externall WorksDaemonology And ExorcismSchool-DivinityThe Authors Of Spirituall Darknesse, Who They BeComparison Of The Papacy With The Kingdome Of Fayries
A REVIEW, AND CONCLUSION
TO MY MOST HONOR'D FRIEND Mr. FRANCIS GODOLPHIN of GODOLPHIN
Your most worthy Brother Mr SIDNEY GODOLPHIN, when he lived, was pleas'd to think my studies something, and otherwise to oblige me, as you know, with reall testimonies of his good opinion, great in themselves, and the greater for the worthinesse of his person. For there is not any vertue that disposeth a man, either to the service of God, or to the service of his Country, to Civill Society, or private Friendship, that did not manifestly appear in his conversation, not as acquired by necessity, or affected upon occasion, but inhaerent, and shining in a generous constitution of his nature. Therefore in honour and gratitude to him, and with devotion to your selfe, I humbly Dedicate unto you this my discourse of Common-wealth. I know not how the world will receive it, nor how it may reflect on those that shall seem to favour it. For in a way beset with those that contend on one side for too great Liberty, and on the other side for too much Authority, 'tis hard to passe between the points of both unwounded. But yet, me thinks, the endeavour to advance the Civill Power, should not be by the Civill Power condemned; nor private men, by reprehending it, declare they think that Power too great. Besides, I speak not of the men, but (in the Abstract) of the Seat of Power, (like to those simple and unpartiall creatures in the Roman Capitol, that with their noyse defended those within it, not because they were they, but there) offending none, I think, but those without, or such within (if there be any such) as favour them. That which perhaps may most offend, are certain Texts of Holy Scripture, alledged by me to other purpose than ordinarily they use to be by others. But I have done it with due submission, and also (in order to my Subject) necessarily; for they are the Outworks of the Enemy, from whence they impugne the Civill Power. If notwithstanding this, you find my labour generally decryed, you may be pleased to excuse your selfe, and say that I am a man that love my own opinions, and think all true I say, that I honoured your Brother, and honour you, and have presum'd on that, to assume the Title (without your knowledge) of being, as I am,
Your most humble, and most obedient servant, Thomas Hobbes.
Paris APRILL 15/25 1651.
Nature (the art whereby God hath made and governes the world) is by the art of man, as in many other things, so in this also imitated, that it can make an Artificial Animal. For seeing life is but a motion of Limbs, the begining whereof is in some principall part within; why may we not say, that all Automata (Engines that move themselves by springs and wheeles as doth a watch) have an artificiall life? For what is the Heart, but a Spring; and the Nerves, but so many Strings; and the Joynts, but so many Wheeles, giving motion to the whole Body, such as was intended by the Artificer? Art goes yet further, imitating that Rationall and most excellent worke of Nature, Man. For by Art is created that great LEVIATHAN called a COMMON-WEALTH, or STATE, (in latine CIVITAS) which is but an Artificiall Man; though of greater stature and strength than the Naturall, for whose protection and defence it was intended; and in which, the Soveraignty is an Artificiall Soul, as giving life and motion to the whole body; The Magistrates, and other Officers of Judicature and Execution, artificiall Joynts; Reward and Punishment (by which fastned to the seat of the Soveraignty, every joynt and member is moved to performe his duty) are the Nerves, that do the same in the Body Naturall; The Wealth and Riches of all the particular members, are the Strength; Salus Populi (the Peoples Safety) its Businesse; Counsellors, by whom all things needfull for it to know, are suggested unto it, are the Memory; Equity and Lawes, an artificiall Reason and Will; Concord, Health; Sedition, Sicknesse; and Civill War, Death. Lastly, the Pacts and Covenants, by which the parts of this Body Politique were at first made, set together, and united, resemble that Fiat, or the Let Us Make Man, pronounced by God in the Creation.
To describe the Nature of this Artificiall man, I will consider
First the Matter thereof, and the Artificer; both which is Man.
Secondly, How, and by what Covenants it is made; what are the Rights and just Power or Authority of a Soveraigne; and what it is that Preserveth and Dissolveth it.
Thirdly, what is a Christian Common-Wealth.
Lastly, what is the Kingdome of Darkness.
Concerning the first, there is a saying much usurped of late, That Wisedome is acquired, not by reading of Books, but of Men. Consequently whereunto, those persons, that for the most part can give no other proof of being wise, take great delight to shew what they think they have read in men, by uncharitable censures of one another behind their backs. But there is another saying not of late understood, by which they might learn truly to read one another, if they would take the pains; and that is, Nosce Teipsum, Read Thy Self: which was not meant, as it is now used, to countenance, either the barbarous state of men in power, towards their inferiors; or to encourage men of low degree, to a sawcie behaviour towards their betters; But to teach us, that for the similitude of the thoughts, and Passions of one man, to the thoughts, and Passions of another, whosoever looketh into himselfe, and considereth what he doth, when he does Think, Opine, Reason, Hope, Feare, &c, and upon what grounds; he shall thereby read and know, what are the thoughts, and Passions of all other men, upon the like occasions. I say the similitude of Passions, which are the same in all men, Desire, Feare, Hope, &c; not the similitude or The Objects of the Passions, which are the things Desired, Feared, Hoped, &c: for these the constitution individuall, and particular education do so vary, and they are so easie to be kept from our knowledge, that the characters of mans heart, blotted and confounded as they are, with dissembling, lying, counterfeiting, and erroneous doctrines, are legible onely to him that searcheth hearts. And though by mens actions wee do discover their designee sometimes; yet to do it without comparing them with our own, and distinguishing all circumstances, by which the case may come to be altered, is to decypher without a key, and be for the most part deceived, by too much trust, or by too much diffidence; as he that reads, is himselfe a good or evill man.
But let one man read another by his actions never so perfectly, it serves him onely with his acquaintance, which are but few. He that is to govern a whole Nation, must read in himselfe, not this, or that particular man; but Man-kind; which though it be hard to do, harder than to learn any Language, or Science; yet, when I shall have set down my own reading orderly, and perspicuously, the pains left another, will be onely to consider, if he also find not the same in himselfe. For this kind of Doctrine, admitteth no other Demonstration.
Concerning the Thoughts of man, I will consider them first Singly, and afterwards in Trayne, or dependance upon one another. Singly, they are every one a Representation or Apparence, of some quality, or other Accident of a body without us; which is commonly called an Object. Which Object worketh on the Eyes, Eares, and other parts of mans body; and by diversity of working, produceth diversity of Apparences.
The Originall of them all, is that which we call Sense; (For there is no conception in a mans mind, which hath not at first, totally, or by parts, been begotten upon the organs of Sense.) The rest are derived from that originall.
To know the naturall cause of Sense, is not very necessary to the business now in hand; and I have els-where written of the same at large. Nevertheless, to fill each part of my present method, I will briefly deliver the same in this place.
The cause of Sense, is the Externall Body, or Object, which presseth the organ proper to each Sense, either immediatly, as in the Tast and Touch; or mediately, as in Seeing, Hearing, and Smelling: which pressure, by the mediation of Nerves, and other strings, and membranes of the body, continued inwards to the Brain, and Heart, causeth there a resistance, or counter-pressure, or endeavour of the heart, to deliver it self: which endeavour because Outward, seemeth to be some matter without. And this Seeming, or Fancy, is that which men call sense; and consisteth, as to the Eye, in a Light, or Colour Figured; To the Eare, in a Sound; To the Nostrill, in an Odour; To the Tongue and Palat, in a Savour; and to the rest of the body, in Heat, Cold, Hardnesse, Softnesse, and such other qualities, as we discern by Feeling. All which qualities called Sensible, are in the object that causeth them, but so many several motions of the matter, by which it presseth our organs diversly. Neither in us that are pressed, are they anything els, but divers motions; (for motion, produceth nothing but motion.) But their apparence to us is Fancy, the same waking, that dreaming. And as pressing, rubbing, or striking the Eye, makes us fancy a light; and pressing the Eare, produceth a dinne; so do the bodies also we see, or hear, produce the same by their strong, though unobserved action, For if those Colours, and Sounds, were in the Bodies, or Objects that cause them, they could not bee severed from them, as by glasses, and in Ecchoes by reflection, wee see they are; where we know the thing we see, is in one place; the apparence, in another. And though at some certain distance, the reall, and very object seem invested with the fancy it begets in us; Yet still the object is one thing, the image or fancy is another. So that Sense in all cases, is nothing els but originall fancy, caused (as I have said) by the pressure, that is, by the motion, of externall things upon our Eyes, Eares, and other organs thereunto ordained.
But the Philosophy-schooles, through all the Universities of Christendome, grounded upon certain Texts of Aristotle, teach another doctrine; and say, For the cause of Vision, that the thing seen, sendeth forth on every side a Visible Species(in English) a Visible Shew, Apparition, or Aspect, or a Being Seen; the receiving whereof into the Eye, is Seeing. And for the cause of Hearing, that the thing heard, sendeth forth an Audible Species, that is, an Audible Aspect, or Audible Being Seen; which entring at the Eare, maketh Hearing. Nay for the cause of Understanding also, they say the thing Understood sendeth forth Intelligible Species, that is, an Intelligible Being Seen; which comming into the Understanding, makes us Understand. I say not this, as disapproving the use of Universities: but because I am to speak hereafter of their office in a Common-wealth, I must let you see on all occasions by the way, what things would be amended in them; amongst which the frequency of insignificant Speech is one.
That when a thing lies still, unlesse somewhat els stirre it, it will lye still for ever, is a truth that no man doubts of. But that when a thing is in motion, it will eternally be in motion, unless somewhat els stay it, though the reason be the same, (namely, that nothing can change it selfe,) is not so easily assented to. For men measure, not onely other men, but all other things, by themselves: and because they find themselves subject after motion to pain, and lassitude, think every thing els growes weary of motion, and seeks repose of its own accord; little considering, whether it be not some other motion, wherein that desire of rest they find in themselves, consisteth. From hence it is, that the Schooles say, Heavy bodies fall downwards, out of an appetite to rest, and to conserve their nature in that place which is most proper for them; ascribing appetite, and Knowledge of what is good for their conservation, (which is more than man has) to things inanimate absurdly.
When a Body is once in motion, it moveth (unless something els hinder it) eternally; and whatsoever hindreth it, cannot in an instant, but in time, and by degrees quite extinguish it: And as wee see in the water, though the wind cease, the waves give not over rowling for a long time after; so also it happeneth in that motion, which is made in the internall parts of a man, then, when he Sees, Dreams, &c. For after the object is removed, or the eye shut, wee still retain an image of the thing seen, though more obscure than when we see it. And this is it, that Latines call Imagination, from the image made in seeing; and apply the same, though improperly, to all the other senses. But the Greeks call it Fancy; which signifies Apparence, and is as proper to one sense, as to another. Imagination therefore is nothing but Decaying Sense; and is found in men, and many other living Creatures, as well sleeping, as waking.
The decay of Sense in men waking, is not the decay of the motion made in sense; but an obscuring of it, in such manner, as the light of the Sun obscureth the light of the Starres; which starrs do no less exercise their vertue by which they are visible, in the day, than in the night. But because amongst many stroaks, which our eyes, eares, and other organs receive from externall bodies, the predominant onely is sensible; therefore the light of the Sun being predominant, we are not affected with the action of the starrs. And any object being removed from our eyes, though the impression it made in us remain; yet other objects more present succeeding, and working on us, the Imagination of the past is obscured, and made weak; as the voyce of a man is in the noyse of the day. From whence it followeth, that the longer the time is, after the sight, or Sense of any object, the weaker is the Imagination. For the continuall change of mans body, destroyes in time the parts which in sense were moved: So that the distance of time, and of place, hath one and the same effect in us. For as at a distance of place, that which wee look at, appears dimme, and without distinction of the smaller parts; and as Voyces grow weak, and inarticulate: so also after great distance of time, our imagination of the Past is weak; and wee lose( for example) of Cities wee have seen, many particular Streets; and of Actions, many particular Circumstances. This Decaying Sense, when wee would express the thing it self, (I mean Fancy it selfe,) wee call Imagination, as I said before; But when we would express the Decay, and signifie that the Sense is fading, old, and past, it is called Memory. So that Imagination and Memory, are but one thing, which for divers considerations hath divers names.
Much memory, or memory of many things, is called Experience. Againe, Imagination being only of those things which have been formerly perceived by Sense, either all at once, or by parts at severall times; The former, (which is the imagining the whole object, as it was presented to the sense) is Simple Imagination; as when one imagineth a man, or horse, which he hath seen before. The other is Compounded; as when from the sight of a man at one time, and of a horse at another, we conceive in our mind a Centaure. So when a man compoundeth the image of his own person, with the image of the actions of an other man; as when a man imagins himselfe a Hercules, or an Alexander, (which happeneth often to them that are much taken with reading of Romants) it is a compound imagination, and properly but a Fiction of the mind. There be also other Imaginations that rise in men, (though waking) from the great impression made in sense; As from gazing upon the Sun, the impression leaves an image of the Sun before our eyes a long time after; and from being long and vehemently attent upon Geometricall Figures, a man shall in the dark, (though awake) have the Images of Lines, and Angles before his eyes: which kind of Fancy hath no particular name; as being a thing that doth not commonly fall into mens discourse.
The imaginations of them that sleep, are those we call Dreams. And these also (as all other Imaginations) have been before, either totally, or by parcells in the Sense. And because in sense, the Brain, and Nerves, which are the necessary Organs of sense, are so benummed in sleep, as not easily to be moved by the action of Externall Objects, there can happen in sleep, no Imagination; and therefore no Dreame, but what proceeds from the agitation of the inward parts of mans body; which inward parts, for the connexion they have with the Brayn, and other Organs, when they be distempered, do keep the same in motion; whereby the Imaginations there formerly made, appeare as if a man were waking; saving that the Organs of Sense being now benummed, so as there is no new object, which can master and obscure them with a more vigorous impression, a Dreame must needs be more cleare, in this silence of sense, than are our waking thoughts. And hence it cometh to pass, that it is a hard matter, and by many thought impossible to distinguish exactly between Sense and Dreaming. For my part, when I consider, that in Dreames, I do not often, nor constantly think of the same Persons, Places, Objects, and Actions that I do waking; nor remember so long a trayne of coherent thoughts, Dreaming, as at other times; And because waking I often observe the absurdity of Dreames, but never dream of the absurdities of my waking Thoughts; I am well satisfied, that being awake, I know I dreame not; though when I dreame, I think my selfe awake.
And seeing dreames are caused by the distemper of some of the inward parts of the Body; divers distempers must needs cause different Dreams. And hence it is, that lying cold breedeth Dreams of Feare, and raiseth the thought and Image of some fearfull object (the motion from the brain to the inner parts, and from the inner parts to the Brain being reciprocall:) and that as Anger causeth heat in some parts of the Body, when we are awake; so when we sleep, the over heating of the same parts causeth Anger, and raiseth up in the brain the Imagination of an Enemy. In the same manner; as naturall kindness, when we are awake causeth desire; and desire makes heat in certain other parts of the body; so also, too much heat in those parts, while wee sleep, raiseth in the brain an imagination of some kindness shewn. In summe, our Dreams are the reverse of our waking Imaginations; The motion when we are awake, beginning at one end; and when we Dream, at another.
The most difficult discerning of a mans Dream, from his waking thoughts, is then, when by some accident we observe not that we have slept: which is easie to happen to a man full of fearfull thoughts; and whose conscience is much troubled; and that sleepeth, without the circumstances, of going to bed, or putting off his clothes, as one that noddeth in a chayre. For he that taketh pains, and industriously layes himselfe to sleep, in case any uncouth and exorbitant fancy come unto him, cannot easily think it other than a Dream. We read of Marcus Brutes, (one that had his life given him by Julius Caesar, and was also his favorite, and notwithstanding murthered him,) how at Phillipi, the night before he gave battell to Augustus Caesar, he saw a fearfull apparition, which is commonly related by Historians as a Vision: but considering the circumstances, one may easily judge to have been but a short Dream. For sitting in his tent, pensive and troubled with the horrour of his rash act, it was not hard for him, slumbering in the cold, to dream of that which most affrighted him; which feare, as by degrees it made him wake; so also it must needs make the Apparition by degrees to vanish: And having no assurance that he slept, he could have no cause to think it a Dream, or any thing but a Vision. And this is no very rare Accident: for even they that be perfectly awake, if they be timorous, and supperstitious, possessed with fearfull tales, and alone in the dark, are subject to the like fancies, and believe they see spirits and dead mens Ghosts walking in Churchyards; whereas it is either their Fancy onely, or els the knavery of such persons, as make use of such superstitious feare, to pass disguised in the night, to places they would not be known to haunt.
From this ignorance of how to distinguish Dreams, and other strong Fancies, from vision and Sense, did arise the greatest part of the Religion of the Gentiles in time past, that worshipped Satyres, Fawnes, nymphs, and the like; and now adayes the opinion than rude people have of Fayries, Ghosts, and Goblins; and of the power of Witches. For as for Witches, I think not that their witch craft is any reall power; but yet that they are justly punished, for the false beliefe they have, that they can do such mischiefe, joyned with their purpose to do it if they can; their trade being neerer to a new Religion, than to a Craft or Science. And for Fayries, and walking Ghosts, the opinion of them has I think been on purpose, either taught, or not confuted, to keep in credit the use of Exorcisme, of Crosses, of holy Water, and other such inventions of Ghostly men. Neverthelesse, there is no doubt, but God can make unnaturall Apparitions. But that he does it so often, as men need to feare such things, more than they feare the stay, or change, of the course of Nature, which he also can stay, and change, is no point of Christian faith. But evill men under pretext that God can do any thing, are so bold as to say any thing when it serves their turn, though they think it untrue; It is the part of a wise man, to believe them no further, than right reason makes that which they say, appear credible. If this superstitious fear of Spirits were taken away, and with it, Prognostiques from Dreams, false Prophecies, and many other things depending thereon, by which, crafty ambitious persons abuse the simple people, men would be much more fitted than they are for civill Obedience.
And this ought to be the work of the Schooles; but they rather nourish such doctrine. For (not knowing what Imagination, or the Senses are), what they receive, they teach: some saying, that Imaginations rise of themselves, and have no cause: Others that they rise most commonly from the Will; and that Good thoughts are blown (inspired) into a man, by God; and evill thoughts by the Divell: or that Good thoughts are powred (infused) into a man, by God; and evill ones by the Divell. Some say the Senses receive the Species of things, and deliver them to the Common-sense; and the Common Sense delivers them over to the Fancy, and the Fancy to the Memory, and the Memory to the Judgement, like handing of things from one to another, with many words making nothing understood.
The Imagination that is raysed in man (or any other creature indued with the faculty of imagining) by words, or other voluntary signes, is that we generally call Understanding; and is common to Man and Beast. For a dogge by custome will understand the call, or the rating of his Master; and so will many other Beasts. That Understanding which is peculiar to man, is the Understanding not onely his will; but his conceptions and thoughts, by the sequell and contexture of the names of things into Affirmations, Negations, and other formes of Speech: And of this kinde of Understanding I shall speak hereafter.
By Consequence, or Trayne of Thoughts, I understand that succession of one Thought to another, which is called (to distinguish it from Discourse in words) Mentall Discourse.
When a man thinketh on any thing whatsoever, His next Thought after, is not altogether so casuall as it seems to be. Not every Thought to every Thought succeeds indifferently. But as wee have no Imagination, whereof we have not formerly had Sense, in whole, or in parts; so we have no Transition from one Imagination to another, whereof we never had the like before in our Senses. The reason whereof is this. All Fancies are Motions within us, reliques of those made in the Sense: And those motions that immediately succeeded one another in the sense, continue also together after Sense: In so much as the former comming again to take place, and be praedominant, the later followeth, by coherence of the matter moved, is such manner, as water upon a plain Table is drawn which way any one part of it is guided by the finger. But because in sense, to one and the same thing perceived, sometimes one thing, sometimes another succeedeth, it comes to passe in time, that in the Imagining of any thing, there is no certainty what we shall Imagine next; Onely this is certain, it shall be something that succeeded the same before, at one time or another.
This Trayne of Thoughts, or Mentall Discourse, is of two sorts. The first is Unguided, Without Designee, and inconstant; Wherein there is no Passionate Thought, to govern and direct those that follow, to it self, as the end and scope of some desire, or other passion: In which case the thoughts are said to wander, and seem impertinent one to another, as in a Dream. Such are Commonly the thoughts of men, that are not onely without company, but also without care of any thing; though even then their Thoughts are as busie as at other times, but without harmony; as the sound which a Lute out of tune would yeeld to any man; or in tune, to one that could not play. And yet in this wild ranging of the mind, a man may oft-times perceive the way of it, and the dependance of one thought upon another. For in a Discourse of our present civill warre, what could seem more impertinent, than to ask (as one did) what was the value of a Roman Penny? Yet the Cohaerence to me was manifest enough. For the Thought of the warre, introduced the Thought of the delivering up the King to his Enemies; The Thought of that, brought in the Thought of the delivering up of Christ; and that again the Thought of the 30 pence, which was the price of that treason: and thence easily followed that malicious question; and all this in a moment of time; for Thought is quick.
The second is more constant; as being Regulated by some desire, and designee. For the impression made by such things as wee desire, or feare, is strong, and permanent, or, (if it cease for a time,) of quick return: so strong it is sometimes, as to hinder and break our sleep. From Desire, ariseth the Thought of some means we have seen produce the like of that which we ayme at; and from the thought of that, the thought of means to that mean; and so continually, till we come to some beginning within our own power. And because the End, by the greatnesse of the impression, comes often to mind, in case our thoughts begin to wander, they are quickly again reduced into the way: which observed by one of the seven wise men, made him give men this praecept, which is now worne out, Respice Finem; that is to say, in all your actions, look often upon what you would have, as the thing that directs all your thoughts in the way to attain it.
The Trayn of regulated Thoughts is of two kinds; One, when of an effect imagined, wee seek the causes, or means that produce it: and this is common to Man and Beast. The other is, when imagining any thing whatsoever, wee seek all the possible effects, that can by it be produced; that is to say, we imagine what we can do with it, when wee have it. Of which I have not at any time seen any signe, but in man onely; for this is a curiosity hardly incident to the nature of any living creature that has no other Passion but sensuall, such as are hunger, thirst, lust, and anger. In summe, the Discourse of the Mind, when it is governed by designee, is nothing but Seeking, or the faculty of Invention, which the Latines call Sagacitas, and Solertia; a hunting out of the causes, of some effect, present or past; or of the effects, of some present or past cause, sometimes a man seeks what he hath lost; and from that place, and time, wherein hee misses it, his mind runs back, from place to place, and time to time, to find where, and when he had it; that is to say, to find some certain, and limited time and place, in which to begin a method of seeking. Again, from thence, his thoughts run over the same places and times, to find what action, or other occasion might make him lose it. This we call Remembrance, or Calling to mind: the Latines call it Reminiscentia, as it were a Re-Conning of our former actions.
Sometimes a man knows a place determinate, within the compasse whereof his is to seek; and then his thoughts run over all the parts thereof, in the same manner, as one would sweep a room, to find a jewell; or as a Spaniel ranges the field, till he find a sent; or as a man should run over the alphabet, to start a rime.
Sometime a man desires to know the event of an action; and then he thinketh of some like action past, and the events thereof one after another; supposing like events will follow like actions. As he that foresees what wil become of a Criminal, re-cons what he has seen follow on the like Crime before; having this order of thoughts, The Crime, the Officer, the Prison, the Judge, and the Gallowes. Which kind of thoughts, is called Foresight, and Prudence, or Providence; and sometimes Wisdome; though such conjecture, through the difficulty of observing all circumstances, be very fallacious. But this is certain; by how much one man has more experience of things past, than another; by so much also he is more Prudent, and his expectations the seldomer faile him. The Present onely has a being in Nature; things Past have a being in the Memory onely, but things To Come have no being at all; the Future being but a fiction of the mind, applying the sequels of actions Past, to the actions that are Present; which with most certainty is done by him that has most Experience; but not with certainty enough. And though it be called Prudence, when the Event answereth our Expectation; yet in its own nature, it is but Presumption. For the foresight of things to come, which is Providence, belongs onely to him by whose will they are to come. From him onely, and supernaturally, proceeds Prophecy. The best Prophet naturally is the best guesser; and the best guesser, he that is most versed and studied in the matters he guesses at: for he hath most Signes to guesse by.
A Signe, is the Event Antecedent, of the Consequent; and contrarily, the Consequent of the Antecedent, when the like Consequences have been observed, before: And the oftner they have been observed, the lesse uncertain is the Signe. And therefore he that has most experience in any kind of businesse, has most Signes, whereby to guesse at the Future time, and consequently is the most prudent: And so much more prudent than he that is new in that kind of business, as not to be equalled by any advantage of naturall and extemporary wit: though perhaps many young men think the contrary.
Neverthelesse it is not Prudence that distinguisheth man from beast. There be beasts, that at a year old observe more, and pursue that which is for their good, more prudently, than a child can do at ten.
As Prudence is a Praesumtion of the Future, contracted from the Experience of time Past; So there is a Praesumtion of things Past taken from other things (not future but) past also. For he that hath seen by what courses and degrees, a flourishing State hath first come into civill warre, and then to ruine; upon the sights of the ruines of any other State, will guesse, the like warre, and the like courses have been there also. But his conjecture, has the same incertainty almost with the conjecture of the Future; both being grounded onely upon Experience.
There is no other act of mans mind, that I can remember, naturally planted in him, so, as to need no other thing, to the exercise of it, but to be born a man, and live with the use of his five Senses. Those other Faculties, of which I shall speak by and by, and which seem proper to man onely, are acquired, and encreased by study and industry; and of most men learned by instruction, and discipline; and proceed all from the invention of Words, and Speech. For besides Sense, and Thoughts, and the Trayne of thoughts, the mind of man has no other motion; though by the help of Speech, and Method, the same Facultyes may be improved to such a height, as to distinguish men from all other living Creatures.
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