English Readings - Luise Hakasi - ebook

English Readings ebook

Luise Hakasi



E-Buch mit diversen Artikeln zum Lesen in englischer Sprache.Englisch als Fremdsprache, weltweit gesprochen und akzeptiert, unersetzlich im heutigen Leben. Um am wirklichen Leben teilhaben zu können, sind außer Grammatik und Grundstruktur einer Sprache ebenso Redeflüssigkeit, Hörverständnis und Leseverständnis wichtig, um z. B. Radionachrichten, Filme, Musik, TV-Shows verstehen und Bücher, Artikel in Zeitschriften oder im Internet lesen zu können. Ebenfalls sollten die Schreibfähigkeiten trainiert werden, denn auch sie werden in Sprachtests wie Cambridge, TOEFL, TOEIC, IELTS etc. überprüft.  Innerhalb eines effektiven Sprachunterrichtes sollten Lesetexte auf allen Leistungsstufen immer wieder trainiert werden Dieses E-Buch bietet bunt gestreute Texte aus verschiedenen Themenkreisen für interessante Readings; zum Selbstlernen, für Schüler, für Lehrer.E-book with various readings in English. English as a foreign language, worldwide spoken and accepted, is irreplaceable in today's life. In order to be able to participate in real life, as well as the grammatical and basic structure of a language, fluency, comprehension and reading comprehension are important to understand radio news, movies, music, TV shows and to read books, articles in magazines or on the internet. Writing skills should also be trained, because they will be tested for language certificates such as Cambridge, TOEFL, TOEIC, IELTS etc. Within an effective language class, reading texts should be trained again and again at all levels. This e-book offers texts from various topics for interesting readings; for self-study, for pupils, and for teachers.

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Luise Hakasi

English Readings

plus exercises - level basic, intermediate

BookRix GmbH & Co. KG80331 Munich

Let`s get started!

Englisch als Fremdsprache, weltweit gesprochen und akzeptiert, unersetzlich im heutigen Leben.


Um am wirklichen Leben teilhaben zu können, sind außer Grammatik und Grundstruktur einer Sprache ebenso Redeflüssigkeit, Hörverständnis und Leseverständnis wichtig, um z. B. Radionachrichten, Filme, Musik, TV-Shows verstehen und Bücher, Artikel in Zeitschriften oder im Internet lesen zu können. Ebenfalls sollten die Schreibfähigkeiten trainiert werden, denn auch sie werden in Sprachtests wie Cambridge, TOEFL, TOEIC, IELTS etc. überprüft.


Lesetexte („readings“) sollten mehrfach gelesen werden, am besten mit lauter Stimme. Viele Schüler müssen Texte nochmals leise lesen, um sie besser verstehen zu können; dies ist vollkommen normal. Nicht verstandene Worte sollten nun mit Textmarker oder Bleistift markiert werden, um danach ihre Bedeutung herauszufinden (Wörterbuch, Internet-Translater) und den Text insgesamt zu verstehen.


Greifen Sie als Sprachlehrer Fragen aus dem Text heraus, um einerseits das Textverständnis zu kontrollieren und andererseits Redeflüssigkeit und Spontanität der Schüler zu fördern. Lassen Sie bei Gruppen niemanden aus, sprechen Sie Schüler direkt an: „What do you think about it?“, „Is that right?“, „Why do you think so?“ etc.


Texte können kopiert und in Stücke geschnitten werden, um sie danach von den Sprachschülern in der richtigen Reihenfolge zusammensetzen zu lassen.


Man kann ebenfalls einen Teil des Textes (Anfang, Mittelstück, Schlussteil) herausnehmen und von den Schülern selbst schreiben lassen.


Lassen Sie Ihre Sprachschüler eine neue Überschrift oder Untertitel finden.


Wie wäre es mit „Leserkommentaren“? Sie sehen schon: Es gibt unzählige Möglichkeiten, mit Texten zu arbeiten, egal ob mit Anfängern oder Fortgeschrittenen.


Fast alle readings besitzen am Ende einige Ideen („exercises“) zum zweckmäßigen Arbeiten.

And now: Let`s get started! Have fun

Being Active at Night (walking/running/biking)The top aerobic exercises are walking, running, cycling and skating)


The top aerobic exercises are walking, running, cycling and skating. Fantastic cardiovascular exercises to lose fat, get in shape and stay fit. You can practice indoors or outdoors.

There are two fundamental points of importance: you have to enjoy it and it has to be safe, especially when you are going to practice at night. As there is a double risk for accidents at night, the most important, whatever sport you'll do: make yourself visible (day and night!). Don't let darkness spoil your exercise; but do take precautions.


Wear bright-colored, reflecting clothing (reflective high tech fabrics, safety vests, reflective tape or straps, shoes with reflecting details all with the purpose of making you highly visible at night. You can purchase glow sticks and flashing dog collars, too. Traffic can give you a hard time, though. If you consider some simple suggestions your night time athletics won't be hazardous but fun. Better mention again: Obey all traffic laws, signs, and signals.


When riding a bike:

Ride on the right side of the road Make sure to use hand signals for turning and stopping Always wear a helmet. It should be comfortable, fit well and meet Snell or American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standards. Have the correct bike size and keep your bike (incl. all mechanical parts, tires etc.) in good condition. No biking without lighting!! This is a must: white front light, red rear reflector (LED is best), possibly side reflectors. Flashing head lights are available for helmets too. A bell is also a good idea. When biking with a group, ride in one single file with minimum one bike length apart, don't weave. Keep both hands on the handlebars. Always be alert for vehicle drivers not seeing you or opening car doors. Slow down, give the right of way, walk your bike (when crossing) or even stop if necessary. Ride your bicycle only on authorized streets/highways, never on high-speed freeways or Interstate highways. Use bicycle paths whenever possible. Never hold onto another bicycle or any vehicle while riding a bicycle. Beware of drain or sewer gratings as they can stop you violently. Watch out for bumps, rocks, sand, mud, ice, oil, cans, bottles, leaves or soft shoulders, which can make your bike slip. Other dangers are low tree branches and traffic signs.


The local police department put together some further safety tips & warnings for outdoor exercise

Avoid walking or running alone, especially at night. Take human or canine company along with you! Let someone know where you are going and when you will be back. Confine walking or running to well lit, regularly traveled walks and pathways, like neighborhood or school tracks. Avoid short-cuts and stay away from bushes, alleys, or other areas where an assailant might be hiding in the dark. Do not wear headphones. Carry a whistle and a flashlight. If you are approached by a suspicious person or vehicle, run away in the opposite direction. Try to get a description of the person or license tag number and report the incident immediately to Campus Safety or the Police Department. Alter your walking or running schedule so there is no set pattern or time established. No need to be nervous, but you should always be alerted.




Experienced trainer reveals own tips: …

Tell about your favorite sport: …

What do you prefer: Running, biking or walking? Why?

Yoga for seniors


Many people come to yoga in search of new values, looking for peace and illumination, physical exercises and self knowledge. This is not surprising, as Yoga is easy to do and it’s a strong self-help method of total relaxing for people of all ages and abilities. Executing asanas and pranayamas is just a small part of the whole magnificent world of yoga with its many styles.

Yoga means union, union of mind and body, spiritual illumination and own perfection finally. It’s one of the world’s oldest branches in spiritual and physical exploration, started over 3,000 years ago in Tibet and India with the roots in philosophy and meditation.

For us today it’s a popular form of fitness that’s useful and beneficial for everyone, especially seniors who want to maintain flexibility and strength as they age.

Getting old means the body dries out, leaving us with wrinkles, thinning hair and skinny legs and/or serious disturbances like arthritis, sciatica, varicose veins, backaches, headaches, insomnia, constipation, confusion and memory loss in later years.

Our senior population is growing rapidly, living longer and in higher quality, but besides this suffering from muscular shortening, tightening and weakening, loss of flexibility and balance. As well inactivity can lead to heart diseases and osteoporosis, poor blood circulation, and can become a vicious cycle.

Chances associated with aging can be decrease in strength/cardiovascular capacity/metabolic rate/flexibility/reaction time, higher risk of osteoporosis (especially in menopausal women), connective tissue shortens and results in less stability and mobility, leg speed/strength of stride are reduced, sense of touch and pain sensitivity can be impaired and make us unaware when we exert too much pressure on a vulnerable joint.

Yoga can be the key out off this cycle as it has been shown to help alleviate or reduce many of these health problems and it can slow and reverse the aging process. Traditional classes sometimes can cause more harm that good and though the degeneration of the body sets some practice of milder forms of exercise without undergoing a high level of physical stress, such as: swimming, biking, stretching, Pilates, brisk walking instead of jogging and above all: yoga.

A lot of senior groups are formed basically by housewives, liberal professionals, retired teachers etc. They could be trained at any time of the day, preferably twice a week. Although some prefer more private, particular lessons.

Good teachers modify sun salutations, sitting poses, twists and other asanas, often with the aid of a chair or with props like Swiss balls, blankets, towels, brooms or even empty soda bottles, always paying attention on full breathing.

Since everyone is unique, it’s always recommended to listen to your inner voice and how you feel and respect your own limits.


Teaching yoga to seniors asks the teacher to

keep the class size smallcue body alignment and posturereduce time of length for which an asana is helduse English terms instead of the more difficult Sanskrit labelstrain your participants to focus their gaze on a spot to assist balancealways stretch 2 sidesbarefoot, in comfortable clothes and on a non-slippery surfacefocus on participants’ success, praise their effortsoffer various options for each posedon’t be afraid to use even unconventional props to assist balance and body alignmentfocus on poses with stretch and strengtheningdo not perform lots of complicated poses, but include at least onepose that is a bit more challenging as well as light form if necessarya complete medical exam)Of course: maintain proper fitness etiquette all the times!have patience mention contra-indicationsit’s always advisable to ask doctor before start exercising (best: haveget a term of responsibility incl. sicknesses, habits, goals etc. filled out and signed and do regular check-ups of italways concentrate on full breathing to keep the energy prana flowing


The benefits can be incredible:

Diabetes: decreases blood sugar levels approx. 10 %Lungs: improves lung capacity approx. 10 % and relieves 70 % of breathing difficulties in 30 minutesHypertension: decreases systolic and diastolic blood pressure and also resting heart rate.Decreases sugar, cholesterol and triglyceridesBenefits all organsProtects against coronary heart diseasesExcess weight: fights typical increase of 1 pound per year between the age of 45 and 55Chronic pain: alleviates and reduces, improvement after 4 weeks trainingIndicated for arthritis, bursitis, sciatica, varicose veins, rheumatism and vision problemsMood/anxiety: improvesOsteoporosis: strengthens bones, helps in menopauseInsomnia: enables to sleep peacefulIncreases stamina and energy levelSlows aging processImproves muscle tone, endurance and strength more than 100 % in 8 weeks increases stamina and energy levelsPrevents joints, tendons and ligaments from stiffing up, promoting a greater range of movementImproves balance and agility, reduces risks of injuries associated from falls or slipsImproves parasympathic nervous system and its whole operationImproves self-image and confidenceDecreases stress and tension levels with the release of bodily hormones, calmsOverall sense of well-being and achievement...the list is immense.

It’s possible to prevent perhaps as much as 50 % of functional decline by participating in regular yoga exercises. Gently yoga is safe, gradual and effective, exhilarating and encoring. The lifts, bends and other movements for the whole body have to be adjusted to fit each person’s unique need and can be done in bed, a chair, and wheelchair, bathtub, while lying down, sitting or standing.


Here are some suggested poses for an active senior Yoga class:

Breathing technique Kapalabhati for cleansing, replenishing and warming

Eays pose Sukhasana (straightens spine, slows down metabolism, promotes

inner tranquillity)

Cat pose Bidalasana (helps the back)

Downward dog pose Ardho Mukha Shvanasana (improves spine flexibility,

stretches hips, middle and lower body, prevents back problems. Remember: DO NOT USE with back pain or back injuries!)

Warrior position Virabhadrasana

Prayer posture Anjali mudra

Half spinal twist Ardha Marsyendrasana (lengthens and strengthens spine,

for kidneys and adrenal glands)

Locust pose Salabhasana (works on upper back, targets abdominal, arms and legs)

Inverted poses (work on cardiovascular system up to steady state)

Wind relieving pose Pavanamuktasana

Corpse pose Savasana (classic relaxation, final relaxation)


If you come out off breath simply relax in corpse pose until breathing has returned to normal.

A lot of positions (e.g. Ardho Mukha Svanasana, Urdha Mukha Svanasana,

Uttanasana, Anjali mudra etc.) can be chair-positions, too. Please put a pillow under dangling feet.

As well it’s recommended for seniors to begin their yoga exercise with slow, controlled motions. This phase can last for several weeks or longer depending on the individual. Warm up exercises like twists, arm swings, arches and stretches. Rotations (legs/feet, arms/hands) integrating breathing are a perfect preparation either in a standing position or sitting down.

Before embarking on any fitness program including yoga, it is always advisable having a medical check ups, especially if the person has been sedentary or has either (current) injuries or hereditary medical conditions.

Yoga for seniors can be an enormous challenge with lots of rewards and a great happiness as if they increase their vitality, opportunities and social contacts too. Aging is inevitable, but we can improve this process with yoga. It’s never to late to get started.

By the way: in India a senior/advanced yoga teacher must be at least fifty to qualify prestigious title and experience. Something to think about…




Have you ever tried yoga? Why or why not?

Describe your favorite yoga exercise: …

The principles of nutrition


The process by which insoluble food is broken down into soluble compounds is called digestion. It takes place in the mouth, in the stomach, in the small and in the large intestine.

Storage of food happens when the quantity of food is in excess of the amount required by the body. During the day you should eat

6 to 11 servings of bread, rice, cereals, pasta (carbohydrates for endurance)

3 to 5 servings of vegetables and 2 to 4 servings of fruits (vitamins and nutrients)

2 to 3 servings of meat, fish, nuts, eggs (protein), 2 to 3 servings of milk (protein and calcium) and fat/oil/sweets sparingly. This is called “food guide pyramid” (published by USDA US Department of agriculture)

and recommends strongly 58 % carbohydrates, 30 % of proteins, and 12 % fats for a normal person, more for athletes.


Carbohydrates are the main source of energy for the body, especially the brain and the nervous system. This category of food includes sugars, starches and fibers. The liver breaks down carbohydrates into glucose (blood sugar), which is used for energy by the body. “Carbos” are classified simple or complex, depending on the chemical structure and reflects how quickly the sugar is digested and absorbed. They are stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen. Excess is stored as fat!


Proteins are complex organic compounds. The basic structure of protein is a chain of amino acids. Protein is the main component of muscles, organs and glands. Every living cell and all body fluids, except bile and urine, contain protein. Children and adolescents need protein for growth and development. Proteins are described as essential and nonessential proteins or amino acids. The human requires approximately 20 amino acids for the synthesis of its proteins. The body can make only 13 of the amino acids – these are known as nonessential amino acids. There are 9 essential amino acids that are obtained only from food, and not made in the body. If the protein in a food supplies enough of the essential amino acids, it is called a complete protein.

Proteins perform as well several important functions, such as blood sugar, bones, hair, nails and chemical reactions.


Hydration is very important for numerous functions, well being and life. Remember: at least 8 cups (200 ml) of water per day, more while exercising or in hard conditions.


Vitamins are essential substances that must be consumed because the body is unable to manufacture them. They are required to maintain health and normal body functions and to prevent diseases. Some recommendations by the AHA (American Health Association):

Vitamin A for eyes, immune system (found in milk, eggs, liver, orange or green vegetables)

Vitamin C for cells, blood, bones, teeth, gums (in red berries, fruits and veggies)

for example 90 mg per day for men/75 for women

Vitamin D for bones (produced when sunlight falls on the skin)

Vitamin E (antioxidant) for cells (in many vegetables and whole grains)

Vitamin B 12 builds DNA (in fish, red meat, milk etc.)

Vitamin B 6 for brain and nerves (in nuts, seeds, bananas, beans etc.)

Vitamin B 1 Thiamin for energy, heart, muscles and nervous system (in bread, cereals, beans, pasta, soy products etc.)

Vitamin B 2 Riboflavin for red blood cells and energy (in meat, vegetables, nuts and dairy products)

Vitamin B 3 Niacin for energy and digestion (in red meat, fish, poultry)

Vitamin B 9 Folid/folic acid for red blood cells and DNA (in green veggies, citrus fruits etc.)

(The vitamins A,D,E,K are fat-soluble).

4 % of the body mass consists of minerals. They are classified as trace minerals (body requires less than 100 mg per day) or major minerals (more than 100 mg per day).

Trace minerals are: iron, zinc, copper, selenium, iodine, fluorine and chromium.

Major minerals are: sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sulfur and chlorine.

Just a few daily requirement samples:

men women

Calcium 1000 mg 200 mg

Sodium 1100 mg 3300 mg

Potassium 2000 mg 2000 mg

Iron 10 mg 15 mg

Magnesium 350 mg 280 mg

Copper 2 mg 2 mg etc.


A number of elements in our body produce oxidation such as sunlight and pollution leading to the production of dangerous chemical compounds called free radicals. Free radicals can lead to cell damage, finally causing aging and a variety of diseases including cancer. Antioxidants are molecules that can help to destroy the free radicals and help in the recovery of athletes. The main antioxidants are Vitamin E, beta-carotene (a precursor to vitamin A), Vitamin C, Selenium, green tea and Gingko Biloba.

Food supplements should not be given to children under 21 years or pregnant women!

Severe disturbing can be caused by any kind of drugs and sometimes hazardous side effects are found after consuming caffeine, alcohol and smoking.


You can find out your BMI (body mass index) by dividing your mass in kilogram by the square of your height in cm. The ideal is 20 to 22; over 30 is unhealthy.


To avoid zigzagging in a weight loss program you should avoid sweetened drinks, sauces and toppings, deep fried food and skip to fruits and vegetables. Carbohydrates and protein provide 4 calories per gram, fat 9 calories and alcohol 7 calories per gram. Your basic energy requirement (BER) is 1,3 calories for each kilogram of body weight per hour. Remember: fat does not turn into muscle!!! 2 pounds of fat (1 kg) are burnt by 7.000 calories of activity, approximately 25 hours walking or 12 hours of skipping …


So, don’t be a couch potato, get out there and do something!

Basic Nutrition


Do you have any idea what food pyramid means? It tells you what to eat and how much to eat every day. Nutritionists recommend 3 parts of carbohydrates, 2 parts of protein and 1 part of sugar and/or fat. But be honest: do you really do that? If not, you could start today. Our main energy source for the body is carbohydrates. This means, you shouldn’t skip breakfast and please, do not believe that noodles or bread make fat. This kind of food contains fibers, sugars and starches, which will be broken down to glucose that gives energy to the body. But watch out: too much is stocked as fat. The main component of muscles and organs are proteins. They’re in every tiny cell of you. Our body is not able to produce all the necessary amino acids for the synthesis of the proteins, so you have to take them. Fat and sugar should be used sparingly. Remember the hidden sugars in soda, salad sauce and industrialized food. One thing is really true: you are what you eat. If you want to be slim, you have to eat slim. If you eat fat ... An important factor for body functions is water. The recommendation is 1.5 liter at least. How about your vitamin level? In milk, eggs and veggies you find vitamin A (for eyes and immune system). Vitamin C for cells, bones, blood is found in fruits and vegetables. Vitamin D is as well produced by sunlight. Antioxidant vitamin E is in grains and veggies. B-vitamins are for brain, nerves, energy, heart and blood are provided by fish, nuts, beans, cereal and soy for example. Mineral intake varies for men and women. The most important are calcium, sodium, potassium, iron, magnesium and copper. If your diet does not provide sufficient quantities, you should think about supplements. However, the magic word is exercise. Your basic energy requirement is 1.3 calories for each kilogram or body weight per hour. If 1 pound of fat is burnt by 7.000 calories of activity, than you have to run about 20 hours to get it off. A body mass index (divide your mass in kilogram by the square of your height in cm) over 30 is unhealthy; the ideal is 20 to 22.




Strong and weak points in your nutrition: …

5 more ways to keep yourself fit: …


Youngster, listen…


Youngster, listen, the adolescence is a phase of life in which we should take advantage, because after it we are already adult. There's little time, because there aren't even ten years, a hard phase, therefore enjoy it well; enjoy the life because it's very short. One doesn't need to be a genius to know this, because one day you are a 10 year-old child and the other a youngster of 15, look, only 5 years pass and the change is enormous, time doesn't stop, therefore enjoy while you aren't even 18 years old still and live your life as an adolescent at its maximum because it passes fast!




Your tips for youngsters: …

Do you remember, what your parents always told you?


Life is good.

A self-help book with 500 tips that are really worth trying. Even if you won't use them all, you will find some good tips and tools for everyday. And I am sure: you will make changes!


La Vie en Rose by Dominique Glocheux

You only life once. Therefore you should enjoy every moment of this. This book helps you to discover the value of simple things and small hidden treasures, making live more beautiful. Let this manual take you by the hand for a trip inside yourself. You are going to wake up your feelings, ideas and sleeping desires. Open the door to your heart and the window to your spirit, now.


The author had put together more than 500 items. Here are 50 to try:

Be simpleBelieve in love at first sightTake a baby in your arms, it feels so goodGet a petDonate bloodEnjoy the silenceFollow your first intuition Make bubbles with chewing gumStretch like a cat in front of the fireplace or in the bedDo what you like most, alwaysGo to sleep at 9 p. m., once a weekHave always a bottle of champagne or wine in the refrigeratorDo your favorite hobbyLearn to name the starsDrive an agricultural tractor once in a lifetimeCall the people by the namePut a swing in the garden or a hammock on the porchAvoid to justify or prove your qualitiesNever begin a sentence with "I should not say that, but... "Write poemsUse olive oilBe daringBe more curious and ask more questionsNever fakeVisit historical placesDon't take everything too seriousSet your watch eight minutes aheadReserve moments of intimacy for yourselfGive a new nickname to your love, use it alwaysPick raspberries, blackberries, blueberries…Accept the life as it isClose your eyes and make a requestBegin to learn piano, zen-budism or dancingBe generous and reasonableMake decisionsNever try to be perfect. Never.Visit the AmazonLearn how to say "I love you” in different languagesBe your best friendTickle somebodyPlant a fruit tree, a palm tree or flowersDon't criticize the present that someone gave youPractice a sportClean your mindMake a calendar with objectivesPlay, with children, friends, animals...Have a good book close to the bedCount starsReinforce their strong points and get readyPerfume your house

This is really a good tips which gives countless useful tips. Even if you maybe won’t use all the 500, pick up what fits for you and get better each day. Just try! You will feel the difference after little time. I consider this one a self-help book that is really worth the bucks.




Add 5 more


Domestic Violence is not Only Beating Women


Learn to know the different types of domestic violence, understand the violence cycle, causes, short and long term consequences, what to do, and how to get out of this cycle.

Domestic violence is not only beating women

Domestic violence occurs all around the world, in all cultures, and it can happen to anyone in the society, regardless of economic status, age, religion or gender. The attention to domestic violence began in the 70s together with feminism activism.

More than 90 % of the terrorized victims are women. A lot of them get hurt, some get killed. Maybe you know a case. Most don’t have the courage to ask for help, call the police, and involve lawyers and court. Or they aren’t taken serious when they ask others for help.

Let's start with some statistics:

50 % of all women have already experienced domestic violence.

In 20% of all marriages suffer from continuing violence.

More than 1/3 of the women have to be treated for violent injuries in hospital.

Justice Department studies confirmed that women are five times more likely to be killed by their spouse than by all other types of assailants combined.

Understanding the 3 phases of the violence cycle:

Stage: tension/escalationAbuser: demanding, jealous, explosive, verbal abuse, tries to get power and control over victimVictim: guilt, withdrawing, anger, confused, trying to calm abuser to avoid more violenceStage: battering/violenceAbuser: anger, total loss of control, rage, physical violence, domination over victimVictim: fear, pain, weakness, anger, hopelessnessStage: honeymoonAbuser: guilt, apologies, tender words, sorrow, promises, giftsVictim: forgiveness, guilt, love, tenderness, hope

In the tension (escalation) phase the abuser makes excessive demands, and the victim tries to calm him, using techniques that have worked in the past. Or she tries to get through the day, staying out of his way. Most of the victims turn their anger inward which leads to depressions.

During the violence phase (battering), the abuser becomes more possessive and demanding by the tension, and the victim more withdrawn. The big problem is that future battering normally becomes more aggressive.

In the battering phase the abuser looses any control. This usually lasts about 2 to 24 hours, less than the other stages, but increases by repeating cycles. Caution: the violent phase ends only when the abuser wants! It’s not yet clear why, sometimes only cause of his exhausting. The victim's only way to protect during the battering is to get away or to hide. We must not forget to evaluate the safety and well-being of children in the home.

Both the victim and the abuser appreciate the arrival of the so called honeymoon with apologies and tender words from the abuser and promises never ever doing it again. He sends flowers or gifts and he behaves sweet and charming again, like she always loved him. Abusers often feel good after battering, as they taught the victim a lesson so she will never repeat the behavior that made him so furious. The tension is gone and therefore everything looks calm at this moment.

This cycle of violence almost never ends by itself. It will usually escalate until separation or the death of the victim!

We might ask ourselves the question: what makes a victim stay?

A victim stays because she blames herself. She hopes the abuser will change, she believes he needs her, and she loves him, because he is often charming and lovable when he's not violent.

But she doesn’t realize the impact of the violence cycle on her other support relationships. By the time, she gets focused on coping with the abuser’s violence and she draws back from family and friends. Later, after she realized that she can’t break the violent cycle, she’s cut off from outside support.

Another reason why a woman stays is that she has no autonomy. She can’t support herself, because she has no own money, no education, no profession, no place to go, few helping friends, depending children or she’s afraid that the abuser will kill her if she leaves. This is the strongest factor that can discourage victims from leaving their attackers.

Children and Family Court Advisory and Support Service in the United Kingdom published the "Domestic Violence Policy" and declared domestic violence as the misuse of power and control by one person over another. Abusers use various tactics like dominance, humiliation, isolation, threats, bullying, intimidation, and blaming to get and maintain the absolute power.


Let’s take a look at the types of home violence:

Abuse in relationships includes

Physical abuse happens occasionally, while all other forms of abuse can occur permanently. It can arise out of conflicts that escalate first to arguments and then to violence. Physical abuse is any type of contact that causes physical injury to the victim, like hitting, slapping, punching, choking, and pushing. Physical abuse can include behaviors such as denying medical care, sleep or other life necessary functions, and forced alcohol/drug use. It can also include harming children, pets or other things; in order psychologically harm the victim.

Sexual abuse happens in relationships and is also called intimate partner violence (IPV). Between 1/3 and 1/2 of all battered women have been raped by the partners at least once.

In psychological or emotional (mental) abuse the abuser tries to damage the victim’s self-esteem, by constant criticism, name-calling (verbal abuse/reviling, calling e.g. stupid, idiot or other negative words), making statements, humiliating the victim in privacy or public, controlling what the victim can and cannot do, withholding information from the victim, deliberately doing something making the victim feel diminished or embarrassed, isolating the victim forceful from friends and family with the intention to eliminate future helpers. Emotional abuse causes insecurity and self blaming in the victim leaving the victim week, helpless and unable to escape.

Economic/financial abuse (extreme and unusual form) is when the abuser has control over the victim's economic resources (money etc.).

Family violence is spouse abuse, child abuse, elder abuse, and other violent acts between family members.

Lawyers and counselors consider that domestic violence is present even when there has been only a single physical incident as emotional/verbal, economic, and sexual abuse may be more insidious.

What are the causes?

There are many different theories as to the causes of domestic violence, including psychological theories, social theories with external factors such as family structure, stress, social learning.

There are some interesting researches available about domestic violence:

About 80% of the abusers showed personality disorders, almost 100% in severe cases. Personality traits include sudden anger outbursts, low self confidence control. There were classified various types of abusers: Men with mental sicknesses, like general psychopathic, violent tendencies and men who are emotionally dependent on the relationship. Those disorders often come along with alcoholism and drug abuse.

In family situations stress may be increased by problematic financial situations or other problems. Violence is not always caused by stress, but it’s a way how some people respond to stress.

Violent behavior can be transmitted by social learning means that people learn from observing and copying others' behavior, incl. generation copying. If there are no negative consequences (e. g. victim accepts the violence), then the abuser will probably continue.

The effects

Abuse normally causes mental sickness and chronic physical health problems.

The immediate physical effects are bruises, broken bones, bleeding and injuries. Chronic health conditions are arthritis, irritability, chronic pain, ulcers, and migraines. Of course, pregnant women have an extreme risk.