Germany – The Handbook for Foreign Companies and Founders - Yannik Süß - ebook

Germany – The Handbook for Foreign Companies and Founders ebook

Yannik Süss

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Opis

Germany is an especially attractive business location for many professionals; it is the biggest market within the European Union (EU) and in addition, worldwide the 4th largest industrial nation following the USA, Japan and China with a gross domestic product (GDP) of 2.7 billion Euros (status: 2013). The German economy is primarily focused on the provision of services as well as the automotive, chemical and electro-technology industries, whose products are internationally appraised with the quality seal "Made in Germany". Moreover, Germany is world renowned for its leading innovations and technology. This is especially due to the German talent for good organisation and diligent work ethic. The export trade plays an integral part within the German economy. Every fifth job position depends on foreign trade directly or indirectly. In 2009, Germany was the second biggest goods exporter worldwide, with an export volume of 1.121 million US-dollars, just after it was given the title of global export champion six times between 2003 and 2008. In total, Germany's share of the global market is about nine percent. Thanks to its dedication to export, hardly any other country is as tied in with the global economy and will continue its interest in open markets into the future. There are further important advantages, aside from these significant factors, that speak for Germany as a business location. For instance, it has a geographically central location within Central Europe, an outstanding transport network and many skilled and qualified workers. Worldwide Germans are known for their on-time delivery performance, discipline and quality. Furthermore, in addition to a high quality of life, a high legal and political safety is also offered.

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Germany – The Handbook for Foreign Companies and Founders

For all entrepreneurs and businesses who are planning a new chapter or expansion into Germany

Introduction

General

Short Historical Overview

Geography

Federal States (Bundesländer)

Gross Domestic Product (GDP)

Urban Agglomerations

Society

The Social System

Health Care System

Pension System

Education System

Job Market

Labour Law Fundamentals (Short Overview)

Federal Agency for Employment (Agentur für Arbeit)

Employer's Liability Insurance Associations (Berufsgenossenschaften)

Unions

Wage Agreements (Tarifverträge)

Minimum Wage

Entering Germany

Visa

Residence Permit for Founding a Business

Temporary Residence Permits for a self-employed Leading of a Business

Residence Permits for Employers

Law

Private Law

Public Law

Criminal and Procedural Law

Court Structures

Registry Courts

Commercial Register (Handelsregister)

Trade Register (Gewerberegister)

Offices, Authorities and Chambers (Ämter, Behörden und Kammern)

Trade Office (Gewerbeamt)

Tax Office (Finanzamt)

Industry and Commerce Chambers (Industrie- und Handelskammern)

Trade Chamber (Handwerkskammer)

Corporate Forms

Partnerships (Personengesellschaften)

The Trader as stated in the Commerce Law Book (Kaufmann im Sinne des Handelsgesetzbuches (HGB))

Individual Enterprises and registered Trader (Einzelunternehmen und eingetragener Kaufmann)

General Partnership (Offene Handelsgesellschaft (OHG))

Limited Partnership (Kommanditgesellschaft (KG))

Partnership Company (Partnerschaftsgesellschaft (PartG))

Silent Partnership (Stille Gesellschaft (StGes))

Tabularly Overview of Partnerships (Personengesellschaften)

Advantages and Disadvantages of Partnerships

Capital Corporations (Kapitalgesellschaften)

Partnership limited by shares (Gesellschaft mit beschränkter Haftung (GmbH))

Entrepreneurial Company (limited liability) Unternehmergesellschaft (haftungsbeschränkt)

Stock Company (Aktiengesellschaft (AG))

European Company (Europäische Gesellschaft (SE))

Tabularly Overview of Capital Corporations (Kapitalgesellschaften)

Advantages and Disadvantages of Capital Corporations (Kapitalgesellschaften)

Banks in Germany

Private Banks

Corporate Banks (Genossenschaftsbanken)

Saving Banks (Sparkassen)

Federal Financial Supervisory Authority (Bundesanstalt für Finanzdienstleistungen or BaFin)

European Central Bank (Europäische Zentralbank (EZB))

Important Points of Contact

Tax Consultant (Steuerberater)

Economic Auditor (Wirtschaftsprüfer)

Lawyer (Rechtsanwalt)

Notary (Notar)

Company Taxes (Unternehmenssteuern)

Corporation, Income and Trade Tax (Körperschafts-, Einkommens- und Gewerbesteuer)

Value Added Tax (Umsatzsteuer)

Purchase Tax (Intra-European movement of goods) (Erwerbssteuer (innergemeinschaftlicher Warenverkehr))

Import Sales Tax (Einfuhrumsatzsteuer)

Customs and Import Regulations (Zölle und Einfuhrbestimmungen)

Tax Optimisation (Steueroptimierung)

Carrying Losses Backwards or Forward (Verlustrücktragung / Verlustvortragung)

Interest Expenses (Zinsaufwendungen)

Linear Amortisation (Lineare Abschreibungen)

Interlocking Relationships (Konzept der Organschaft)

Bookkeeping (Buchführung)

Single and Double Entry Bookkeeping (Einfache und doppelte Buchführung)

Single-Entry Bookkeeping (Einfache Buchführung)

Double Entry Bookkeeping (Doppelte Buchführung)

Business Correspondence / Website

Opening of an Online Shop / E-Commerce

Brand Development in Germany

Financing

Subsidies (Fördermittel)

Investment Subsidies (Investitionszuschüsse)

Development Loans (Förderkredite)

Public Deficiency Guarantees (Öffentliche Ausfallbürgschaften)

Public Participations (Öffentliche Beteiligungen)

Company Insurances

Store Insurance (Geschäftsversicherung)

Business Interruption Insurance (Betriebsunterbrechungsversicherung)

Operating Costs Insurance (Betriebskostenversicherung)

Business Liability Insurance (Betriebshaftpflichtversicherung)

Financial Loss Liability Insurance (Vermögensschadenshaftpflichtversicherung)

Business Legal Protection Insurance (Gewerbliche Rechtsschutzversicherung)

Literatur- und Quellenverzeichnis

Impressum

Introduction

Germany is an especially attractive business location for many professionals; it is the biggest market within the European Union (EU) and in addition, worldwide the 4th largest industrial nation following the USA, Japan and China with a gross domestic product (GDP) of 2.7 billion Euros (status: 2013). The German economy is primarily focused on the provision of services as well as the automotive, chemical and electro-technology industries, whose products are internationally appraised with the quality seal “Made in Germany”. Moreover, Germany is world renowned for its leading innovations and technology. This is especially due to the German talent for good organisation and diligent work ethic.

The export trade plays an integral part within the German economy. Every fifth job position depends on foreign trade directly or indirectly. In 2009, Germany was the second biggest goods exporter worldwide, with an export volume of 1.121 million US-dollars, just after it was given the title of global export champion six times between 2003 and 2008. In total, Germany's share of the global market is about nine percent. Thanks to its dedication to export, hardly any other country is as tied in with the global economy and will continue its interest in open markets into the future.

There are further important advantages, aside from these significant factors, that speak for Germany as a business location. For instance, it has a geographically central location within Central Europe, an outstanding transport network and many skilled and qualified workers. Worldwide Germans are known for their on-time delivery performance, discipline and quality. Furthermore, in addition to a high quality of life, a high legal and political safety is also offered.

General

Form of Government:Federal Parliamentary RepublicPresident:Frank-Walter SteinmeierChancellor:Angela MerkelOfficial Language:GermanCurrency:EuroCapital and Seat of the Parliament:BerlinTime zone:

UTC+1, Central European Time Zone (CET)

UTC+2, Central European Summer Time Zone (CEST)

(March to October)

Climate:Moderate ClimatePopulation:82.67 m (Status: 2016)Population Density:227 residents per km2Area:357,376 km2

Short Historical Overview

The German Empire arose from Charlemagne's Francia, who had been crowned King of the Franks in 768. In 1871 the German Empire was founded, for which Otto von Bismarck became Chancellor. After World War I the first German democracy came into being, the Weimar Republic, which ended with the appointment of Adolf Hitler as the Chancellor in 1933. The national-socialist dictatorship started which was responsible for the Holocaust as well as World War II in 1939-1945. When Germany capitulated in 1945, it was divided into four occupation zones by the victorious Allies: the USA, France, Great Britain and the Soviet Union.

After four years the Federal Republic of Germany was founded out of the three western occupation zones (23 May 1949) and Konrad Adenauer became its first chancellor. The capital back then was the Federal City of Bonn. Within the same year, the soviet occupation zone became the German Democratic Republic (GDR, or Deutsche Demokratische Repulik, short DDR in German), in which the Socialist Unity Party Germany established itself. The building of the Berlin Wall in 1961 by the Soviet Union is symbolic for the East-West conflict. The Wall and its death strips were erected to stop the inhabitants of the GDR from fleeing to the Federal Republic of Germany in the west. In 1989, after a peaceful revolution and a serious misunderstanding at a press conference, the wall fell on the evening of November 9th. Two months later, the Ministry of State Security (“Stasi”) of the GDR was officially dissolved and the first free election of the GDR was held in March. The official German Reunification followed on the 3rd of October 1990, which is to this date the national holiday and is celebrated all over Germany. On this day the GDR joined the Federal Republic of Germany and the eleven old and five new states formed the current 16 federal states (Bundesländer). Berlin became the capital in 1991.

Geography

Germany is located in Central Europe and borders

●in the North 67km length with Denmark

●in the North-East 442km length with Poland

●in the East 811km length with the Czech Republic

●in the South-East 815km length with Austria

●in the South 316km length with Switzerland

●in the South-West 448km length with France

●in the West 135km length with Luxembourg as well as 156km length with Belgium

●in the North-West 567km length with the Netherlands.

With this it has the most neighbouring states in Europe.

Federal States (Bundesländer)

The importance of the autonomy of the federal states (Bundesländer) has to be pointed out here. The Federation of Germany is made up of 16 federal states, which used to be independent kingdoms that first economically joined together and then later politically joined together as the German Empire in 1871. For this reason, the previous kingdoms and now federal states still have autonomous decision power in the German legal system. If the German government, as the law-maker, introduces a law, it overrules all laws of the federal states which might be in contradiction to it. If there is not, however, each federal state can make their own. Therefore rules and regulations might be different depending on which federal state you are located in.

Germany has the following federal states, which are also known as Bundesländer or short Länder:

Federal StateFederal State Capital

Area

(km2)

Population

(Status: 2014)

Schleswig-HolsteinKiel15.8002.815.955Mecklenburg-VorpommernSchwerin23.2111.596.505HamburgHamburg7551.734.272BremenBremen419654.774Niedersachen (Lower Saxony)Hannover47.6147.790.559BrandenburgPotsdam29.6552.449.193BerlinBerlin8923.452.911Sachsen-Anhalt (Saxony-Anhalt)Magdeburg20.4522.244.577Nordrhein-Westfalen (North-Rhine-Westphalia)Düsseldorf34.11017.571.856Sachsen (Saxony)Dresden18.4204.046.385Thüringen (Thuringia)Erfurt16.1732.160.840HessenWiesbaden21.1156.045.425Rheinland-Pfalz (Rhineland –Palatinate)Mainz19.8543.994.366SaarlandSaarbrücken2.569990.718Bayern (Bavaria)München (Munich)70.55012.604.244Baden-WürttembergStuttgart35.75110.631.278

Gross Domestic Product (GDP)

Federal StateGDPNordrhein-Westfalen669.676 Mio. EuroBayern567.972 Mio. EuroBaden-Württemberg476.760 Mio. EuroHessen269.390 Mio. Euro.Niedersachsen264.087 Mio. EuroRheinland-Pfalz139.452 Mio. EuroBerlin129.454 Mio. EuroSachsen118.457 Mio. EuroHamburg110.674 Mio. EuroSchleswig-Holstein89.227 Mio. EuroBrandenburg68.508 Mio. EuroThüringen60.843 Mio. EuroSachsen-Anhalt59.378 Mio. EuroMecklenburg-Vorpommern41.429 Mio. EuroSaarland35.103 Mio. EuroBremen32.259 Mio. Euro

(Status: 2016)

Urban Agglomerations

From an economic point of view the following urban agglomerations are of interest:

CityImportant Economic SectorsLarge CompaniesBerlinCreative and cultural economy, tourism, medical technology, biotechnology, pharmaceutical industry, construction industry, retail industry, energy technology, media, information and communication technology, air traffic, servicesDeutsche Bahn AG, Siemens AG, Dussmann Stiftung & Co. KGaA, Vattenfall GmbH, Air BerlinHamburgVehicle/shipbuilding industry, chemistry, electrical engineering, banks, insurances, media, mineral oil business, aviation industry, logistics (port), tourism, air traffic, servicesBeiersdorf AG, Hawesko Holding AG, Tom Tailor Holding AG, Fielmann AG, Hamburger Hafen und Logistik AGMunichElectrical engineering, software/IT industry, vehicle and mechanical engineering, tourism, publishing, radio and television, biotechnology, air traffic, servicesBMW AG, Siemens AG, Bayerischer Rundfunk, Tele München Gruppe, Sky Deutschland, Burda Verlag, C.H. Beck VerlagCologne/BonnAutomobile trade and engineering, radio and television, chemistry, banks, insurances, media, tourism, biotechnology/life-science, mechanical engineering, servicesWestdeutscher Rundfunk, RTL Group, BioComp, Ford AG, MCM Klosterfrau, Akzo Nobel Functional Chemicals GmbH, Procter & Gamble (P&G), Deutsche Telekom, HARIBO, Postbank, DHLFrankfurt am MainStock market, banks, insurances, chemistry/pharmaceutical industry, logistics, air traffic, media, automotive industry, software/IT industry, tourism, servicesDeutsche Börse AG, Deutsche Lufthansa AG, FrankfurtRheinMain GmbH, Helaba Konzern, KfW Bankengruppe, Nestlé Deutschland AG

Society

The Social System