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Opis ebooka Celtic Folklore. Book I - John Rhys

Towards the close of the seventies I began to collect Welsh folklore. I did so partly because others had set the example elsewhere, and partly in order to see whether Wales could boast of any story-tellers of the kind that delight the readers of Campbell’s Popular Tales of the West Highlands. I soon found what I was not wholly unprepared for, that as a rule I could not get a single story of any length from the mouths of any of my fellow countrymen, but a considerable number of bits of stories. In some instances these were so scrappy that it took me years to discover how to fit them into their proper context; but, speaking generally, I may say, that, as the materials, such as they were, accumulated, my initial difficulties disappeared. I was, however, always a little afraid of refreshing my memory with the legends of other lands lest I should read into those of my own, ideas possibly foreign to them. While one is busy collecting, it is safest probably not to be too much engaged in comparison: when the work of collecting is done that of comparing may begin. But after all I have not attempted to proceed very far in that direction, only just far enough to find elucidation here and there for the meaning of items of folklore brought under my notice. To have gone further would have involved me in excursions hopelessly beyond the limits of my undertaking, for comparative folklore has lately assumed such dimensions, that it seems best to leave it to those who make it their special study.

Opinie o ebooku Celtic Folklore. Book I - John Rhys

Fragment ebooka Celtic Folklore. Book I - John Rhys

John Rhys

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Table of contents

PREFACE

CHAPTER I

CHAPTER II

CHAPTER III

CHAPTER IV

CHAPTER V

CHAPTER VI

Our modern idioms, with all their straining after the abstract, are but primitive man’s mental tools adapted to the requirements of civilized life, and they often retain traces of the form and shape which the neolithic worker’s chipping and polishing gave them.

PREFACE

Towards the close of the seventies I began to collect Welsh folklore. I did so partly because others had set the example elsewhere, and partly in order to see whether Wales could boast of any story-tellers of the kind that delight the readers of Campbell’s Popular Tales of the West Highlands. I soon found what I was not wholly unprepared for, that as a rule I could not get a single story of any length from the mouths of any of my fellow countrymen, but a considerable number of bits of stories. In some instances these were so scrappy that it took me years to discover how to fit them into their proper context; but, speaking generally, I may say, that, as the materials, such as they were, accumulated, my initial difficulties disappeared. I was, however, always a little afraid of refreshing my memory with the legends of other lands lest I should read into those of my own, ideas possibly foreign to them. While one is busy collecting, it is safest probably not to be too much engaged in comparison: when the work of collecting is done that of comparing may begin. But after all I have not attempted to proceed very far in that direction, only just far enough to find elucidation here and there for the meaning of items of folklore brought under my notice. To have gone further would have involved me in excursions hopelessly beyond the limits of my undertaking, for comparative folklore has lately assumed such dimensions, that it seems best to leave it to those who make it their special study. It is a cause of genuine regret to me that I did not commence my inquiries earlier, when I had more opportunities of pursuing them, especially when I was a village schoolmaster in Anglesey and could have done the folklore of that island thoroughly; but my education, such as it was, had been of a nature to discourage all interest in anything that savoured of heathen lore and superstition. Nor is that all, for the schoolmasters of my early days took very little trouble to teach their pupils to keep their eyes open or take notice of what they heard around them; so I grew up without having acquired the habit of observing anything, except the Sabbath. It is to be hoped that the younger generation of schoolmasters trained under more auspicious circumstances, when the baleful influence of Robert Lowe has given way to a more enlightened system of public instruction, will do better, and succeed in fostering in their pupils habits of observation. At all events there is plenty of work still left to be done by careful observers and skilful inquirers, as will be seen from the geographical list showing approximately the provenance of the more important contributions to the Kymric folklore in this collection: the counties will be found to figure very unequally. Thus the anglicizing districts have helped me very little, while the more Welsh county of Carnarvon easily takes the lead; but I am inclined to regard the anomalous features of that list as in a great measure due to accident. In other words, some neighbourhoods have been luckier than others in having produced or attracted men who paid attention to local folklore; and if other counties were to be worked equally with Carnarvonshire, some of them would probably be found not much less rich in their yield. The anglicizing counties in particular are apt to be disregarded both from the Welsh and the English points of view, in folklore just as in some other things; and in this connexion I cannot help mentioning the premature death of the Rev. Elias Owen as a loss which Welsh folklorists will not soon cease to regret. My information has been obtained partly viva voce, partly by letter. In the case of the stories written down for me in Welsh, I may mention that in some instances the language is far from good; but it has not been thought expedient to alter it in any way, beyond introducing some consistency into the spelling. In the case of the longest specimen of the written stories, Mr. J. C. Hughes’ Curse of Pantannas, it is worthy of notice in passing, that the rendering of it into English was followed by a version in blank verse by Sir Lewis Morris, who published it in his Songs of Britain. With regard to the work generally, my original intention was to publish the materials, obtained in the way described, with such stories already in print as might be deemed necessary by way of setting for them; and to let any theories or deductions in which I might be disposed to indulge follow later. In this way the first six chapters and portions of some of the others appeared from time to time in the publications of the Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion and in those of the Folk-Lore Society. This would have allowed me to divide the present work into the two well marked sections of materials and deductions. But, when the earlier part came to be edited, I found that I had a good deal of fresh material at my disposal, so that the chapters in question had in some instances to be considerably lengthened and in some others modified in other ways. Then as to the deductive half of the work, it may be mentioned that certain portions of the folklore, though ever apt to repeat themselves, were found when closely scrutinized to show serious lacunæ, which had to be filled in the course of the reasoning suggested by the materials in hand. Thus the idea of the whole consisting of two distinctly defined sections had to be given up or else allowed to wait till I should find time to recast it. But I could no more look forward to any such time than to the eventual possibility of escaping minor inconsistencies by quietly stepping through the looking-glass and beginning my work with the index instead of resting content to make it in the old-fashioned way at the end. There was, however, a third course, which is only mentioned to be rejected, and that was to abstain from all further publication; but what reader of books has ever known any of his authors to adopt that! To crown these indiscretions I have to confess that even when most of what I may call the raw material had been brought together, I had no clear idea what I was going to do with it; but I had a hazy notion, that, as in the case of an inveterate talker whose stream of words is only made the more boisterous by obstruction, once I sat down to write I should find reasons and arguments flowing in. It may seem as though I had been secretly conjuring with Vergil’s words viresque adquirit eundo. Nothing so deliberate: the world in which I live swarms with busybodies dying to organize everybody and everything, and my instinctive opposition to all that order of tyranny makes me inclined to cherish a somewhat wild sort of free will. Still the cursory reader would be wrong to take for granted that there is no method in my madness: should he take the trouble to look for it, he would find that it has a certain unity of purpose, which has been worked out in the later chapters; but to spare him that trouble I venture to become my own expositor and to append the following summary:— The materials crowded into the earlier chapters mark out the stories connected with the fairies, whether of the lakes or of the dry land, as the richest lode to be exploited in the mine of Celtic folklore. That work is attempted in the later chapters; and the analysis of what may briefly be described as the fairy lore given in the earlier ones carries with it the means of forcing the conviction, that the complex group of ideas identified with the little people is of more origins than one; in other words, that it is drawn partly from history and fact, and partly from the world of imagination and myth. The latter element proves on examination to be inseparably connected with certain ancient beliefs in divinities and demons associated, for instance, with lakes, rivers, and floods. Accordingly, this aspect of fairy lore has been dealt with in chapters vi and vii: the former is devoted largely to the materials themselves, while the latter brings the argument to a conclusion as to the intimate connexion of the fairies with the water-world. Then comes the turn of the other kind of origin to be discussed, namely, that which postulates the historical existence of the fairies as a real race on which have been lavishly superinduced various impossible attributes. This opens up a considerable vista into the early ethnology of these islands, and it involves a variety of questions bearing on the fortunes here of other races. In the series which suggests itself the fairies come first as the oldest and lowest people: then comes that which I venture to call Pictish, possessed of a higher civilization and of warlike instincts. Next come the earlier Celts of the Goidelic branch, the traces, linguistic and other, of whose presence in Wales have demanded repeated notice; and last of all come the other Celts, the linguistic ancestors of the Welsh and all the other speakers of Brythonic. The development of these theses, as far as folklore supplies materials, occupies practically the remaining five chapters. Among the subsidiary questions raised may be instanced those of magic and the origin of druidism; not to mention a neglected aspect of the Arthurian legend, the intimate association of the Arthur of Welsh folklore and tradition with Snowdon, and Arthur’s attitude towards the Goidelic population in his time. Lastly, I have the pleasant duty of thanking all those who have helped me, whether by word of mouth or by letter, whether by reference to already printed materials or by assistance in any other way: the names of many of them will be found recorded in their proper places. As a rule my inquiries met with prompt replies, and I am not aware that any difficulties were purposely thrown in my way. Nevertheless I have had difficulties in abundance to encounter, such as the natural shyness of some of those whom I wished to examine on the subject of their recollections, and above all the unavoidable difficulty of cross-questioning those whose information reached me by post. For the precise value of any evidence bearing on Celtic folklore is almost impossible to ascertain, unless it can be made the subject of cross-examination. This arises from the fact that we Celts have a knack of thinking ourselves in complete accord with what we fancy to be in the inquirer’s mind, so that we are quite capable of misleading him in perfect good faith. A most apposite instance, deserving of being placed on record, came under my notice many years ago. In the summer of 1868 I spent several months in Paris, where I met the historian Henri Martin more than once. On being introduced to him he reminded me that he had visited South Wales not long before, and that he had been delighted to find the peasantry there still believing in the transmigration of souls. I expressed my surprise, and remarked that he must be joking. Nothing of the kind, he assured me, as he had questioned them himself: the fact admitted of no doubt. I expressed further surprise, but as I perceived that he was proud of the result of his friendly encounters with my countrymen I never ventured to return to the subject, though I always wondered what in the world it could mean. A few years ago, however, I happened to converse with one of the most charming and accomplished of Welsh ladies, when she chanced to mention Henri Martin’s advent: it turned out that he had visited Dr. Charles Williams, then the Principal of Jesus College, and that Dr. Williams introduced him to his friends in South Wales. So M. Martin arrived among the hospitable friends of the lady talking to me, who had in fact to act as his interpreter: I never understood that he could talk much English or any Welsh. Now I have no doubt that M. Martin, with his fixed ideas about the druids and their teaching, propounded palpably leading questions for the Welsh people whom he wished to examine. His fascinating interpreter put them into terse Welsh, and the whole thing was done. I could almost venture to write out the dialogue, which gave back to the great Frenchman his own exact notions from the lips of simple peasants in that subtle non-Aryan syntax, which no Welsh barrister has ever been able to explain to the satisfaction of a bewildered English judge trying to administer justice among a people whom he cannot wholly comprehend. This will serve to illustrate one of the difficulties with which the collector of folklore in Wales has to cope. I have done my best to reduce the possible extent of the error to which it might give rise; and it is only fair to say that those whom I plagued with my questionings bore the tedium of it with patience, and that to them my thanks are due in a special degree. Neither they, however, nor I, could reasonably complain, if we found other folklorists examining other witnesses on points which had already occupied us; for in such matters one may say with confidence, that in the multitude of counsellors there is safety. JOHN RHŶS. We are too hasty when we set down our ancestors in the gross for fools, for the monstrous inconsistencies (as they seem to us) involved in their creed of witchcraft. In the relations of this visible world we find them to have been as rational, and shrewd to detect an historic anomaly, as ourselves. But when once the invisible world was supposed to be opened, and the lawless agency of bad spirits assumed, what measures of probability, of decency, of fitness, or proportion—of that which distinguishes the likely from the palpable absurd—could they have to guide them in the rejection or admission of any particular testimony? That maidens pined away, wasting inwardly as their waxen images consumed before a fire—that corn was lodged, and cattle lamed—that whirlwinds uptore in diabolic revelry the oaks of the forest—or that spits and kettles only danced a fearful-innocent vagary about some rustic’s kitchen when no wind was stirring—were all equally probable where no law of agency was understood …. There is no law to judge of the lawless, or canon by which a dream may be criticised.Charles Lamb’s Essays of Elia.

A GEOGRAPHICAL LIST OF AUTHORITIES AND SOURCES OF THE MORE IMPORTANT CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE WELSH FOLKLORE

ANGLESEY. Aberffraw: E. S. Roberts (after Hugh Francis), 240, 241. Ỻandyfrydog: E. S. Roberts (after Robert Roberts), 239, 240. Ỻyn yr Wyth Eidion: (no particulars), 429. Mynyđ y Cnwc: A writer in the Brython for 1859, 457, 458. Mynyđ Mecheỻ: Morris Evans (from his grandmother), 203, 204. Towyn Trewern: John Roberts, 36–8. ? : Lewis Morris, in the Gwyliedyđ, 450–2. BRECKNOCKSHIRE. Cwm Tawe: Rd. L. Davies, 256, 257. ,, ,, : ,, ,, ,, (after J. Davies), 251–6. Ỻangorse: Giraldus, in his Itinerarium Kambriæ, 72. ? : Walter Mapes, in his book De Nugis, 70–2. ? : The Brython for 1863, 73, 74. Ỻyn Cwm Ỻwch neighbourhood: Ivor James, 21, 430, 445. ? : Ed. Davies, in his Mythology and Rites, 20, 21. CARDIGANSHIRE. Atpar: John Rhys (from Joseph Powell), 648, 649. Bronnant: D. Ỻ. Davies, 248, 249. Cadabowen: J. Gwenogvryn Evans, 603, 604. Ỻanwenog : ,, ,, 648. Ỻyn Eiđwen: J. E. Rogers of Abermeurig, 578. Moeđin: Howells, in his Cambrian Superstitions, 245. ,, : D. Silvan Evans, in his Ystên Sioned, 271–3. Ponterwyd: John Rhys, 294, 338, 378, 391, 392. ,, : Mary Lewis (Modryb Mari), 601, 602. Swyđ Ffynnon: D. Ỻ. Davies, 246, 247, 250. Tregaron and neighbourhood: John Rhys (from John Jones and others), 577–9. Troed yr Aur and Verwig? : Benjamin Williams (Gwynionyđ), 166–8.: Gwynionyđ, in the Brython for 1858 and 1860, 151–5, 158–60, 163, 164, 464–6.Ystrad Meurig: Isaac Davies, 245. ,, ,, : A farmer, 601. ? : A writer in the Brython for 1861, 690. CARMARTHENSHIRE. Cenarth: B. Davies, in the Brython, 1858, 161, 162. Ỻandeilo: D. Ỻeufer Thomas, in Y Geninen for 1896, 469. ,, : Mr. Stepney-Gulston, in the Arch. Camb. for 1893, 468. Ỻandybie: John Fisher, 379, 380. ,, : Howells, in his Cambrian Superstitions, 381. ,, : John Fisher and J. P. Owen, 468. Myđfai: Wm. Rees of Tonn, in the Physicians of Myđvai, 2–15. ,, : The Bishop of St. Asaph, 15, 16. ,, : John Rhys, 16. ? : Joseph Joseph of Brecon, 16. ? : Wirt Sikes, in his British Goblins, 17, 18. Mynyđ y Banwen: Ỻywarch Reynolds, 18, 19, 428–30. ? : I. Craigfryn Hughes, 487. CARNARVONSHIRE. Aber Soch: Margaret Edwards, 231. ,, ,, : A blacksmith in the neighbourhood, 232. ? : Edward Ỻwyd: see the Brython for 1860, 233, 234. ? : MS. 134 in the Peniarth Collection, 572, 573. Aberdaron: Mrs. Williams and another, 228. ? : Evan Williams of Rhos Hirwaen, 230. Beđgelert: Wm. Jones, 49, 80, 81, 94–7, 99, 100–5. ,, : ,, ,, in the Brython for 1861–2, 86–9, 98–9. ,, : The Brython for 1861, 470, 473, 474. Bethesda: David Evan Davies (Dewi Glan Ffrydlas), 60–4, 66. Bettws y Coed: Edward Ỻwyd: see the Cambrian Journal for 1859, 130–3. Criccieth neighbourhood: Edward Ỻewelyn, 219–21. ? : Edward Ỻwyd: see the Camb. Journal for 1859, 201, 202. Dinorwig: E. Lloyd Jones, 234–7. Dolbenmaen: W. Evans Jones, 107–9. Dolwyđelan : see Beđgelert . ,, : see Gwybrnant. Drws y Coed: S. R. Williams (from M. Williams and another), 38–40. ? : ,, ,, ,, 89, 90. Edern: John Williams (Alaw Ỻeyn), 275–9. Four Crosses: Lewis Jones, 222–5. Glasfryn Uchaf: John Jones (Myrđin Farđ), 367, 368. ,, ,, : Mr. and Mrs. Williams-Ellis, 368–72. Glynỻifon: Wm. Thomas Solomon, 208–14. Gwybrnant: Ellis Pierce (Elis o’r Nant), 476–9. Ỻanaelhaearn: R. Hughes of Uwchlaw’r Ffynnon, 214, 215, 217–9. Ỻanberis: Mrs. Rhys and her relatives, 31–6, 604. ,, : M. and O. Rhys, 229. ,, : A correspondent in the Liverpool Mercury, 366, 367. ? : Howell Thomas (from G. B. Gattie), 125–30. ? : Pennant, in his Tours in Wales, 125. Ỻandegai: H. Derfel Hughes, 52–60, 68. ,, : ,, ,, ,, in his Antiquities, 471, 472. ,, : E. Owen, in the Powysland Club’s Collections, 237, 238. Ỻandwrog: Hugh Evans and others, 207. Ỻanfaglan: T. E. Morris (from Mrs. Roberts), 362, 363. Ỻangybi: John Jones (Myrđin Farđ), 366. ,, : Mrs. Williams-Ellis, 366, 471. Ỻaniestin: Evan Williams, 228, 229, 584. Ỻanỻechid: Owen Davies (Eos Ỻechid), 41–6, 50–2. Nefyn: Lowri Hughes and another woman, 226, 227. ,, : John Williams (Alaw Ỻeyn), 228. ,, : A writer in the Brython for 1860, 164. Penmachno: Gethin Jones, 204–6. Rhyd Đu: Mrs. Rhys, 604. Trefriw: Morris Hughes and J. D. Maclaren, 198–201. ,, : Pierce Williams, 30. Tremadoc: Jane Williams, 221, 222. ,, : R. I. Jones (from his mother and Ellis Owen), 105–7. ,, : Ellis Owen (cited by Wm. Jones), 95. Waen Fawr: Owen Davies, 41. ? : Glasynys, in Cymru Fu, 91–3, 110–23. ? : ,, in the Brython for 1863, 40, 41. ? : A London Eisteđfod (1887) competitor, 361, 362. ? : John Jones (Myrđin Farđ), 361, 362, 364–8. ? : Owen Jones (quoted in the Brython for 1861), 414, 415. Yspytty Ifan?: A Liverpool Eisteđfod (1900) competitor, 692. DENBIGHSHIRE. Bryneglwys: E. S. Roberts (from Mrs. Davies), 241, 242. Eglwyseg: E. S. Roberts (after Thomas Morris), 238. Ffynnon Eilian: Mrs. Silvan Evans, 357. ,, ,, : Isaac Foulkes, in his Enwogion Cymru, 396. ,, ,, : Lewis, in his Topographical Dictionary, 395, 396. ,, ,, : P. Roberts, in his Camb. Popular Antiquities, 396. ,, ,, : A writer in Y Nofelđ, 396. Ỻangoỻen: Hywel (Wm. Davies), 148. Pentre Voelas: Elias Owen, in his Welsh Folk-Lore, 222. FLINTSHIRE. Nil. GLAMORGANSHIRE. Bridgend: J. H. Davies, D. Brynmor-Jones, J. Rhys, 354, 355. Crymlyn: Cadrawd, in the South Wales Daily News, 405, 406. ? : Wirt Sikes, in his British Goblins, 191, 192, 405. Kenfig: Iolo Morganwg, in the Iolo MSS., 403, 404. ? : David Davies, 402. Ỻanfabon: I. Craigfryn Hughes, 257–268. Ỻanwynno: Glanffrwd, in his Plwyf Llanwyno, 26. Merthyr Tydfil: Ỻywarch Reynolds (from his mother), 269. Quakers’ Yard: I. Craigfryn Hughes, 173–91. Rhonđa Fechan: Ỻewellyn Williams, 24, 25. ,, ,, : J. Probert Evans, 25, 27. ,, ,, : Ỻ. Reynolds (from D. Evans and others), 27–9. Rhonđa Valley: D. J. Jones, 356. ? : Dafyđ Morganwg, in his Hanes Morganwg, 356. ? : Waring, in his Recollections of Edward Williams, 458–61. MERIONETHSHIRE. Aberdovey: J. Pughe, in the Arch. Camb. for 1853, 142–6, 428. ,, : Mrs. Prosser Powell, 416. ? : M. B., in the Monthly Packet for 1859, 416, 417. Ardudwy: Hywel (Wm. Davies), 147, 148. Bala: David Jones of Trefriw: see Cyfaiỻ yr Aelwyd, 376, 377. ,, : Wm. Davies and Owen M. Edwards, 378. ? : Humphreys’ Ỻyfr Gwybodaeth Gyffredinol, 408–10. ? : J. H. Roberts, in Edwards’ Cymru for 1897, 148–51. Dolgeỻey: Lucy Griffith (from a Dolgeỻey man), 243, 244. Ỻandriỻo: E. S. Roberts (from A. Evans and Mrs. Edwards), 138–41. Ỻanegryn: Mr. Williams and Mr. Rowlands, 243. ,, : A Ỻanegryn man (after Wm. Pritchard), 242. ,, : Another Ỻanegryn man, 242, 243. Ỻanuwchỻyn: Owen M. Edwards, 147. ? : J. H. Roberts, in Edwards’ Cymru for 1897, 215–7, 457. ? : Glasynys, in the Brython for 1862, 137. ? : ,, in the Taliesin for 1859–60, 215, 216, 456, 457. MONMOUTHSHIRE. Aberystruth: Edm. Jones, in his Parish of Aberystruth, 195, 196. Ỻandeilo Cressenny: Elizabeth Williams, 192, 193. Ỻanover: Wm. Williams and other gardeners there, 193, 194. ,, : Mrs. Gardner of Ty Uchaf Ỻanover, 194, 195. ,, : Professor Sayce, 602. Risca?: I. Craigfryn Hughes (from hearsay in the district between Ỻanfabon and Caerleon), 462–4, 487, 593–6. MONTGOMERYSHIRE. Ỻanidloes: Elias Owen, in his Welsh Folk-Lore, 275. PEMBROKESHIRE. Fishguard: E. Perkins of Penysgwarne, 172, 173. ,, : Ferrar Fenton, in the Pembroke County Guardian, 160. Ỻandeilo Ỻwydarth: The Melchior family, 398. ,, ,, : Benjamin Gibby, 399, 400. Nevern: J. Thomas of Bancau Bryn Berian, 689. Trevine: ‘Ancient Mariner,’ in the Pembroke County Guardian, 171. ? : Ferrar Fenton, in the Pembroke County Guardian, 171. ? : Ab Nadol, in the Brython for 1861, 165. ? : Southey, in his Madoc, 170. RADNORSHIRE. Nil.TO ALL SORTS AND CONDITIONS OF MENThe author would be glad to hear of unrecorded Welsh stories, or bits of Welsh stories not comprised in this volume. He would also be grateful for the names of more localities in which the stories here given, or variants of them, are still remembered. It will be his endeavour to place on record all such further information, except stories about spooks and ghosts of the ordinary type.

LIST OF BIBLIOGRAPHICAL REFERENCES

Ab Gwilym: Barđoniaeth Dafyđ ab Gwilym, edited by Cyndelw (Liverpool, 1873), 206, 233, 439, 444, 671. Adamnan: The Life of St. Columba, written by Adamnan, edited by William Reeves (Dublin, 1857), 545. Agrippa: H. Cornelius Agrippa De Occulta Philosophia (Paris, 1567), 213.Aneurin: The Book of Aneurin (see Skene), 226, 281, 543. Antiquary, the, a magazine devoted to the study of the past, published by Elliot Stock (London, 1880–), 467. ,, : the Scottish: see Stevenson.Archæologia Cambrensis, the Journal of the Cambrian Archæological Association (London, 1846–), 73, 141–6, 233, 366, 403, 468, 528, 532, 533, 542, 566, 570, 579. Athenæum, the, a journal of English and foreign literature, science, fine arts, music, and the drama (London, 1828–), 335, 612. Atkinson: The Book of Ballymote, a collection of pieces (prose and verse) in the Irish language, compiled about the beginning of the fifteenth century, published by the Royal Irish Academy, with introduction, analysis of contents, and index by Robert Atkinson (Dublin, 1887), 375. ,, : The Book of Leinster, sometimes called the Book of Glendalough, a collection of pieces (prose and verse) in the Irish language, compiled, in part, about the middle of the twelfth century, published by the Royal Irish Academy, with introduction, analysis of contents, and index by Robert Atkinson (Dublin, 1880), 381, 390, 392, 528, 531, 616, 618, 635, 657. Aubrey: Miscellanies collected by John Aubrey (London, 1696) [the last chapter is on second-sighted persons in Scotland], 273. Bastian: Zeitschrift für Ethnologie, edited by A. Bastian and others (Berlin, 1869–), 684. Bathurst: Roman Antiquities at Lydney Park: see 445, 446.Behrens: Zeitschrift für französische Sprache und Litteratur, edited by D. Behrens (Oppeln and Leipsic, 1879–), 480. Bell: Early Ballads, edited by Robert Bell (London, 1877), 317. Bertrand: La Religion des Gaulois, les Druides et le Druidisme, by Alexandre Bertrand (Paris, 1897), 552, 622, 623. Bible: The Holy Bible, revised version (Oxford, 1885), 583. ,, : The Manx Bible, printed for the British and Foreign Bible Society (London, 1819), 288, 297, 348. Boschet: La Vie du Père Maunoir, by Boschet (Paris, 1697), 386. Bourke: The Bull ‘Ineffabilis’ in four Languages, translated and edited by the Rev. Ulick J. Bourke (Dublin, 1868), 606. Boyd Dawkins: Professor Boyd Dawkins’ Address on the Place of a University in the History of Wales (Bangor, 1900), 388, 389.Bray: The Borders of the Tamar and the Tavy, their Natural History, Manners, Customs, Superstitions, &c., in a series of letters to the late Robert Southey, by Mrs. Bray (new ed., London, 1879), 213. Braz: La Légende de la Mort en Basse-Bretagne, Croyances, Traditions et Usages des Bretons Armoricains, by A. le Braz (Paris, 1892), 273. British Archæological Association, the Journal of the : see 674. British Association for the Advancement of Science, Report of the (John Murray, London, 1833–), 103, 310, 346, 590.Brynmor-Jones: The Welsh People, by John Rhys and David Brynmor-Jones (London, 1900), 421, 448, 454, 488, 548, 554, 613, 656, 661. Brython, Y: see Silvan Evans .Cambrian: The Cambrian Biography: see Owen. ,, : The Cambrian Journal, published under the auspices of the Cambrian Institute [the first volume appeared in 1854 in London, and eventually the publication was continued at Tenby by R. Mason, who went on with it till the year 1864], 81, 130, 201, 202, 480, 564. ,, : The Cambrian newspaper, published at Swansea, 468. ,, : The Cambrian Popular Antiquities: see Roberts. ,, : The Cambrian Quarterly Magazine (London, 1829–33), 202. ,, : The Cambrian Register, printed for E. and T. Williams (London, 1796–1818), 217. Campbell: Popular Tales of the West Highlands, with a translation, by J. F. Campbell (Edinburgh, 1860–2), 433, 434, 690. Caradoc: The Gwentian Chronicle of Caradoc of Ỻancarvan, 404. ,, : The History of Wales written originally in British by Caradoc of Lhancarvan, Englished by Dr. Powell and augmented by W. Wynne (London, 1774), 476, 480. Carmarthen: The Black Book of Carmarthen (see Skene), 543.Carnarvon: Registrum vulgariter nuncupatum ‘The Record of Carnarvon ,’ è Codice msto Descriptum (London, 1838), 70, 201, 488, 567–9, 693. Carrington: Report of the Royal Commission on Land in Wales and Monmouthshire, Chairman, the Earl of Carrington (London, 1896), 488.Chambers: Popular Rhymes of Scotland, by Robert Chambers (Edinburgh, 1841, 1858), 585. Charencey, H. de, in the Bulletin de la Société de Linguistique de Paris, 664.Chaucer: The Complete Works of Geoffrey Chaucer, edited from numerous manuscripts by the Rev. Prof. Skeat (Oxford, 1894), 75. Chrétien: Erec und Enide von Christian von Troyes, published by Wendelin Foerster (Halle, 1890), 375, 672. Cicero: Œuvres Complètes de Cicéron (the Didot ed., Paris, 1875), 652. Clark: Limbus Patrum Morganiæ et Glamorganiæ, being the genealogies of the older families of the lordships of Morgan and Glamorgan, by George T. Clark (London, 1886), 26. Clodd: Tom Tit Tot, an essay on savage philosophy in folklore, by Edward Clodd (London, 1898), 584, 598, 607, 627, 628, 630. Cochrane: The Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland, Robert Cochrane, Secretary (Hodges, Figgis & Co., Dublin), 546. Cockayne: Leechdoms, Wortcunning and Starcraft of early England, by the Rev. Oswald Cockayne (Rolls Series, London, 1864–6), 293. Cormac: Cormac’s Glossary, translated and annotated by John O’Donovan, edited with notes and indices by Whitley Stokes (Calcutta, 1868), 51, 310, 521, 629, 632. Corneille: Le Cid, by P. Corneille, edited by J. Bué (London, 1889), 655. Cosquin: Contes populaires de Lorraine, by Emmanuel Cosquin (Paris, 1886), 520. Cothi: The Poetical Works of Lewis Glyn Cothi, a Welsh bard who flourished in the reigns of Henry VI, Edward IV, Richard III, and Henry VII, edited for the Cymmrodorion Society by the Rev. John Jones ‘Tegid,’ and the Rev. Walter Davies ‘Gwaỻter Mechain’ (Oxford, 1837), 74, 134, 135, 201. Coulanges: La Cité antique, by N. D. Fustel de Coulanges (Paris, 1864), 649, 650. Courson: Cartulaire de l’Abbaye de Redon en Bretagne, published by M. Aurélien de Courson (Paris, 1863), 544. Craigfryn: Y Ferch o Gefn Ydfa, by Isaac Craigfryn Hughes (Cardiff, 1881), 173. Cregeen: A Dictionary of the Manks Language, by Archibald Cregeen (Douglas, 1835), 288. Cumming: The Isle of Man, its History, Physical, Ecclesiastical, Civil, and Legendary, by Joseph George Cumming (London, 1848), 314. Curry: The Battle of Magh Leana, together with The Courtship of Momera, with translation and notes, by Eugene Curry [later O’Curry] (Dublin, 1855), 393: see also O’Curry. Cynđelw: Cymru Fu, a selection of Welsh histories, traditions, and tales, published by Hughes & Son (Wrexham, 1862) [this was originally issued in parts, and it has never borne the editor’s name; but it is understood to have been the late poet and antiquary, the Rev. Robert Ellis ‘Cynđelw’], 66, 91, 109, 123, 155, 156, 481. Dalyell: The Darker Superstitions of Scotland illustrated from History and Practice, by John Graham Dalyell (Edinburgh, 1834), 273.Davies: The Mythology and Rites of the British Druids, by Edward Davies (London, 1809), 20.Davies: Antiquæ Linguæ Britannicæ et Linguæ Latinæ Dictionarium Duplex, by Dr. John Davies (London, 1632), 13.Derfel Hughes: Hynafiaethau Ỻandegai a Ỻanỻechid (Antiquities of Ỻandegai and Ỻanỻechid), by Hugh Derfel Hughes (Bethesda, 1866), 52, 480.Dionysius: Dionysii Halicarnassensis Antiquitatum Romanorum quæ supersunt (the Didot edition, Paris, 1886), 650.Domesday: Facsimile of Domesday Book, the Cheshire volume, including a part of Flintshire and Leicestershire (Southampton, 1861–5), 563. Dovaston: [John F. M. Dovaston’s poetical works appear to have been published in 1825, but I have not seen the book], 410–3. Doyle: Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, by A. Conan Doyle (London, 1893), 690. Drayton: The Battaile of Agincourt, by Michaell Drayton (London, 1627), 164. Dugdale: Monasticon Anglicanum, a history of the abbeys and other monasteries in England and Wales, by Sir William Dugdale (vol. v, London, 1825), 443, 469, 479. Edwards: Cymru, a monthly magazine edited by Owen M. Edwards (Welsh National Press, Carnarvon), 148. Elfed: Cyfaiỻ yr Aelwyd a’r Frythones, edited by Elfed (the Rev. H. Elvet Lewis) and Cadrawd (Mr. T. C. Evans), and published by Williams & Son, Ỻaneỻy, 23, 376, 418. Elton: Origins of English History, by Charles Elton (London, 1882), 615. Elworthy: The Evil Eye, an Account of this ancient and widespread Superstition, by Frederick Thomas Elworthy (London, 1895), 346.Evans: The Beauties of England and Wales [published in London in 1801–15, and comprising two volumes (xvii and xviii) devoted to Wales, the former of which (by the Rev. J. Evans; published in London in 1812) treats of North Wales], 563. Folk-Lore: Transactions of the Folk-Lore Society (published by David Nutt, 270 Strand, London), 273, 338, 341, 344, 346, 356, 358–60, 584, 585, 593, 608. Foulkes: Geirlyfr Bywgraffiadol o Enwogion Cymru, published and printed by Isaac Foulkes (Liverpool, 1870), 396. Fouqué: Undine, eine Erzählung von Friedrich Baron de la Motte Fouqué (11th ed., Berlin, 1859), 1, 2, 27, 437, 661.Frazer: The Golden Bough, a study in comparative religion, by Dr. J. G. Frazer (London, 1890), 638, 662. ,, : The Origin of Totemism (in the Fortnightly Review for April, 1899), 662, 663.Froissart: Œuvres de Froissart, Chroniques, edited by Kervyn de Lettenhove (Brussels, 1870–7), 489. ,, : Chroniques de J. Froissart, published for the ‘ Société de l’Histoire de France,’ by Siméon Luce (Paris, 1869–), 489–91. ,, : Lord Berners’ translation (in black letter), published in London in 1525, and Thomas Johnes’, in 1805–6, 490. Gaidoz: Revue Celtique, ‘fondée par M. Henri Gaidoz,’ 1870–85 [since then it has been edited by H. d’Arbois de Jubainville, and it is now published by Bouillon in Paris (67 Rue de Richelieu)], 60, 374, 375, 387, 389, 390, 427, 432, 435, 480, 519, 546, 573, 580, 581, 603, 618, 619, 629, 631, 649. Geoffrey: Gottfried’s von Monmouth Historia Regum Britanniæ und Brut Tysylio, published by San-Marte (Halle, 1854), 4, 280, 281, 374, 406, 448, 503, 507, 547, 562, 611. Gilbert: Leabhar na h-Uidhri, a collection of pieces in prose and verse in the Irish language, compiled and transcribed about A.D. 1100 by Moelmuiri mac Ceileachar, published by the Royal Irish Academy, and printed from a lithograph of the original by O’Longan & O’Looney (preface signed by J. T. Gilbert, Dublin, 1870), 381, 387, 414, 424, 435, 498, 537, 547, 611, 613, 618, 620, 624, 654, 657, 661. Gillen: The Native Tribes of Central Australia, by Baldwin Spencer and F. J. Gillen (London, 1899), 662, 663. Giraldus: Giraldi Cambrensis Itinerarium Kambriæ et Descriptio Kambriæ, edited by James F. Dimock (Rolls Series, London, 1868), 72, 90, 269–71, 303, 389, 414, 441, 507, 509, 660. Glanffrwd: Plwyf Ỻanwyno: yr hen Amser, yr hen Bobl, a’r hen Droion, by Glanffrwd [the Rev. W. Glanffrwd Thomas] (Pontypriđ, 1888), 26. Gottingen: Göttingische gelehrte Anzeigen, unter der Aufsicht der königl. Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften (Gottingen, 1890), 544. Gregor: Notes on the Folk-lore of the North-east of Scotland, by the Rev. Walter Gregor, published for the Folk-Lore Society (London, 1881), 103. Griffin: The Poetical and Dramatic Works of Gerald Griffin (Dublin, 1857), 205, 418.Gröber: Grundriss der romanischen Philologie, unter Mitwirkung von 25 Fachgenossen, edited by Gustav Gröber (Strassburg, 1886), 563. ,, : Zeitschrift für romanische Philologie, edited by Gustav Gröber (Halle, 1877–), 563. Gruter: Iani Gruteri Corpus Inscriptionum (part ii of vol. i, Amsterdam, 1707), 580. Guest: The Mabinogion, from the Ỻyfr Coch o Hergest and other ancient Welsh manuscripts, with an English translation and notes by Lady Charlotte Guest (London, 1849), 69, 123, 196, 386, 442, 502, 507, 509, 538, 553, 560, 613, 620, 629, 645–7, 649, 672. Gwenogvryn: Facsimile of the Black Book of Carmarthen, reproduced by the autotype mechanical process, with a palæographical note by J. Gwenogvryn Evans (Oxford, 1888), 216, 217, 383, 384, 413, 432, 478, 513, 527, 543, 545, 563, 565, 619, 621. ,, : Report on Manuscripts in the Welsh Language, published by the Historical MSS. Commission (vol. i, London, 1898–9), 280, 330, 487, 573. ,, : The Text of the Bruts from the Red Book of Hergest, edited by John Rhys and J. Gwenogvryn Evans (Oxford, 1890), 163, 201, 442, 506, 512, 562. ,, : The Text of the ‘Mabinogion’ and other Welsh Tales from the Red Book of Hergest, edited by John Rhys and J. Gwenogvryn Evans (Oxford, 1887), 69, 142, 196, 207, 208, 217, 218, 225, 226, 233, 264, 280, 287, 315, 386, 388, 425, 430, 439, 440, 442, 498, 500, 502, 506, 507, 509–16, 519–27, 529–34, 536, 537, 543, 546–8, 550, 551, 553, 560, 561, 565, 580, 608–10, 613, 619, 620, 622, 628–30, 636, 637, 644, 645, 647, 649, 657, 672. ,, : The Text of the Book of Ỻan Dâv, reproduced from the Gwysaney manuscript by J. G. Evans, with the co-operation of John Rhys (Oxford, 1893) [this is also known as the Liber Landavensis], 163, 398, 476, 478, 528, 531, 568, 691. Hancock: Senchus Mór, vol. i, prefaced by W. Neilson Hancock (Dublin, 1865), 617. Hardy: Descriptive Catalogue of Materials relating to the History of Great Britain and Ireland, by Thos. Duffus Hardy (vol. i, London, 1862), 476.Hartland: The Legend of Perseus, a study of tradition in story, custom, and belief, by Edwin Sidney Hartland (London, 1894–6), 662. Hartland: The Science of Fairy Tales, an inquiry into fairy mythology, by Edwin Sidney Hartland (London, 1891), 18, 268, 583. Henderson: Fled Bricrend, edited with translation, introduction, and notes, by George Henderson (London, 1899), 501. Henderson: Notes on the Folk-Lore of the Northern Counties of England and the Borders, by Wm. Henderson (London, 1879), 340, 346.Herbord: Herbordi Vita Ottonis Ep. Bambergensis, in vol. xiv of Pertz’ Monumenta Germaniæ Historica Scriptorum [= Script. vol. xii], edited by G. H. Pertz (Hanover, 1826–85), 553. Hergest: The Red Book of Hergest: see Guest, Gwenogvryn, Skene.Heywood: The Dramatic Works of Thomas Heywood (London, 1874), 694.Higden: Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden Monachi Cestrensis, together with the English translations of John Trevisa and an unknown writer of the fifteenth century, edited by Ch. Babington (Rolls Series, London, 1865–86), 330, 331. Holder: Alt-celtischer Sprachschatz, by Alfred Holder (Leipsic, 1896–), 533, 622, 659. Howells: Cambrian Superstitions, comprising ghosts, omens, witchcraft, and traditions, by W. Howells (Tipton, 1831), 74, 155, 160, 173, 204, 245, 268, 331, 424, 453, 469, 576–9. Hübner: Das Heiligtum des Nodon: see 446. ,, : Inscriptiones Britanniæ Latinæ, edited by Æmilius Hübner and published by the Berlin Academy (Berlin, 1873), 535. Humphreys: Golud yr Oes, a Welsh magazine published by H. Humphreys (vol. i, Carnarvon, 1863), 493. ,, Ỻyfr Gwybodaeth Gyffredinol, a collection of Humphreys’ penny series (Carnarvon, no date), 408. Iolo: Iolo Manuscripts, a selection of ancient Welsh manuscripts in prose and verse from the collection made by Edward Williams (Iolo Morganwg), with English translations and notes by his son, Taliesin Williams Ab Iolo, and published for the Welsh MSS. Society (Ỻandovery, 1848), 564, 565, 569, 619. Iolo Goch: Gweithiau Iolo Goch gyda Nodiadau hanesyđol a beirniadol, by Charles Ashton, published for the Cymmrodorion Society (Oswestry, 1896), 281, 367. Jacobs: Celtic Fairy Tales, selected and edited by Joseph Jacobs (London, 1892), 567. Jamieson: An Etymological Dictionary of the Scottish Language, by John Jamieson (new ed., Paisley, 1881–2), 591. Jamieson: Popular Ballads and Songs, by Robert Jamieson (Edinburgh, 1806), 592. Jenkins: Beđ Gelert, its Facts, Fairies, and Folk-Lore, by D. E. Jenkins (Portmadoc, 1899), 450, 453, 469, 533, 567. Johnstone: Antiquitates Celto-Normannicæ, containing the Chronicle of Man and the Isles, abridged by Camden, edited by James Johnstone (Copenhagen, 1786), 334. Jones: see p. 195 for Edmund Jones’ Account of the Parish of Aberystruth (Trevecka, 1779), 195, 196. ,, : see p. 195 as to his Spirits in the County of Monmouth (Newport, 1813), 195, 217, 350. Jones: The Elucidarium and other tracts in Welsh from Ỻyvyr Agkyr Ỻandewivrevi, A.D. 1346 (Jesus College MS. 119), edited by J. Morris Jones and John Rhys (Oxford, 1894), 529, 693. Jones: The Myvyrian Archaiology of Wales, collected out of ancient manuscripts, by Owen Jones ‘Myvyr,’ Edward Williams, and William Owen (London, 1801; reprinted in one volume by Thomas Gee, Denbigh, 1870), 441, 469, 529, 560, 610, 619. Jones: A History of the County of Brecknock, by the Rev. Theophilus Jones (Brecknock, 1805, 1809), 516–8. Joyce: Old Celtic Romances, translated from the Gaelic by P. W. Joyce (London, 1879), 94, 376, 381, 437, 662. Jubainville: Le Cycle mythologique irlandais et la Mythologie celtique, by H. d’Arbois de Jubainville (Paris, 1884), 616, 617, 620. ,, : Essai d’un Catalogue de la Littérature épique de l’Irlande, by H. d’Arbois de Jubainville (Paris, 1883), 549, 616, 617, 620. Kaluza: Libeaus Desconus, edited by Max Kaluza (Leipsic, 1890), 562. Keating: Forus Feasa air Éirinn, Keating’s History of Ireland, book i, part i, edited, with a literal translation, by P. W. Joyce (Dublin, 1880), 375. Kelly: Fockleyr Manninagh as Baarlagh, a Manx-English Dictionary by John Kelly, edited by William Gill, and printed for the Manx Society (Douglas, 1866), 316, 349. Kermode: Yn Lioar Manninagh, the Journal of the Isle of Man Natural History and Antiquarian Society, edited by P. M. C. Kermode (Douglas, 1889–), 284, 289, 311, 334, 434. Kuhn: Beiträge zur vergleichenden Sprachforschung auf dem Gebiete der arischen, celtischen und slawischen Sprachen, edited by Kuhn and others (Berlin, 1858–76), 629. ,, : Zeitschrift für vergleichende Sprachforschung auf dem Gebiete der indogermanischen Sprachen, edited by Kuhn and others (Berlin, 1854–), 625.Lampeter: The Magazine of St. David’s College, Lampeter, 156.Leem: Canuti Leemii de Lapponibus Finmarchiæ Commentatio (Copenhagen, 1767), 658, 663. Leger: Cyrille et Méthode, Étude historique sur la Conversion des Slaves au Christianisme, by Louis Leger (Paris, 1868), 553.Lewis: A Topographical Dictionary of Wales, by Samuel Lewis (3rd ed., London, 1844), 395, 397, 470. Leyden: The Poetical Works of John Leyden (Edinburgh, 1875), 466.Lhuyd: Commentarioli Britannicæ Descriptionis Fragmentum, by Humfrey Lhuyd (Cologne, 1572), 412.Lindsay: The Latin Language, an historical account of Latin sounds, stems, and flexions, by Wallace Martin Lindsay (Oxford, 1894), 629. Loth: Les Mots latins dans les langues brittoniques, by J. Loth (Paris, 1892), 383.Ỻais y Wlad, a newspaper published at Bangor, N. Wales, 234. Mabinogion: see Guest and Gwenogvryn. Macbain: The Celtic Magazine, edited by Alexander Macbain (Inverness, 1866–), 520. Malmesbury: De Gestis Pontificum Anglorum Libri Quinque, edited by N. E. S. A. Hamilton (Rolls Series, London, 1870), 547. Malory: Le Morte Darthur, by Syr Thomas Malory, the original Caxton edition reprinted and edited with an introduction and glossary by H. Oskar Sommer (Nutt, London, 1889), 476, 562. ,, : Sir Thomas Malory’s Morte Darthur, with a preface by John Rhys, published by J. M. Dent & Co. (London, 1893), 543, 565. Mapes: Gualteri Mapes de Nugis Curialium Distinctiones Quinque, edited by Thomas Wright and printed for the Camden Society, 1850 [at the last moment a glance at the original Bodley MS. 851 forced me to deviate somewhat from Wright’s reading owing to its inaccuracy], 70–2, 496. Marquardt: Das Privatleben der Römer, by J. Marquardt (Leipsic, 1886), 650. Martin: A Description of the Western Islands of Scotland, by M. Martin (London, 1703), 615, 691, 692.Maspero: see 682. Maximus: Valerii Maximi factorum dictorumque memorabilium Libri novem ad Tiberium Cæsarem Augustum (the Didot ed., Paris, 1871), 623.Mela: Pomponii Melæ de Chorographia Libri Tres, ed. Gustavus Parthey (Berlin, 1867), 331, 550.Meyer: Festschrift Whitley Stokes, dedicated by Kuno Meyer and others (Leipsic, 1900), 645. ,, : The Vision of MacConglinne, edited with a translation by Kuno Meyer (London, 1892), 393, 501. Meyer: Zeitschrift für celtische Philologie, edited by Kuno Meyer and L. C. Stern (Halle, 1897–), 500. Meyer: Romania, Recueil trimestriel consacré à l’Étude des Langues et des Littératures romanes, edited by Paul Meyer and Gaston Paris (vol. xxviii. Paris, 1899), 690, 693, 694.Meyrick: The History and Antiquities of the County of Cardigan, by Samuel Rush Meyrick (London, 1808), 579.Milton: English Poems, by John Milton, 288. Mind, a quarterly review of psychology and philosophy, edited by G. F. Stout (London, 1876–), 633. Mommsen: Heortologie, antiquarische Untersuchungen über die städtischen Feste der Athener, by August Mommsen (Leipsic, 1864), 310.Monthly Packet, the, now edited by C. R. Coleridge and Arthur Innes (London, 1851–), 416, 417. Moore: The Folk-Lore of the Isle of Man, by A. W. Moore (London, 1891), 284. ,, : The Surnames and Place-names of the Isle of Man, by A. W. Moore (London, 1890), 311, 332, 334. Morgan: An Antiquarian Survey of East Gower, Glamorganshire, by W. Ỻ. Morgan (London, 1899), 404.Morganwg: Hanes Morganwg, by Dafyđ Morganwg [D. W. Jones, F.G.S.] (Aberdare, 1874) [an octavo volume issued to subscribers, and so scarce now that I had to borrow a copy], 356. Morris: Celtic Remains, by Lewis Morris, edited by Silvan Evans and printed for the Cambrian Archæological Association (London, 1878), 148, 413, 564, 566, 694. Myrđin: Prophwydoliaeth Myrđin Wyỻt: see 485.Nennius: Nennius und Gildas, edited by San-Marte (Berlin, 1844), 281, 406, 407, 537–9, 570. New English Dictionary, edited by Dr. James H. Murray and Henry Bradley (London and Oxford, 1884–), 317. Nicholson: Golspie, contributions to its folklore, collected and edited by Edward W. B. Nicholson (London, 1897), 317. Nicholson: The Poetical Works of Wm. Nicholson (3rd ed., Castle Douglas, 1878), 325. Notes and Queries (Bream’s Buildings, Chancery Lane, E.C.), 563. ,, ,, ,, : Choice Notes from ‘Notes and Queries,’ consisting of folklore (London, 1859), 140, 213, 217, 325, 418, 453, 454, 494, 596, 601, 611, 612. Nutt: The Voyage of Bran son of Febal to the Land of the Living, by Kuno Meyer and Alfred Nutt (London, 1895, 1897), 618, 620, 622, 657, 662. ,, : Studies on the Legend of the Holy Grail, by Alfred Nutt (London, 1888), 287, 438, 548. O’Curry: On the Manners and Customs of the Ancient Irish, a series of lectures delivered by the late Eugene O’Curry (London, 1873), 375, 392, 617, 632: see also Curry. O’Donovan: Annals of the Kingdom of Ireland by the Four Masters, from the earliest period to the year 1616, edited by John O’Donovan (2nd ed., Dublin, 1856), 414, 426–8, 433, 546, 569. O’Grady: Silva Gadelica, a collection of tales in Irish, with extracts illustrating persons and places, edited from manuscripts and translated by Dr. S. H. O’Grady (London, 1892), 381, 437. O’Reilly: An Irish-English Dictionary, by Edward O’Reilly, with a supplement by John O’Donovan (Dublin, 1864), 142. Oliver: Monumenta de Insula Manniæ, being vol. iv of the publications of the Manx Society, by J. R. Oliver (Douglas, 1860), 314, 334. Owen: Ancient Laws and Institutes of Wales, edited by Aneurin Owen for the Public Records Commission (London, 1841), 421. Owen: Welsh Folk-Lore, a collection of the folk-tales and legends of North Wales, being the prize essay of the National Eisteđfod in 1887, by the Rev. Elias Owen (Oswestry and Wrexham, 1896), 222, 275, 690. Owen: The Poetical Works of the Rev. Goronwy Owen, with his life and correspondence, edited by the Rev. Robert Jones (London, 1876), 84. Owen: The Description of Pembrokeshire, by George Owen of Henỻys, edited with notes and an appendix by Henry Owen (London, 1892), 506, 513, 515. Owen: The Cambrian Biography, or Historical Notices of celebrated men among the Ancient Britons, by William Owen (London, 1803), 169, 170.Paris: Merlin, Roman en Prose du XIIIe Siècle, edited by Gaston Paris and Jacob Ulrich (Paris, 1886), 563. Parthey: Itinerarium Antonini Augusti et Hierosolymitanum ex Libris manu scriptis, edited by G. Parthey and M. Pinder (Berlin, 1848), 514.Pembroke County Guardian, the, a newspaper owned and edited by H. W. Williams and published at Solva, 160, 171, 172. Pennant: A Tour in Scotland, by Thomas Pennant (Warrington, 1774), 310. ,, : A Tour in Scotland and a Voyage to the Hebrides, MDCCLXXII, by Thomas Pennant (Chester, 1774), 692. ,, : Tours in Wales, by Thomas Pennant, edited by J. Rhys (Carnarvon, 1883), 125, 130, 532. Phillimore: Annales Cambriæ and Old-Welsh Genealogies from Harleian MS. 3859, edited by Egerton Phillimore, in vol. ix of the Cymmrodor, 408, 476, 480, 551, 570. Phillips: The Book of Common Prayer in Manx Gaelic, being translations made by Bishop Phillips in 1610 and by the Manx clergy in 1765; edited by A. W. Moore, assisted by John Rhys, and printed for the Manx Society (Douglas, 1893, 1894), 320. Plautus: T. Macci Plauti Asinaria, from the text of Goetz and Schoell, by J. H. Gray (Cambridge, 1894), 535. Plutarch: De Defectu Oraculorum (the Didot ed., Paris, 1870), 331, 456, 493, 494. Powysland: Collections, historical and archæological, relating to Montgomeryshire and its Borders, issued by the Powysland Club (London, 1868–), 237.Preller: Griechische Mythologie, von L. Preller, vierte Auflage von Carl Robert (Berlin, 1887), 310.Price: Hanes Cymru a Chenedl y Cymry o’r Cynoesoeđ hyd at farwolaeth Ỻewelyn ap Gruffyđ, by the Rev. Thomas Price ‘Carnhuanawc’ (Crickhowel, 1842), 490.Ptolemy: Claudii Ptolemæi Geographia: e Codicibus recognovit Carolus Müllerus (vol. i, Paris, 1883), 385, 387, 388, 445, 581.Pughe: The Physicians of Myđvai (Međygon Myđfai), translated by John Pughe of Aberdovey, and edited by the Rev. John Williams Ab Ithel (Ỻandovery, 1861) [this volume has an introduction consisting of the Legend of Ỻyn y Fan Fach, contributed by Mr. William Rees of Tonn, who collected it, in the year 1841, from various sources named], 2, 12. Pughe: A Dictionary of the Welsh Language explained in English, by Dr. Wm. Owen Pughe (2nd ed., Denbigh, 1832), 383, 502. Rastell: A. C. Mery Talys, printed by John Rastell, reprinted in Hazlitt’s Shakespeare Jest-books (London, 1844), 599. Rees: An Essay on the Welsh Saints or the primitive Christians usually considered to have been the founders of Churches in Wales, by the Rev. Rice Rees (London and Ỻandovery, 1836), 163, 217, 396, 534.Rees: Lives of the Cambro-British Saints, by the Rev. W. J. Rees, published for the Welsh MSS. Society (Ỻandovery, 1853), 693. Rennes: Annales de Bretagne publiées par la Faculté des Lettres de Rennes (Rennes, 1886–), 500.Revue Archéologique (new series, vol. xxiii, Paris, 1800–), 386. Rhys: Celtic Britain, by John Rhys (2nd ed., London, 1884), 72. ,, : Lectures on Welsh Philology, by John Rhys (2nd ed., London, 1879), 566. ,, : Hibbert Lectures, 1886, on the origin and growth of religion as illustrated by Celtic heathendom, by John Rhys (London, 1888), 310, 321, 328, 331, 373, 387, 432, 435, 444, 447, 511, 542, 570, 613, 654, 657, 694. Rhys: Studies in the Arthurian Legend, by John Rhys (Oxford, 1891), 217, 287, 331, 375, 382, 387, 435, 438–41, 466, 494, 496, 561, 573, 610, 613. Rhys: Cambrobrytannicæ Cymraecæve Linguæ Institutiones et Rudimenta … conscripta à Joanne Dauide Rhæso, Monensi Lanuaethlæo Cambrobrytanno, Medico Senensi (London, 1592), 22, 225.Richard: The Poetical Works of the Rev. Edward Richard (London, 1811), 577.Richards: A Welsh and English Dictionary, by Thomas Richards (Trefriw, 1815) 378. Roberts: The Cambrian Popular Antiquities, by Peter Roberts, (London, 1815), 396. Rosellini: see 682. Rymer: Fœdera, Conventiones, Literæ et cujuscunque Generis Acta publica inter Reges Angliæ et alios quosvis Imperatores, Reges, Pontifices, Principes, vel Communitates, edited by Thomas Rymer (vol. viii, London, 1709), 490.Sale: The Koran, translated into English with explanatory notes and a preliminary discourse, by George Sale (London, 1877), 608. Sampson: Otia Merseiana, the publication of the Arts Faculty of University College, Liverpool, edited by John Sampson (London), 393, 451. San-Marte: Beiträge zur bretonischen und celtisch-germanischen Heldensage, by San-Marte (Quedlinburg, 1847), 611.Schwan: Grammatik des Altfranzösischen, by Eduard Schwan (Leipsic, 1888), 563. Scotland: Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland (Edinburgh), 244.Scott: the Works of Sir Walter Scott, 320, 643, 689. Sébillot: Traditions et Superstitions de la Haute-Bretagne, by Paul Sébillot (Paris, 1882), 273.Shakespeare: The Plays and Poems of Shakespeare, 197, 636, 694. Sikes: British Goblins, Welsh Folk-lore, Fairy Mythology, Legends and Traditions, by Wirt Sikes (London, 1880), 17, 18, 99, 155, 160, 173, 191, 192.Silvan Evans: Dictionary of the Welsh Language (Geiriadur Cymraeg), by D. Silvan Evans (Carmarthen, 1888–), 387, 431, 539, 580, 620, 621. ,, ,, : Y Brython, a periodical in Welsh for Welsh antiquities and folklore, edited by the Rev. D. S. 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Vigfusson: An Icelandic Dictionary, enlarged and completed by Gudbrand Vigfusson (Oxford, 1874), 288, 652. Vising: see 563. Waldron: A Description of the Isle of Man, by George Waldron, being vol. xi of the Manx Society’s publications (Douglas, 1865), 290. Waring: Recollections and Anecdotes of Edward Williams, by Elijah Waring (London, 1850), 458.Westermarck: The History of Human Marriage, by Edward Westermarck (London, 1894), 654. Weyman: From the Memoirs of a Minister of France, by Stanley Weyman (London, 1895), 690. Williams: The English Works of Eliezer Williams, with a memoir of his life by his son, St. George Armstrong Williams (London, 1840), 493. Williams: Brut y Tywysogion, or the Chronicle of the Princes, edited by John Williams Ab Ithel (Rolls Series, London, 1860), 79, 513. Williams: A Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Welshmen, by the Rev. Robert Williams (Ỻandovery, 1852), 534. ,, : Y Seint Greal, edited with a translation and glossary by the Rev. Robert Williams (London, 1876), 438, 514, 580. Williams: The Doom of Colyn Dolphyn, by Taliesin Williams (London, 1837), 561. ,, : Traethawd ar Gywreineđ Glynn Neđ, by Taliesin Williams: see 439. Williams: Observations on the Snowdon Mountains, by William Williams of Ỻandegai (London, 1802), 48, 673, 674. Windisch: Irische Texte mit Wörterbuch, by Ernst Windisch (Leipsic, 1880), 501, 657. ,, : Kurzgefasste irische Grammatik (Leipsic, 1879), 291, 501, 502, 531, 546, 547, 603, 613, 618, 691. ,, : Über die irische Sage Noinden Ulad, in the Berichte der k. sächs. Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften ( phil.-historische Classe, Dec. 1884), 654.Woodall: Bye-gones, a periodical reissue of notes, queries, and replies on subjects relating to Wales and the Borders, published in the columns of The Border Counties Advertizer, by Messrs. Woodall, Minshall & Co. of the Caxton Press, Oswestry, 169, 378. Wood-Martin: Pagan Ireland, by W. G. Wood-Martin (London, 1895), 612. Worth: A History of Devonshire, with Sketches of its leading Worthies, by R. N. Worth (London, 1895), 307.Wright: The English Dialect Dictionary, edited by Professor Joseph Wright (London and Oxford, 1898–), 66. Wynne: The History of the Gwydir Family, published by Angharad Ỻwyd in the year 1827, and by Askew Roberts at Oswestry in 1878, 490, 491, 670. Y Cymmrodor, the magazine embodying the transactions of the Cymmrodorion Society of London (Secretary, E. Vincent Evans, 64 Chancery Lane, W.C.), 374, 384, 480, 510, 513, 520, 600, 610, 690, 693, 694. Y Drych, a newspaper published at Utica in the United States of North America, 234. Y Gordofigion, an extinct Welsh periodical: see p. 450. Y Gwyliedyđ, a magazine of useful knowledge intended for the benefit of monoglot Welshmen (Bala, 1823–37), 450. Y Nofelyđ, a Welsh periodical published by Mr. Aubrey, of Ỻannerch y Međ, 396. Young: Burghead, by H. W. Young (Inverness, 1899), 345. Gallias utique possedit, et quidem ad nostram memoriam. Namque Tiberii Cæsaris principatus sustulit Druidas eorum, et hoc genus vatum medicorumque. Sed quid ego hæc commemorem in arte Oceanum quoque transgressa, et ad naturæ inane pervecta? Britannia hodieque eam attonite celebrat tantis cerimoniis, ut dedisse Persis videri possit. Adeo ista toto mundo consensere, quamquam discordi et sibi ignoto. Nec satis æstimari potest, quantum Romanis debeatur, qui sustulere monstra, in quibus hominem occidere religiosissimum erat, mandi vero etiam saluberrimum.Pliny, Historia Naturalis, XXX. 4.Pline fait remarquer que ces pratiques antipathiques au génie grec sont d’origine médique. Nous les rencontrons en Europe à l’état de survivances. L’universalité de ces superstitions prouve en effet qu’elles émanent d’une source unique qui n’est pas européenne. Il est difficile de les considérer comme un produit de l’esprit aryen; il faut remonter plus haut pour en trouver l’origine. Si, en Gaule, en Grande-Bretagne, en Irlande, tant de superstitions relevant de la magie existaient encore au temps de Pline enracinées dans les esprits à tel point que le grand naturaliste pouvait dire, à propos de la Bretagne, qu’il semblait que ce fût elle qui avait donné la magie à la Perse, c’est qu’en Gaule, en Grande-Bretagne, et en Irlande le fond de la population était composé d’éléments étrangers à la race aryenne, comme les faits archéologiques le démontrent, ainsi que le reconnait notre éminent confrère et ami, M. d’Arbois de Jubainville lui-même.Alexandre Bertrand, La Religion des Gaulois, pp. 55, 56.Une croyance universellement admise dans le monde lettré, en France et hors de France, fait des Français les fils des Gaulois qui ont pris Rome en 390 avant Jésus-Christ, et que César a vaincus au milieu du premier siècle avant notre ère. On croit que nous sommes des Gaulois, survivant à toutes les révolutions qui depuis tant de siècles ont bouleversé le monde. C’est une idée préconçue que, suivant moi, la science doit rejeter. Seuls à peu près, les archéologues ont vu la vérité …. Les pierres levées, les cercles de pierre, les petites cabanes construites en gros blocs de pierre pour servir de dernier asile aux défunts, étaient, croyait-on, des monuments celtiques …. On donnait à ces rustiques témoignages d’une civilisation primitive des noms bretons, ou néo-celtiques de France; on croyait naïvement, en reproduisant des mots de cette langue moderne, parler comme auraient fait, s’ils avaient pu revenir à la vie, ceux qui ont remué ces lourdes pierres, ceux qui les ont fixées debout sur le sol ou même élevées sur d’autres …. Mais ceux qui ont dressé les pierres levées, les cercles de pierres; ceux qui ont construit les cabanes funéraires ne parlaient pas celtique et le breton diffère du celtique comme le français du latin.H. d’Arbois de Jubainville, Les premiers Habitants de l’Europe, II. xi–xiii.

CHAPTER I

Undine’s Kymric Sisters

Undine, liebes Bildchen du,Seit ich zuerst aus alten KundenDein seltsam Leuchten aufgefunden,Wie sangst du oft mein Herz in Ruh!De la Motte Fouqué . The chief object of this and several of the following chapters is to place on record all the matter I can find on the subject of Welsh lake legends: what I may have to say of them is merely by the way and sporadic, and I should feel well paid for my trouble if these contributions should stimulate others to communicate to the public bits of similar legends, which, possibly, still linger unrecorded among the mountains of Wales. For it should be clearly understood that all such things bear on the history of the Welsh, as the history of no people can be said to have been written so long as its superstitions and beliefs in past times have not been studied; and those who may think that the legends here recorded are childish and frivolous, may rest assured that they bear on questions which could not themselves be called either childish or frivolous. So, however silly a legend may be thought, let him who knows such a legend communicate it to somebody who will place it on record; he will then probably find that it has more meaning and interest than he had anticipated.

I.

I find it best to begin by reproducing a story which has already been placed on record: this appears desirable on account of its being the most complete of its kind, and the one with which shorter ones can most readily be compared. I allude to the legend of the Lady of Ỻyn y Fan Fach in Carmarthenshire, which I take the liberty of copying from Mr. Rees of Tonn’s version in the introduction to The Physicians of Myđvai 1