Wydawca: Narim Bender Kategoria: Humanistyka Język: angielski Rok wydania: 2015

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Opis ebooka Guercino: 176 Paintings and Drawings - Narim Bender

Giovanni Francesco Barbieri (1591 – 1666), best known as Guercino, or Il Guercino, was an Italian Baroque painter and draftsman from the region of Emilia, and active in Rome and Bologna. The vigorous naturalism of his early manner is in contrast to the classical equilibrium of his later works. His many drawings are noted for their luminosity and lively style. Guercino was remarkable for the extreme rapidity of his executions: he completed no fewer than 106 large altarpieces for churches, and his other paintings amount to about 144. He was also a prolific draftsman. His production includes many drawings, usually in ink, washed ink, or red chalk. Most of them were made as preparatory studies for his paintings, but he also drew landscapes, genre subjects, and caricatures for his own enjoyment. Guercino's drawings are known for their fluent style in which "rapid, calligraphic pen strokes combined with dots, dashes, and parallel hatching lines describe the forms".

Opinie o ebooku Guercino: 176 Paintings and Drawings - Narim Bender

Fragment ebooka Guercino: 176 Paintings and Drawings - Narim Bender

Guercino:

176 Paintings and Drawings

By Narim Bender

––––––––

First Edition

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Guercino: 96 Paintings and Drawings

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Copyright © 2015 Narim Bender

Table of Contents

Title Page

Copyright Page

Foreword

Paintings

Drawings and Prints

Foreword

Giovanni Francesco Barbieri (1591 – 1666), best known as Guercino, or Il Guercino, was an Italian Baroque painter and draftsman from the region of Emilia, and active in Rome and Bologna. The vigorous naturalism of his early manner is in contrast to the classical equilibrium of his later works. His many drawings are noted for their luminosity and lively style.

Guercino was remarkable for the extreme rapidity of his executions: he completed no fewer than 106 large altarpieces for churches, and his other paintings amount to about 144. He was also a prolific draftsman. His production includes many drawings, usually in ink, washed ink, or red chalk. Most of them were made as preparatory studies for his paintings, but he also drew landscapes, genre subjects, and caricatures for his own enjoyment. Guercino's drawings are known for their fluent style in which "rapid, calligraphic pen strokes combined with dots, dashes, and parallel hatching lines describe the forms".

He was born in Cento, a village between Bologna and Ferrara. At an early age he acquired the nickname Guercino (Italian for 'squinter') because he was cross-eyed. Mainly self-taught, at the age of 16, he worked as apprentice in the shop of Benedetto Gennari, a painter of the Bolognese School. By 1615, he moved to Bologna, where his work was praised by Ludovico Carracci. Guercino painted two large canvases, Elijah Fed by Ravens and Samson Seized by Philistines, for Cardinal Serra, a Papal Legate to Ferrara. These paintings have a stark naturalist Caravaggesque style, although it is unlikely that Guercino saw any of the Roman Caravaggios first-hand.

The Arcadian Shepherds (Et in Arcadia ego) was painted in 1618 at the same time of The Flaying of Marsyas by Apollo in Palazzo Pitti. Its dramatic composition is typical of Guercino's early works, which are often tumultuous. He often claimed that his early style was influenced by a canvas of Annibale Carracci in Cento. Some of his later works are closer to the style of his contemporary Guido Reni, and are painted with more lightness and clearness.

He was recommended by Marchese Enzo Bentivoglio to the Bolognese Ludovisi Pope, Pope Gregory XV. The years he spent in Rome, 1621–23, were very productive. From this period are his frescoes Aurora at the casino of the Villa Ludovisi, the ceiling in San Crisogono (1622) of San Chrysogonus in Glory, the portrait of Pope Gregory XV, and The Burial of Saint Petronilla or St. Petronilla Altarpiece for the Vatican, which is considered his masterpiece. After the death of Gregory XV, Guercino returned to his hometown. In 1626, he began his frescoes in the Duomo of Piacenza. The details of his career after 1629 are well documented in the account book, the Libro dei Conti di Casa Barbieri, that Guercino and his brother Paolo Antonio Barbieri kept updated, and which has been preserved. Between 1618 and 1631, Giovanni Battista Pasqualini produced 67 engravings that document the early production of Guercino, which is not included in the Libro dei Conti. In 1642, following the death of Guido Reni, Guercino moved his busy workshop to Bologna and become the city's principal painter.

Guercino continued to paint and teach until his death in 1666.

Paintings

God the Father and Angel, 1620, Oil on canvas

Detail

Detail

Christ and the Woman of Samaria, 1620, Oil on canvas

Detail

Detail

Detail

The Woman taken in Adultery, 1621, Oil on canvas

Detail

Detail

Detail

Landscape with Bathing Women, 1621, Oil on canvas

Detail

Madonna and Child, 1622, Oil on canvas

Detail

Saint Matthew and the Angel, 1622, Oil on canvas

Detail

Pope Gregory XV, 1623, Oil on canvas

Detail

Burial of Saint Petronilla, 1623

Detail

Detail

Detail

Cleopatra and Octavian, 1630, Oil on canvas

Detail

Detail

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Esther before Ahasuerus, 1639, Oil on canvas

Detail

Detail

Detail

Death of Cleopatra, 1648, Oil on canvas

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Detail

The Persian Sibyl, 1648, Oil on canvas

Detail

Mars with Cupid, 1649, Oil on canvas

Detail

St. Cecilia, 1649, Oil on canvas

Detail

David with the Head of Goliath, 1650

Detail

Detail

Detail

The Dead Christ Mourned by Two Angels

1617-18, Oil on copper

In this picture, pure red and blue in the angel's sleeve and the sky, and pure white and black paint, are intermixed and blended with an earth colour to produce a wonderful range of ashen violets and misty ochres, against which the body of Christ on his luminous shroud glows like a golden-tinged pearl. The subject is a free version of the traditional Venetian theme of two angels holding up the dead Christ beside his tomb for the viewer's pious meditation; it does not illustrate any biblical text. The wounds of Christ are discreetly suggested. Pathos arises from the juxtaposition of beauty with grief, of close observation in the studio with poetic invention, and the borderline between them is as blurred as the melting contours between flesh and stone, feather and cloud.

Et in Arcadia Ego

1618-22, Oil on canvas

This is one of Guercino's best-known paintings. It shows two young shepherds who have discovered a skull. The title could be interpreted as a sentence uttered by Death ("I too am in Arcadia"). But any moral significance to the work is lost in a moment of pure contemplation. Quotations from Correggio and Venetian art are completely in tune with the depth and sensitivity of feeling typical of Guercino. This painting is directly connected to the Apollo and Marsyas that Guercino carried out for the Grand Duke of Tuscany in 1618 (Galleria Palatina, Palazzo Pitti, Florence): both pictures include the same group of shepherds. It is assumed that the Barberini canvas could not have existed as an independent composition prior to the Florentine painting, and so must have been executed later. In this painting, Guercino transforms the rustic onlookers into protagonists in a self-sufficient moralizing theme. An effective exploration of the memento mori is attained by the addition of the skull, with its worm and fly, and the inscription Et in Arcadia ego. An early work of Guercino, the painting was executed before his Roman period (1621-23) and after his voyage to Venice, where this sort of moralizing allegory was quite popular. The canvas has been dated alternately to 1618 and 1622. The iconography of the memento mori in a pastoral setting, derived from the Ecologues of Virgil, was well known in Venetian and Roman art from the Renaissance onwards; yet here for the first time it is explicitly explained through the addition of the inscription.

Assumption of the Virgin

1623, Oil on canvas

The Vision of St Jerome

1619-20, Oil on copper

Christ Crowned with Thorns

1622, Oil on copper

A Donor Presented to the Virgin

1616, Oil on canvas

Guercino, one of the best known Bolognese artists of the generation after the Carracci, painted this altarpiece in 1616 for the church of San Agostino in his native town of Cento between Bologna and Ferrara. However uncertain the identification of the young donor with the son of a benefactor of the church (Giuseppe Gaetano Righetti?) may be, what is certain is that this is a key work in the master's youthful oeuvre. In it he follows a balanced compositional structure that had been developed earlier by the Carracci. The painting differs from a preparatory sketch - kept at Brera in Milan - by a stricter application of symmetry: both in the upper register, with the Madonna and the angels at the same height, and below, where Saints Louis of France, Joseph, Francis of Assisi and Augustine, the patron saint of the church in question, direct Mary's attention on both sides to the donor, and in the other direction point his devotion upwards to her in a double arc.

The balanced structure is echoed in the dialogue between the heavy pillar and the view into an airy distance in the middle, enlivened by the very varied lighting, gestures and expression of the figures. The drawing is accurate and the colour range sonorous, consonant with Guercino's reputation as both a great draughtsman and an excellent colourist, a reputation that he already enjoyed as a young man. Ludovico, the eldest of the Carracci, already praised Guercino for this, adding that he was a wonder of nature, who filled with amazement everyone who saw his work.

Despite its major impact on European art, the fame of Bolognese painting did not last. To a certain extent it was the victim of its success, when a sugary variant came to dominate the official religious art of the 19th century in the relatively uninspired form of the Saint-Sulpice style, placing the Bolognese school in an unfavourable light amongst leading 20th century artists and art historians. Whilst gaining new advocates after the Second World War, insufficient light has been placed on its role in the art history of the Low Countries. An unprejudiced viewing, not of a sugary, derivative work, but of an original masterpiece like this one, clearly shows this relative lack of attention to be unjustified.

Erminia Finds the Wounded Tancred

1618-19, Oil on canvas

The painting was commissioned in 1618 (significantly the date of the start of the Thirty Years War) by the famous mosaicist Marcello Provenzali da Cento, but was probably not finished by the painter until the following year. A seventeenth-century copy that is about ten centimetres wider, in a private collection in Paris in 1987, suggests that the left side of the painting, where the Parisian composition appears more developed, may have been cut off.

According to Torquato Tasso's account in Gerusalemme Liberata (canto XIX, 104-14), Tancred, after being wounded by Argante during the siege of Jerusalem, is helped by Vafrino. On removing Tancred's armor and discovering his wounds, he tells Erminia. Erminia tends her lover's bloody wounds with the braided tresses of her own hair. The depiction of the subject was influenced by two famous Christian themes: The Lament over the Dead Christ and St Sebastian Tended by Pious Women.