hints for reading ... Animal Farm   George Orwell - Carla Aira - ebook

Questi brevi testi vogliono introdurre gli studenti alla letteratura dei classici in lingua inglese, inserendoli nel proprio con testo storico letterario senza tralasciare i cenni più importanti sulla vita dell'autore.These brief notes aim to introduce students to classics by writers belonging to the English speaking world. All these works are analysed in their social, historical and literary period.

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20th Century -  until 1950s​

historical background


From 1906 to the 1st World War Home Policy. It was a period of moderate rule and great social reforms under George V. 1906: The Liberal Party wins the general elections.1911: The money Bill is signed1912: The National Insurance Scheme is approved; it assures the workers a sum against sickness and unemploymentForeign Policy - Ireland gets the Home rule (an independent Parliament) but the Protestants in Ulster do not want to be included in the scheme. The Sinn Fein (in Celtic language: ourselves alone) is created by the Catholics.1916: at Easter, the members of the Sinn Fein rebel in Dublin calling complete independence, but they are defeated and executed (Easter Rising). Subsequently they form an Army, the Irish Republican Army or IRA that uses terrorist methods. The English parliament decides not to move directly against them because it understands the importance of the support of small nations during the 1st World War. A police force, the “Black and Tans” is sent to sedate the rebels.1st World War -Britain and Germany ally against France. But William II of Germany wants to challenge Britain on the sea and tries to get influence on the Balkan States. This represents a danger for Russia for the control of the Mediterranean and for England as in this way Germany can assert itself on Egypt and India. So Britain starts an alliance with France (Entente Cordiale) and Russia (that supports Serbia).1917: Russia collapses because of the Bolshevik Revolution1918: The Peace Treaty is signed In Versailles and the League of Nations is founded in Geneva.Between the two WarsHome Policy - The war has left heavy economic consequences: the value of the money falls; the taxes rise; there are difficulties in transports because of the loss of shipping and machineries; the exportation of coal diminishes and the iron, steel an textile industries decline, while the U.S.A. and Japan develop economically.1926: the workers go on strike because of the reduction of their wages. 1918: the Liberal Party disappears and is substituted by the Labour Party1921: the women over thirty get the vote.1922 to 2nd world war: The Conservative Party detains the power.1928: the women over twenty-one get the vote.1929: Economic breakdown, famous all over the world as Wall Street Crash.1936: Edward VIII is crowned, but his reign only lasts ten months because he abdicates to marry Wally Simpson, an American divorcee. George VI comes on the throne.England does not intervene in the Spanish Civil war.1938: England and French form a coalition.Foreign Policy - England has to face troubles in the colonies. Ireland claims its independence and the Dominions ask to be legally recognised.1921: Great Britain recognises Ireland as a free state in the British Commonwealth of Nations1926: The countries first colonised by Great Britain become autonomous1931: The Dominions get legal recognition in the Statute of Westminster.1935: thanks to Gandhi, India becomes a federation of self-governing provinces (India Act)