Historia Langobardorum - Paulus Diaconus - ebook

A nice book tells us the two centuries of the Lombard kingdom from a point of view other than the papal Franco. It also contains the Origo and the Chronicon of Andrea from Bergamo.This ebook has the only purpose God to make the Latin text of Paolo Deacon easily usable.The book contains a brief preface divided into thematic sections: this follows the Origo Gents Langobardorum, divided into seven paragraphs and contains the legend of the name. This follows the Historia Langobardorum of Paulus Diaconus. After the six books of Paolus, is the Chronicon of Andrea from Bergamo composed of nineteen sections that complete the story of the Historia.

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Paulus Diaconus

Historia Langobardorum

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Index of the book

Basic information

Content of the book.

The history

The Author

what is Historia Langobardorum

The Artwork

What is Origo Gents Langobardorum

Origo Gents Langobardorum

Historia Langobardorum

Liber Primo

Liber Secundo

Liber Tertius

Liber Quartus

Liber Quintus

Liber Sextus

What is Chronicon by Andrea from Bergamo

Chronicon Gentis Langobardorum

Adding Informations


Reading suggestions



Basic information

Historia Langobardorum

History of the Longobards (Lombards)

Paulus Diaconus

Paul the Deacon

The Origo Gents Langobardorum

The Chronicon of Andrea from Bergamo

Latin text

English Edition

Publishing house

GBL Grande Biblioteca Latina


Facebook - GBL Grande Biblioteca Latina

e-mail - grandebibliotecalatina@gmail.com

Content of the book.

The book contains a brief preface divided into thematic sections: this follows the Origo Gents Langobardorum, divided into seven paragraphs and contains the legend of the name. This follows the Historia Langobardorum of Paulus Diaconus. After the six books of Paolus, is the Chronicon of Andrea from Bergamo composed of nineteen sections that complete the story of the Historia.

A brief mention deserves the notes; these are few but practical, they rely on Wikipedia and allow you to scroll through the lists of popes, emperors and kings. Scrolling between successors and predecessors, you can find almost all the characters cited in the text.




The history

The STORY why do you post an old book in Latin and manifestly biased? The reason is right there, in the definition "biased": the written history is always biased as it is generated by a "cultural property"; entities that often coincides with the "nation State". In practice for the same valid concept for art history; every age gives a different judgment on a given work of art. As a boy, when I was studying art in high school, I was in the school library to see a famous and beautiful series dedicated to painters; in those books were the critical judgments of art experts and artists from different periods. There you could see the change in opinion with the passing of time. Thus a Baroque opera before like, then is scorned and then back to be found beautiful. This change of opinion is closely related to historical events and social changes. To explain some basic concepts will continue to use parallelism art-history, which I think would be the most suitable. Tale here briefly a personal experience, had at the University in giving a Medieval History exam. Assisting students exam my peers, I noticed their difficulties in defining the historical periods; I noticed even their attachment to the dates. The Professor of the University of Milan is greatly irritated by seeing the inability to argue about the dates of the beginning and end of the middle ages. Dates: the age old conventions does not end one day in a certain place, but it's a border that you move and brings social change, often non-uniform. The Kingdom goto in Italy is perhaps as early as the middle ages but we consider late Antiquity, because we tend to get the middle ages in Italy with the twentieth anniversary of the Gothic wars or with the Lombard RAID in the peninsula. The right answer to the question '' when he began the dark ages? '' is the conventional date of dismissal of the last Roman Emperor of the West, accompanied by the caveat that this is, in fact, a fairly long period of transition from Odoacer to the Lombards and does not involve the whole territory evenly. If we look at the art, we see the splendid mosaics of Ravenna, but then appears the imposing mausoleum of Theodoric; I note that after they switch to a poor art, early Christian art brand well the transition from the old world to the new times. In the same way, regardless of the date on which it is said that Columbus discovered America, the art of the second fifteenth century Florentine Renaissance, which already showed appears briefly and immediately dissolves in Mannerism that Michelangelo's dome of St. Peter's in Baroque. Thus the municipalities become Lords and politics connected with classical antiquity which has in itself the symbols of power. Strange story that of classical art: born in Athens to become democratic instrument of Imperial ambition. However, even the art decreed the end of the middle ages, with the return to the plasticity and the "new style" of Vasari. In practice it is Michelangelo's David and not Colombo, the right date to remember. So having made it clear that it is common and not feeling dates to mark the history, we add the concept of State education. Each enhances the story that he agrees to justify its existence; you could also add the geographical factor is an integral part, but it would be a discussion to Plato and too long. Clutching, the Lombards divided the Italy and the future nation-State, everything has Rome as capital and the entire country as a domain is negative, ugly, not important. This was the interest of the Savoy, the Kingdom and the Risorgimento, Patriots Duce; now, with a party called the Northern League, "trumpets of Rome" came back to bite tainting the historical truth. I believe that the Risorgimento Italy has become a mature, ready to become Europe and parts of the world. Moreover, from a hundred and fifty years, the Savoy are famous biscuits great tiramisu and anti-German sentiment became sporting rivalry. Then, allow everyone to read a text like this in its original form, without a State cultural mediation enables the contemporary man, "scientific", to judge for themselves and learn more to his liking.

The Author

Paul Deacon was born in Cividale del Friuli probably in 820 a.D.. Its Latin name was Warnefried or Paulus Diaconus, the Lombard Paolo di Varnefrido. Was a descendant of Leupichi, one of the Longobards of Alboino during the invasion of Italy. At a young age he was sent to Pavia, which at the time was the capital of the Lombard Kingdom by King Ratchis. Here he studied under Flavian; he attended school at the monastery of San Pietro in Ciel d'Oro which then became a lecturer. Rest in the Court later also King Aistulf and Desiderius, under the latter became Preceptor of the daughter Adelperga. When the daughter of Desire she married the Duke of Benevento Arechi, followed her. With the fall of the Lombard Kingdom of 774, due to the imprisonment of his brother agreed to relocate at the Carolingian Court between 782 and the 787, where he was praised as a Grammarian. After the release of his brother, Paul fled the Court of Charlemagne and returned to Benevento; here entered the monastery of Monte Cassino became a Benedictine monk. Right in the monastery between 787 and 789 and wrote the Historia Langobardorum, his most famous and important. Another fact you hear indirectly is related to music, indeed its anthem dedicated to St. John the Baptist, in the eleventh (11th) century, Guido d'Arezzo tries the seven musical notes that they make the music a considerable step forward. Paul Deacon die in Benevento in 799 leaving his Historia purposely unfinished because disappointed by the latest events de of his beloved Lara.

what is Historia Langobardorum

A beautiful engaging story! Unfortunately the national needs of previous two centuries do not permit an objective vision on the period of Historia Langobardorum.

The nationality of Langobards is the main problem! Their lineage was considered Germanic. It is simple to understand that the situation did not allow to consider the longobardic period with national pride. In fact Italy was under Austrians in Milan, in Venice and then in Trento and Trieste and Rome was also a problem. Cavour and Garibaldi can explain you the reason of the anti-german sentiment in Italy in that time: when Italy was born.

For long time - because of the behavior of Italians - the sentiment persisted and also the last world war contributed to that. The Langobards broke the unity of the country, and this division continued till 1918.

Several studies about European ethnical origins demonstrated that the Nation-State identification is an artifice, a cultural model and an enough recent event ; the blood of the different nations is the mixed blood of the people of those nations : the unique real European nation is maybe Europe itself.

Enjoy the story! It will be sometimes boring , clearly pro-catholic or pro-longobardic and without end; the author refused to complete the story because of the dynamics related to the fall of the kingdom of the langobards: an inglorious end!. This is a beautiful story, it is a great epic but without a grand finale.

The Artwork

It was written by Paul the Deacon in the “Monte Cassino” Benedictine monastery two years after his return to the Court of Charlemagne where he was a grammarian.

“La Historia” tells the stories of a part of a people called Winii ; this people will be named "Langobards" before the mythical and heroic battle versus the Vandals.

The story leads us to Pannonia and then to Italy by following the stories of several kings.

The author tells us the events that occurred in Italy at the time of the Langobards' conquests; he tells the readers the story of Alboin and his queen Rosamund and explains ten years of anarchy caused by the ascent of a king.

The author continues narrating the palace vicissitudes by describing the deeds of Authari; of Theodelinda ; of Rothari. Furthermore Paul tells us the engaging story of Grimoald. The last king of the narration is Liutprand and is chiefly remembered for his Donation of Sutri. It was an agreement between the king of Lombards and Pope Gregory II with which were donated some territories to the Papacy. They says it is the first extension of the papal territory beyond the confines of the Duchy of Rome and, maybe, the beginning of the “Temporal Power”.

The author even includes ecclesiastic events by using a clearly catholic point of view; he is an open mind writer, in fact he carries us in the near and fatal kingdom of the Franks and among the compelling byzantine emperors stories.

The author even includes ecclesiastic events by using a clearly catholic point of view; he is an open mind writer, in fact he carries us in the near and fatal kingdom of the Franks and among the compelling byzantine emperors stories.

The story is not often precise and sometimes manifestly wrong; anyway the author allows the readers to have a picture of the situation although it is a pro-Langobards vision. In this book it is possible to have a chronicle the Italian events with a Frankish-papal vision.

We know that Paul was Friulian and his origins have influenced in part the narration; he did not forget to tell us what was happening in the North-East of Italy as well as in the territory of Benevento, where he lived ; the Duchy of Benevento was strictly connected to Friuli and to the Longobardic crown.

The historical sources of Paul are : an ancient song called “Origo gentis Longobardorum” that tells the origins of Scandinavia; Secundus of Non authored of History of the Acts of the Langobards; Gregory of Tours , a Gallo-Roman historian and Bishop of Tours; the Venerable Bede and the Annals of Benevento.The book I (first) tells us the origins of the Lombards, describing the various stages of approaching the Italy until the victory of Alboo on the Gepids and the departure for the peninsula, in addition to the vicissitudes of St. Benedict.The “Book II” narrates the entrance in Italy and the readers have a nice framework of the peninsula.

The book I (first) tells us the origins of the Lombards, describing the various stages of approaching the Italy until the victory of Alboo on the Gepids and the departure for the peninsula, in addition to the vicissitudes of St. Benedict.

The Book II (second) tells the entry into Italy (with a description of the peninsula), the conquest of Pavia by the dawn, the intrigue of the wife Rosmunda and the assassination of the beloved king, and the death of the Reicidi.

The Book III (third) begins narrandoci some vicerde of the ten years of Anarchy of Dukes, It tells us part of the traverses of the Empire of Constantinople, of the three invasions of Franche, Autari, who marries the Catholic Teodolinda, ne second marriage of this with Agilulf.

The Book IV (fourth) The reign of Agilulf and Rotati, from the sack of Cividale by the Avari, the brief tale of the family of Paolo, the conquest of the reign of Grimoald

The book V (fifth) continues the detailed narration of the difficult period of the reign, Grimoald defeated Franks and Byzantines, deceives the Avari and consolidates the kingdom. The chapter ends with the battle between Cunipert and Alachis.

The Book VI (sixth) Reparts from Cunipert, tells us of his reign but also extends to the Kingdom Franck, the Empire and the Saracens. Then comes the dispottic but capable Aripert, the long struggle with the noble Ansprand, the father of Liutprand, the last of which the author speaks to us, because Paul, disappointed, will leave the work conclude

I must specify the story is surely full of errors of translating because of the scribe; it is known that a copy of another copy produces often several mistakes. This problem will be solved only after the invention of printing press of Gutemberg. This is not a scientific text; even the author makes some mistakes in defining periods and peoples, and he often confuses the places; this is overall an important text because let us to discover those centuries by using a Langobardic point of view.

What is Origo Gents Langobardorum

This is a brief text in the edit of RotarI. Narrates the legend of the name given by a god and then briefly lists the various Longobard king.

Origo Gents Langobardorum

Origin of the Lomgobard people


1. Est insula qui dicitur Scadanan, quod interpretatur excidia, in partibus aquilonis, ubi multae gentes habitant; inter quos erat gens parva quae Winnilis vocabatur. Et erat cum eis mulier nomine Gambara, habebatque duos filios, nomen uni Ybor et nomen alteri Agio; ipsi cum matre sua nomine Gambara principatum tenebant super Winniles. Moverunt se ergo duces Wandalorum, id est Ambri et Assi, cum exercitu suo, et dicebant ad Winniles: " Aut solvite nobis tributa, aut praeparate vos ad pugnam et pugnate nobiscum". Tunc responderunt Ybor et Agio cum matre sua Gambara: "Melius est nobis pugnam praeparare, quam Wandalis tributa persolvere". Tunc Ambri et Assi, hoc est duces Wandalorum, rogaverunt Godan, ut daret eis super Winniles victoriam. Respondit Godan dicens: "Quos sol surgente antea videro, ipsis dabo victoriam". Eo tempore Gambara cum duobus filiis suis, id est Ybor et Agio, qui principes erant super Winniles, rogaverunt Fream, uxorem Godam, ut ad Winniles esset propitia. Tunc Frea dedit consilium, ut sol surgente venirent Winniles et mulieres eorum crines solutae circa faciem in similitudinem barbae et cum viris suis venirent. Tunc luciscente sol dum surgeret, giravit Frea, uxor Godan, lectum ubi recumbebat vir eius, et fecit faciem eius contra orientem, et excitavit eum. Et ille aspiciens vidit Winniles et mulieres ipsorum habentes crines solutas circa faciem; et ait: "Qui sunt isti longibarbae" ? Et dixit Frea ad Godan: "Sicut dedisti nomen, da illis et victoriam". Et dedit eis victoriam, ut ubi visum esset vindicarent se et victoriam haberent. Ab illo tempore Winnilis Langobardi vocati sunt.

2. Et moverunt se exhinde Langobardi, et venerunt in Golaidam, et postea possiderunt Aldonus Anthaib et Aainaib seu et Burgundaib; et dicitur, quia fecerunt sibi regem nomine Agilmund, filium Agioni, ex genere Gugingus. Et post ipsum regnavit Laiamicho ex genere Gugingus. Et post ipsum regnavit Lethuc, et dicitur, quia regnasset annos plus minus quadraginta. Et post ipsum regnavit Aldihoc, filius Lethuc. Et post ipsum regnavit Godehoc.

3. Illo tempore exivit rex Audoachari de Ravenna cum exercitu Alanorum, et venit in Rugilanda et inpugnavit Rugos, et occidit Theuvane regem Rugorum, secumque multos captivos duxit in Italiam. Tunc exierunt Langobardi de suis regionibus, et habitaverunt in Rugilanda annos aliquantos.

4. Post eum regnavit Claffo, filius Godehoc. Et post ipsum regnavit Tato, filius Claffoni. Sederunt Langobardi in campis feld annos tres. Pugnavit Tato cum Rodolfo rege Herulorum, et occidit eum, tulit vando ipsius et capsidem. Post eum Heruli regnum non habuerunt. Et occidit Wacho, filius Unichis, Tatonem regem barbanem suum cum Zuchilone. Et pugnavit Wacho, et pugnavit Ildichis, filius Tatoni, et fugit Ildichis ad Gippidos, ubi mortuus est. Iniuria vindicanda Gippidi Scandalum commiserunt cum Langobardis. Eo tempore inclinavit Wacho suavos sub regno Langobardorum. Wacho habuit uxores tres: Raicundam, filia Fisud regis Turingorum; et postea accepit uxorem Austrigusa, filiam Gippidorum; et habuit Wacho de Austrigusa filias duas, nomen unae Wisigarda, quam tradidit in matrimonium Theudiperti regis francorum; et nomen secundae Walderada, quam habuit uxorem Scusuald rex francorum, quam odio habens, tradidit eam Garipald in uxorem. Filia regis Herulorum tertiam uxorem habuit nomen Silinga; de ipsa habuit filium nomine Waltari. Mortuus est Wacho, et regnavit filius ipsius Waltari annos septem; Farigaidus: isti omnes Lethinges fuerunt.

5. Et post Waltari regnavit Auduin; ipse adduxit Langobardos in Pannonia. Et regnavit Albuin, filius ipsius, post eum, cui mater est Rodelenda. Eo tempore pugnavit Albuin cum rege Gippidorum nomine Cunimund, et mortuus est Cunimund in ipsa pugna, et debellati sunt Gippidis. Tulit Albuin uxore Rosemunda, filia Cunimundi, quae praedaverat, quia iam mortua fuerat uxor ipsius Flutsuinda, quae fuit filia Flothario regis Francorum; de qua habuit filia nomine Albsuinda. Et habitaverunt Langobardi in Pannonia annis quadraginta duo. Ipse Albuin adduxit Langobardos in Italia, invitatos a Narsete scribarum; et movit Albuin rex Langobardorum de Pannonia mense aprilis a pascha indictione prima. Secunda vero indictione coeperunt praedare in italia. Tertia autem indictione factus est dominus Italiae. Regnavit Albuin in Italia annos tres, et occisus est in Verona in palatio ab Hilmichis et Rosemunda uxore sua per consilium Peritheo. Voluit regnare Hilmichis, et non potuit, quia volebant eum Langobardi occidere. Tunc mandavit Rosemunda ad Longinum praefectum, ut eam reciperet Ravenna. Mox ut audivit Longinus, gavisus est, misit navem angarialem, et tulerunt Rosemunda et Hilmichis et Albsuindam, filia Albuin regis, et omnes thesauros Langobardorum secum duxerunt in Ravenna. Tunc ortare coepit Longinus praefectus Rosemunda, ut occideret Hilmichis et esset uxor Longini. Audito consilium ipsius, temperavit venenum, et post valneum dedit ei in caldo bibere. Cumque bibisset Hilmichis, intellexit, quod malignum bibisset; praecepit, ut ipsa Rosemunda biberet invita; et mortui sunt ambo. Tunc Longinus praefectus tulit thesauros Langobardorum, et Albsuinda, filia Albuin regis, iussit ponere in navem et transmisit eam Constantinopolim ad imperatorem.

6. Reliqui Langobardi levaverunt sibi regem nomine Cleph de Beleos, et regnavit Cleph annos duos, et mortuus est. Et iudicaverunt duces Langobardorum annos duodecim; posthaec levaverunt sibi regem nomine Autarine, filio Claffoni; et accepit autari uxorem Theudelenda, filia Garipald et Walderade de Baiuaria. Et venit cum Theudelenda frater ipsius nomine Gundoald, et ordinavit eum autari rex ducem in civitatem Astense. Et regnavit Autari annos septem. Et exivit Acquo dux Turingus de Thaurinis, et iunxit se Theudelendae reginae, et factus est rex Langobardorum; et occidit duces revelles suos, Zangrolf de Verona, Mimulf de insula sancti iuliani et Gaidulf de Bergamum, et alios qui revelles fuerunt; et genuit Acquo de Theodelenda filiam nomine Gunperga. Et regnavit Acquo annos VI. Et post ipso regnavit Aroal annos duodecim. Et post ipso regnavit Rothari ex genere Arodus, et rupit civitatem vel castra romanorum quae fuerunt circa litora apriso lune usque in terra Francorum quam ubitergium ad partem orienti, et pugnavit circa fluvium Scultenna, et ceciderunt a parte romanorum octo milia numerus.

7 Et regnavit Rothari annos decem et septem. Et post ipsum regnavit Aripert annos novem. Et post ipsum regnavit Grimoald. Eo tempore exivit Constantinus imperator de Constantinopolim, et venit in partes Campaniae, et regressus est in Sicilia, et occisus est a suis. Et regnavit Grimoald annos novem; et post regnavit Berthari.

Historia Langobardorum

The history of the Longobards


Paul Deacon

Latin text

Liber Primo

First book

1. Septemtrionalis plaga quanto magis ab aestu solis remota est et nivali frigore gelida, tanto salubrior corporibus hominum et propagandis est gentibus coaptata; sicut econtra omnis meridiana regio, quo solis est fervori vicinior, eo semper morbis habundat et educandis minus est apta mortalibus. Unde fit, ut tantae populorum multitudìnes arctoo sub axe oriantur, ut non inmerito universa illa regio Tanai tenus usque ad occiduum, licet et propriis loca in ea singula nuncupentur nominibus, generali tamen vocabulo Germania vocitetur; quamvis et duas ultra Rhenum provincias Romani, cum ea loca occupassent, superiorem inferioremque Germaniam dixerint. Ab hac ergo populosa Germania saepe innumerabiles captivorum turmae abductae meridianis populis pretio distrahuntur. Multae quoque ex ea, pro eo quod tantos mortalìum germinat, quantos alere vix sufficit, saepe gentes egressae sunt, quae nihilominus et partes Asiae, sed maxìme sibi contiguam Europam afflixerunt. Testantur hoc ubique urbes erutae per totam lllyricum Galliamque, sed maxime miserae Italiae, quae paene omnium illarum est gentium experta saevitiam. Gothi siquidem Wandalique, Rugi, Heruli atque Turcilingi, necnon etiam et aliae feroces et barbarae nationes e Germania prodierunt. Pari etiam modo et Wìnilorum, hoc est Langobardorum, gens, quae postea in Italia feliciter regnavit, a Germanorum populis originem ducens, licet et aliae causae egressionis eorum asseverentur, ab insula quae Scadinavia dicitur adventavit.

2. Cuius ìnsulae etiam Plinius Secundus in libris quos De Natura Rerum conposuit, mentionem facit. Haec igitur insula, sicut retulerunt nobis qui eam lustraverunt, non tam in mari est posita, quam marinis fluctibus propter planitiem marginum terras ambientibus circumfusa. Intra hanc ergo constituti populi dum in tantam multitudinem pullulassent, ut iam simul habitare non valerent, in tres, ut fertur, omnem catervam partes dividentes, quae ex illis pars patriam relinquere novasque deberet sedes exquirere, sono perquirunt.

3. Igitur ea pars, cui sors dederat genitale solum excedere exteraque arva sectari, ordinatis super se duobus ducibus, Ibor scilicet et Aione, qui et germani erant et iuvenili aetate floridi et ceteris praestantiores, ad exquirendas quas possint incolere terras sedesque statuere, valedicentes suis simul et patriae, iter arripiunt. Horum erat ducum mater nomine Gambara, mulier quantum inter suos et ingenio acris et consiliis provida; de cuius in rebus dubiis prudentia non minimum confidebant.

4. Haud ab re esse arbitror, paulisper narrandi ordinem postponere, et quia adhuc stilus in Germania vertitur, miraculum, quod illic apud omnes celebre habetur, sed et quaedam alia, breviter intimate. In extremis circìum versus Germaniae finibus, in ipso Oceani litore, antrum sub eminenti rupe conspicitur, ubi septem viri, incertum ex quo tempore, longo sopiti sopore quiescunt, ita inlaesis non solum corporibus, sed etiam vestimentis, ut ex hoc ipso, quod sine ulla per tot annorum curricula corruptione perdurant, apud indociles easdem et barbaras nationes veneratione habeantur. Hi denique, quantum ad habitum spectat, Romani esse cernuntur. E quibus dum unum quidam cupiditate stimulatus vellet exuere, mox eius, ut dicitur, brachia aruerunt, poenaque sua ceteros perterruit, ne quis eos ulterius contingere auderet. Videris, ad quod eos profectum per tot tempora providentia divina conservet. Fortasse horum quandoque, quia non aliter nisi Christiani esse putantur, gentes illae praedicatione salvandae sunt.

5. Huic loco Scritobini, sic enìm gens illa nominatur, vicini sunt. Qui etiam aestatis tempore nivibus non carent, nec aliud, utpote feris ipsis ratione non dispares, quam crudis agrestium animantium carnibus vescuntur; de quorum etiam hirtis pellibus sibi indumenta coaptant. Hi a saliendo iuxta linguam barbaram ethimologiam ducunt. Saltibus enim utentes, arte quadam ligno incurvo ad ar- cus similìtudinem feras assequuntur. Apud hos est animal cervo non satis absimile, de cuius ego corio, ut fuerat pilis hispidum, vestem in modum tunicae genu tenus aptatam conspexi, sicut iam fati, ut relatum est, Scritobini, utuntur. Quibus in locis circa aestivale solstitium per aliquot dies etiam noctu clarissima lux cernitur, diesque ibi multo maiores quam alibi habentur; sicut e contrario circa brumale solstitium, quamvis diei lux adsit, sol tamen ibi non videtur, diesque minimi, quam usquam alibi, noctes quoque longiores existunt; quia scilicet, quanto magis a sole longius disceditur, tanto sol ipse terrae vicinior apparet et umbrae longiores excrescunt. Denique in Italia, sicut et antiqui scripserunt, circa diem Natalis Domini novem pedes in umbra slaturae humanae hora sexta metiuntur. Ego autem in Gallia Belgica in loco qui Totonis villa dicitur constitutus, status mei umbram metiens, decem et novem et semis pedes inveni. Sic quoque contrario modo, quanto propinquius meridiem versus ad solem acceditur, tantum semper umbrae breviores videntur, in tantum ut solstitio aestivali, respiciente sole de medio caeli, in Aegypto et Hierosolimis et in eorum vicinitate constitutis locis nullae videantur umbrae. In Arabia vero hoc ipso tempore sol supra medium caeli ad partem aquilonis cernitur, umbraeque versa vice contra meridiem videntur.

6. Nec satis procul ab hoc de quo praemisimus litore, contra occidentalem partem, qua sine fine Oceanum pelagus patet, profundissima aquarum illa vorago est, quam usitato nomine maris umbilicum vocamus. Quae bis in die fluctus absorbere et rursum evomere dicitur, sicut per universa illa litora accedentibus ac recedentibus fluctibus celeritate nimia ficri comprobatur. Huiusmodi vorago sive vertigo a poeta Virgilio Carybdis appellatur; quam ille in freto Siculo esse suo in carmine loquitur, hoc modo dicens:

Dextrum Scylla latus, laevum implacata Carybdis

Obsidet, atque imo baratri ter gurgite vastos

Sorbet in abruptum fluctus, rursusque sub auras

Erigit alternos, et sidera verberat unda.