Egyptian Revolutians - Hussein Elasrag - ebook
Opis

The Egyptian uprising was the most important mass movement in the 21st century. In terms of size and duration, may already be one of the most important expressions of popular participation in modern history.This book examines the diverse forms of mass mobilization and contentious politics that emerged during the Egyptian Revolution of 2011 and its aftermath. In addition to expose the role of the Muslim Brotherhood after the revolution.

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Table of contents

EGYPT

The Egyptian revolution of 2011

JUNE 2013 EGYPTIAN PROTESTS

EGYPT

Egypt, officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula. Egypt is a Mediterranean country bordered by the Gaza Strip and Israel to the northeast, the Gulf of Aqaba to the east, the Red Sea to the east and south, Sudan to the south, and Libya to the west. Across the Gulf of Aqaba lies Jordan, and across from the Sinai Peninsula lies Saudi Arabia, although Jordan and Saudi Arabia do not share a land border with Egypt. [1]

Archeological findings show that primitive tribes lived along the Nile long before the dynastic history of the Pharaohs began. By 6000 before the common era, or B.C.E., organized agriculture had appeared. In about 3100 B.C.E., Egypt was united under a ruler known as Mena, or Menes, who inaugurated the 30 Pharaonic dynasties into which Egypt's ancient history is divided, the Old and the Middle Kingdoms and the New Empire. For the first time, the use and management of vital resources of the Nile River came under one authority. Egypt's well-know landmark, the pyramids at Giza (near Cairo), were built in the fourth dynasty, demonstrating the power of the Pharaonic religion and state. The Great Pyramid, the tomb of Pharaoh Khufu (also known as Cheops), is the only one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World that has survived to the present day. Ancient Egypt reached the peak of its power, wealth and territorial extent in the period called the New Empire (1567-1085 B.C.E.). Authority was again centralized, and a number of military campaigns brought Palestine, Syria and northern Iraq under Egyptian control. [2]

The population of Egypt accounts for more than 20 % of the population in the Arabworld . The Egyptian population size increased almost by more than 1.5 times during the last three decades, between 1986 and 2013, from about 48 million to about 95 million in 2017) . Egypt consists of 27 governorates. [3]

Egypt is the most populous country in the Arab world and the third most populous country in Africa, behind Nigeria and Ethiopia. Most of the country is desert, so about 95% of the population is concentrated in a narrow strip of fertile land along the Nile River, which represents only about 5% of Egypt’s land area. Egypt’s rapid population growth – 46% between 1994 and 2014 – stresses limited natural resources, jobs, housing, sanitation, education, and health care. [4]

Although the country’s total fertility rate (TFR) fell from roughly 5.5 children per woman in 1980 to just over 3 in the late 1990s, largely as a result of state-sponsored family planning programs, the population growth rate dropped more modestly because of decreased mortality rates and longer life expectancies. During the last decade, Egypt’s TFR decline stalled for several years and then reversed, reaching 3.6 in 2011, and has plateaued the last few years. Contraceptive use has held steady at about 60%, while preferences for larger families and early marriage may have strengthened in the wake of the recent 2011 revolution. The large cohort of women of or nearing childbearing age will sustain high population growth for the foreseeable future (an effect called population momentum).

Nevertheless, post-MUBARAK governments have not made curbing population growth a priority. To increase contraceptive use and to prevent further overpopulation will require greater government commitment and substantial social change, including encouraging smaller families and better educating and empowering women. Currently, literacy, educational attainment, and labor force participation rates are much lower for women than men. In addition, the prevalence of violence against women, the lack of female political representation, and the perpetuation of the nearly universal practice of female genital cutting continue to keep women from playing a more significant role in Egypt’s public sphere.

Population pressure, poverty, high unemployment, and the fragmentation of inherited land holdings have historically motivated Egyptians, primarily young men, to migrate internally from rural and smaller urban areas in the Nile Delta region and the poorer rural south to Cairo, Alexandria, and other urban centers in the north, while a much smaller number migrated to the Red Sea and Sinai areas. Waves of forced internal migration also resulted from the 1967 Arab-Israeli War and the floods caused by the completion of the Aswan High Dam in 1970. Limited numbers of students and professionals emigrated temporarily prior to the early 1970s, when economic problems and high unemployment pushed the Egyptian Government to lift restrictions on labor migration. At the same time, high oil revenues enabled Saudi Arabia, Iraq, and other Gulf states, as well as Libya and Jordan, to fund development projects, creating a demand for unskilled labor (mainly in construction), which attracted tens of thousands of young Egyptian men.