Landlocked States - Anna S. Gevorgyan - ebook

Landlocked States ebook

Anna S. Gevorgyan

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Opis

Not all countries are blessed with the advantage of having access to sea. These countries constitute a singular sub grouping called Landlocked States. Geographical factor is the main drawback in the development process and trade competitiveness of these countries. Landlocked countries are the ones not having any seacoast as opposed to other geographically disadvantaged states. They are also among the most underperforming countries in the world measured by various economic dimensions. There is empirical evidence that landlockedness puts repercussions on the socio-economic development of these countries; about 15% of the states of the world are developing Landlocked States. Thus, this essay sets out to examine the desperate plight of Landlocked States caused by a geographic handicap. It has to be taken into account that being landlocked means to have limited and more costly access to the world market. Furthermore, the plight of a landlocked state is very much dependent on the location and it is hardly surprising that there is no single high-income landlocked country outside of Europe. Additionally, the Republic of Armenia, being a landlocked state, not only can’t avoid the susceptibility and obstacles brought by the absence of access to sea, but also suffers more than other landlocked countries due to the lack of natural resources and border blockages. So, in this regard and as an example for other states, this issue is a significant one for Armenia that demands special study. The conclusions the author compiles are worth to be considered.

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Bibliografische Information der Deutschen Bibliothek

Die Deutsche Bibliothek verzeichnet diese Publikation in der Deutschen Nationalbibliografie; detaillierte bibliografische Daten sind im Internet über http://dnb.ddb.de abrufbar

This paper has been originally submitted tothe American University of Armenia, Yerevan/Armenia, Faculty of the Graduate School of Political Science and International Affairs, in June 2011, for partial fulfillment of a Master of Arts degree.

Rangendingen, January 2013

© by LIBERTAS - Europäisches Institut GmbH

LIBERTAS – Europäisches Institut GmbH,

Lindenweg 37, 72414 Rangendingen, Germany

Tel. +49 7471 984996-0,

Fax +49 7471 984996-19

eMail: [email protected]

Internet: www.libertas-institut.com

ISBN 978-3-937642-32-1 (print)

ISBN 978-3-946119-11-1 (epub)

ISBN 978-3-937642-34-5 (mobipocket)

The Author

Anna S. Gevorgyan, Yerevan/Armenia, holds her B.A. degree from Yerevan State University(International Relations and Diplomacy, 2008) and her M.A. in 2011 from American University of Armenia (AUA, School of Political Science and International Affairs. with narrow specialization in International Law), after having been on a Secondary Russian School in Vanadzor/Armenia. Since Summer 2012 she has worked as a Specialist for International Law with GIZ Armenia – Deut-sche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusam-menarbeit, after having been Legal Analyst for a USAID/SATR Project implemented by the International Center for Human Development (ICHD), on the legal impact of the absence of diplomatic relations between Armenia and Turkey, and also as an Assistant to Election Analysts for the Parliamentary Elections of May 6, 2012, in Armenia (Core Team, OSCE/ODIHR Election Observation Mission).

Before, she has also worked for the Armenian Constitutional Right-Protective Centre as Coordinator for External Relations and as translator for international documents for the National Institute of Education of the Republic of Armenia. This was preceded byactivities as an Assistant to the Census Coordinator at UNHCR (United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees) in Armenia, as well as by volunteer activities at several institutions. She is fluent in Armenian, Russian, English and Arabic and has advanced knowledge in French and German.

About 15% of the states of the world are developing landlocked states. Like on exclaves or enclaves, there is not too much literature on landlocked states. Also the development aid of the EU must take into account that being landlocked means to have limited and more costly access to the world market. Furthermore, the plight of a landlocked state is very much dependent on the location and it is hardly surprising that there is no single high-income landlocked country outside of Europe.

This piece of research has been undertaken for a Master degree in Political Science and International Affairs under the instruction of her lecturer and supervisor, Vigen Sargsyan, who is in the meantime the Chief of Staff to the President of the Republic of Armenia. The thesis was submitted to the confirmation of Dr. Lucig H. Danielyan, Dean of the Faculty of Political Science and International Relations.

Acknowledgement

No general expressions of thanks can satisfy the debt of gratitude I owe to my supervisor Mr. Vigen Sargsyan. I am deeply indebted to him, whose help, stimulating suggestions and encouragement helped me in all the time of research for and writing of this thesis.

I extend my sincere appreciation to the faculty members of the School of Political Science and International Affairs and its Dean, Dr. Lucig H. Danielyan.

Lastly, my respect and thanks go tomy friends and my family who supported me in any respect during the completion of the project and without love and concern of whom this thesis would have not been possible.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1.Introduction

2.The Conception of Landlocked States

3.Historical Characteristics

4.Landlocked Countries – Challenged By Geography

5.Research Questions (RQ) and Hypothesis

6.Methodology

7.The Theoretical Base

8.The Principle of Freedom of the High Seas and Right of Access as an International Servitude

9.International Conventions on Freedom of Transit

10.Ensuring Access through National or Most-Favored-Nation Treatment

11.Flag of Convenience Approach

12.Soft Law mechanisms

13.The Burden of Landlockedness

14.Measuring Transport Costs: CIF/FOB margins

15.Economic and Developmental Challenges

16.Foreign Direct Investment (FDI)

17.The logistics performance of landlocked developing countries

18.Assessing the Economic Value of Time

19.Social and economic performance of LLDCs

20.Economic Development of LLSs

21.Armenia: The landlocked country transit issues

22.Trade Policies and Market Access

23.Transportation Cost for the Republic of Armenia

24.Conclusion and Recommendations

List of References

LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES

Table 1: The list of 31 landlocked developing countries

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