Wydawca: Tamer Kutdoga Kategoria: Nauka i nowe technologie Język: angielski Rok wydania: 2015

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Opis ebooka Ancient Divine Light - Tamer Kutdo?a

By Tamer KutdogaToday, the answer of question: “True? For whom? For what?” which will remove the chaos in the world, can be given after understanding the “UNIVERSAL GEOMETRY” (Crystalographic Geometry) which is the homogeneous summary since Mathematics the alphabet of all sciences, appeals to the eye. The study in this book shows that the geometric figure which anyone could easily understand, is the “Regular tetrahedron” (B in Part Three, E-III in Part Four) which is the first piece of Plato’s Regular Pentahedron which is the basis of Universal Geometry and also Master Plan of the Universe. When the triangle be-tween the head and hands of Mawlawi dervish is connected with the feet “TRIANGULAR PYRAMID” in other words “Geometry of Mawlawi Dervish” comes out.In the first part of the book some modern knowledge about UNIVERSE, and in the se-cond part some modern knowledge about HUMAN BEINGS are given. In the third part, as per the modern knowledge in the previous parts, it is concluded that the synthesis of uni-verse and human beings is the “TRIANGULAR PYRAMID” which represents the human beings (means micro cosmos) and which is also the geometry of Mawlawi Dervish. The result according to the "new Theory of Everything" in the 4th Chapter was the same. In case such a simple summary of Universe which everybody can under-stand, is generally approved by the academic authorities, the World can be the key to Heaven.

Opinie o ebooku Ancient Divine Light - Tamer Kutdo?a

Fragment ebooka Ancient Divine Light - Tamer Kutdo?a

1

ANCIENT DIVINE LIGHT

(Master Plan of Our Universe)

and an essay on

“Theory of Everything”

by

Tamer Kutdoğa

Ancient Divine Light by Tamer KUTDOĞA

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ANCIENT DIVINE LIGHT

By

Tamer Kutdoğa

e-mail: kutdoga.tamer@gmail.com

web: www.nurukadim.com

Author : Tamer Kutdoğa

Copyright by : Tamer Kutdoğa

Published by : Matis Reklam Tanıtım Hiz. Ltd. Şti.

Print : Matis Reklam Tanıtım Hiz. Ltd. Şti.

ISBN : 978-605-65318-2-8

3

About the Author:

TAMER KUTDOĞA [1938-]

I was born in Istanbul on 1938. I was graduated from primary school in 1950 in Istanbul; and from secondary school and high school in 1957 in Adana located in south Anatolia.

After the military service in 1963, I have decided to find an Institute which makes research for a more livable World, and work there for a lifetime.

After being graduated from Ankara School of Economics and Commercial Science in 1968, I went to Germany. For two-three years in Germany, I made contacts in Belgium, Germany and Switzerland with some of nearly 300 addresses which I found in the address books. I came to a conclusion that all of them were political corporations which have in fact been founded for cover humanistic purposes.

Now in the year 2013, after a half century, I believe that with this book, I achieved the goal I have determined in 1963 to a certain extent, since 1978 when I came back from Germany.

I belive that I wrote in this book what the people want to know but they do not know and what they want to say but cannot say.

But, it will only be possible to achieve the real goal by academicians’ (named as philoso-phers) updating and improving this study in the light of new improvements, in a Cosmology Institute to be founded.

Ancient Divine Light by Tamer KUTDOĞA

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PREFACE

PART ONE UNIVERSE

A) ASTRAL UNIVERSE

I) HISTORICAL EVOLUTION OF OUR UNIVERSE

II) SOLAR SYSTEM

III) OUR GALAXY - MILKY WAY

IV) OTHER GALAXIES

V) QUASARS

VI) BLACK HOLES

ADDITIONAL EVOLUTION AND DRAWINGS ON ASTRAL UNIVERSE

B) ATOMIC UNIVERSE

I) SUBATOMIC particles

II) VIRTUAL GEOMETRIES FORMED BY SUBATOMIC particles

III) RADIATIONS

1) ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES

2) PHOTON and GRAVITON

3) BLACK BODY

4) VISIBLE LIGHT

5) ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT

6) INFRARED LIGHT

7) RADIOACTIVITY

8) GAMMA RAYS

9) X-RAYS

10) RADIO WAVES and MICROWAVES

11) TELEVISION WAVES

12) COSMIC RADIATIONS

13) LASER RAYS

IV) ATOMS (ELEMENTS)

V) 4 FORCES OF ATOM

1) MASS GRAVITY FORCE

2) WEAK NUCLEUS FORCE

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

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3) STRONG NUCLEUS FORCE

4) ELECTROMAGNETIC FORCE

VI) FISSION

VII) FUSION

VIII) MOLECULES

IX) COMPOUNDS

X) CRYSTALS

ADDITIONAL TABLES FOR THE ATOMIC UNIVERSE

C) LIVING THINGS

I) SINGLE CELLED CREATURES

II) MULTI CELLED CREATURES

PART TWOHUMAN BEINGS

A) HISTORICAL EVOLUTION OF HUMAN BEINGS

SOME ADDITIONAL PICTURES AND DRAWINGS ABOUT THE HISTORICAL EVOLUTION OF HUMAN BEINGS

B) LANGUAGE EVOLUTION OF HUMAN BEINGS

C) EVOLUTION OF RELIGION OF HUMAN BEINGS

I) COLLECTING, HUNTING AND WITCHING

II) AGRICULTURE, THE FIRST VILLAGES AND MOTHER GODDESS:

III) POLYTHEISTIC RELIGIONS

IV) MONOTHEISTIC RELIGIONS AND AFTER

1) EGYPT SUN GOD

2) JUDAISM

3) TAOISM

4) CHRISTIANITY

5) ISLAM

a) FIVE PILLARS OF ISLAM

b) SUPHISM

b1) DEFINITION OF SUPHISM

b2) THE PURPOSE OF SUPHISM

b3) HISTORY OF SUPHISM

b4) RELIGIOUS ORDERS IN ISLAM

c) SUPHISM IN THE OTHER RELIGIONS

d) OTHER ORGANIZATIONS SIMILAR TO SUFISM

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Ancient Divine Light by Tamer KUTDOĞA

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V) RELIGIONS OF TODAY’S WORLD

VI) RESULTS ABOUT THE RELIGIONS

ADITIONAL PICTURES AND DRAWINGS FOR EVOLUTION OF RELIGION OF HUMAN BEINGS

D) EVOLUTION OF KNOWLEDGE OF HUMAN BEINGS:

I) KNOWLEDGE IN COLLECTING AND HUNTING PERIOD

II) KNOWLEDGE IN AGRICULTURE AND STOCKBREEDING PERIOD

III) KNOWLEDGE IN THE FIRST VILLAGES AND AFTER:

IV) EVOLUTION OF KNOWLEDGE IN THE FIRST CITIES and AFTER UP TO-DAY

PART THREE

SYNTHESIS OF UNIVERSE and HUMAN BEINGS

A) PRELIMINARY PREPARATION TO THE UNIVERSAL SYNTHESIS ACCORDING TO THE MODERN

I) PHILOSOPHERS RELATED WITH THE UNIVERSE

II) PHILOSOPHERS RELATED WITH THE HUMAN BEINGS

III) THE ONES VERY CLOSE TO THE UNIVERSAL SYNTHESIS

IV) SYMBOLS PREPARING THE UNIVERSAL SYNTHESIS

V) DEFINITIONS ABOUT UNIVERSE PREPARING

THE UNIVERSAL SYNTHESIS

VI) DEFINITIONS ABOUT THE HUMAN BEINGS PREPARING THE UNIVERSAL SYNTHESIS

B) REASONS OF WHY “MAWLAWI DERVISH” and HIS GEOMETRY “TRIANGULAR PYRAMID” CONSTITUTE THE UNIVERSAL SYNTHESIS

SOME PICTURES AND DRAWINGS IN ADDITION TO PART THREE

C) COMMENTS FOR THE HUMAN BEINGS ABOUT THE MAWLAWI DERVISH AND HIS GEOMETRY “TRIANGULAR PYRAMID”, IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE MODERN KNOWLEDGE AND “NEW EVERYTHING THEORY”

I) HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT PREPARING THE COMMENT OF MAWLAWI DERVISH AND HIS GEOMETRY

II) COMMENTS OF MAWLAWI DERVISH ON THE INDIVIDUALS

III) INTERPRETATION OF THE MEVLEVI DERVISH ABOUT THE SOCIETY

D) HISTORICAL ANALYSIS OF MATERIALISM DOMINATING THE WORLD TODAY AND A UNIVERSAL SOLUTION FOR THE IDEAL FUTURE

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E) CERTAIN FUNDAMENTAL TRUTHS YOUNG PEOPLE NEED TO KNOW IN THE BEGINNING OF THEIR JOURNEY IN THIS ERA

I) IN THE LIGHT OF ISLAMIC MYSTICISM AND THE INFORMATION IN THIS BOOK, THE IDEAL OF EVERY MAN CONSISTS 4 STAGES ACCORDING TO ME

II) TWO REASONS TO HAVE THE OPPORTUNITY THAT HAS

NEVER BEEN OFFERED UNTIL THIS ERA

III) FOUR CONDITIONS TO USE THE OPPORTUNITY

OFFERED BY THIS ERA

PART FOUR“NEW THEORY OF EVERYTHING”

A) NECESSITY OF SUCH A THEORY

B) PREVIOUS “THEORIES OF EVERYTHING”

I) FIRST THEORY

II) SECOND THEORY

III) THIRD THEORY

C) PRELIMINARY INFORMATION PREPARING THE NEW THEORY OF EVERYTHING

I) DEFINES and COMMENTS OF MATHEMATICS

II) BASIC DEVELOPMENTS IN THE HISTORY OF MATEMATICS

D) “NEW THEORY OF EVERYTHING” AS PER THE TABLES

AND GEOMETRIES IN THE ANNEXES

I) GENERAL DEVELOPMENT OF UNIVERSE AND ITS STRUCTURE:

II) 6 BASIC NUMBERS IN THE CREATION OF UNIVERSE ACCORDING TO MARTIN REES, THE ENGLISH ASTRONOMER

III) SUBATOMIC PARTICLES, AND VIRTUAL AND

CRYSTALOGRAPHIC GEOMETRIES THEY CONSTITUTE

IV) ELEMENTS (ATOMS)

V) MOLECULES, COMPOUNDS, CREATURES and HUMAN BEINGS:

VI) DNA, ASTROLOGY AND QUANTUM UNIVERSE:

VII) TABLE FOR THE CLASSIFICATION OF UTOPIC AND

FANTASTIC SCIENCES (ANNEX-IVa)

VIII) TABLE OF MATHEMATICS

IX) MAGNIFICENCE OF OUR UNIVERSE

E) LAST WORDS

I) MATHEMATICAL CODES AND OUR MATERIAL UNIVERSE

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Ancient Divine Light by Tamer KUTDOĞA

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1) EULER THE MATHEMATICIAN

a) MATHEMATICIAN EULER’S EQUATION ABOUT PLATO’S REGULAR POLYHEDRONS

b) MATHEMATICIAN EULER’S EQUATION ABOUT THE STARS OF PLATO’S REGULAR POLYHEDRONS

2) PLATO’S REGULAR POLYGONS ARE COMPOSED OF TWO TYPES, RIGHT ANGLED TRIANGLES

3) GEOMETRIES ON THE ORBITS OF MOTIONS BETWEEN THE PLANETS

4) MATHEMATICS IN THE ORBITS OF PLANET

II) REASONS OF WHY “BIG BANG STAR” (BBS) IS THE CODE OF UNIVERSAL FACT

1) OTHER PLATO OBJECTS IN BBS

2) CALCULUS EQUATION

3) ELEMENT CRYSTALS

4) GOLDEN RATIO

5) MATHEMATICS IN THE MUSIC

ADDITIONAL PICTURES AND TABLES FOR THE MATHEMATICS IN MUSIC

a) TABLE OF THE APPROXIMATE VALUES OF WAVELENGTHS OF SOUND, COLOR, LIGHT AND HEAT RADIATIONS; AND THE SIGNATURES

b) TABLE INCLUDING THE SIMILARITY OF ORBITAL LINES OF PLANETS AND THE HARMONOGRAPH LINES OF SOUNDS IN MUSIC

c) TABLE OF RATIOS OF FREQUENCIES IN DOUBLE SOUNDS COMPOSING THE NOTES

III) THE REASONS OF WHY THE CODE OF UNIVERSAL FACT IS THE “TRIANGULAR PYRAMID” WHICH IS THE GEOMETRY OF MAWLAWI DERVISH

1) TRIADS IN THE DECIMAL NUMBERS IN ARITHMETICS

2) TRIADS IN GEOMETRY

3) TRIADS IN PHYSICS

a) EXAMPLES FOR TWO DIMENSIONS IN THE FUNDAMENTAL PARTICLES OF ATOM

b) THREE DIMENSION EXAMPLES IN THE FUNDAMENTAL PARTICLES OF ATOM

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c) 3D EXAMPLES IN THE PERIODICAL ELEMENTS

d) TRIADS IN THE COMPOUNDS

4) OTHER REASONS

ADDITIONAL PICTURES AND DRAWINGS FOR THE PART FOUR AND LAST WORDS:F) MAJOR RESULTS REGARDING TODAY’S WORLD

G) THINGS TO DO IN THE FUTURE

TABLES IN THE ANNEXES

ANNEX-Ia:TABLES OF THE QUANTUMS OF THE UNIVERSES

ANNEX-Ib:GENERAL CALCULUS EQUATION OF OUR UNIVERSE WHICH

STANDS BETWEEN TWO BIG-BANGS

ANNEX-Ic: CALCULUS EQUATION OF SUBATOMIC PARTICLES OF OUR

UNIVERSE WHICH STANDS BETWEEN TWO BIG-BANGS

ANNEX-Id:CALCULUS EQUATION OF CURRENT AND SYMMETRIC

FUTURE VALUES OF SUBATOMIC PARTICLES OF OF OUR

UNIVERSE WHICH STANDS BETWEEN TWO BIG-BANGS

ANNEX-Ie: HISTORY OF OUR UNIVERSE

ANNEX-If: SECRETS OF OUR UNIVERSE

ANNEX-IIa:FIRST BIG-BANG STAR (BBS 1)

ANNEX-IIb:SECOND BIG-BANG STAR (BBS 2)

ANNEX-IIc:SUPER CUBE

ANNEX-IId:STAR OF DAVID PRISM

ANNEX-IIe:TABLE OF SINGLE PARTICLES OF ATOM

ANNEX-IIf: PARTICLES WHICH HAVE BEEN SWEPT AWAY IN THE LAST

SECOND OF THE PREVIOUS UNIVERSE AND FORMED IN

THE FIRST SECOND OF BIG-BANG

ANNEX-IIg: BIG-BANG DOUBLE PYTHAGORAS TRIANGULAR PYRAMID

ANNEX-IIh: TABLE OF DOUBLE PARTICLES OF ATOM

ANNEX-IIi: TABLE OF TRIPLE PARTICLES OF ATOM

ANNEX-IIIa:TABLE OF PERIODICAL ELEMENTS AND NUMBER OF

ELECTRONS IN THEIR ORBITS:

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Ancient Divine Light by Tamer KUTDOĞA

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ANNEX-IIIb:PERIODICAL ELEMENTS AND ISOTOPES ACCORDING TO

THEIR PROTON AND NEUTRON NUMBERS

ANNEX-IIIc:“DOUBLE PYTHAGORAS TRIANGULAR PYRAMID” WHICH IS

THE CREATION CODE OF PERIODICAL ELEMENTS BEFORE

AND AFTER BIG-BANG:

ANNEX-IIId:DOUBLE PYTHAGORAS TRIANGULAR PYRAMIDS WHICH

ARE THE CODE OF SUBATOMIC particles IN THE

QUANTUMS OF UNIVERSES:

ANNEX-IVa:UTOPIC AND PERHAPS FANTASTIC TABLE OF

CLASSIFICATION OF SCIENCES:

ANNEX-IVb:HISTORICAL TABLE OF HUMAN BEINGS ON THE WORLD SOME OF THE REFERENCE DOCUMENTS:

BIBLIOGRAPHY

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From the ancient times up to-day, if we analyse the evolution of knowledge of the human beings, it would be enlightening to make this evaluation; Evolution of Knowledge has followed Central Asia, Sumerian Empire, Egypt, Greece, India, Islam and Europeroute. Today, being influenced by the fights between the Crusaders and Islam in the Middle Age, civi-lizations of the West cannot leave their habit to start everything from Greeks. Even today, there are still many things misevaluated especially from this knowledge accu-mulation before Al-Andalus, which has traveled via al-Andalus route to Europe and started the Renaissance. One of the most important part of them is most of hundreds of Islam scholars (namely Philosophers) who have lived after the VIIIth century, dealed with all sciences of their age and expressed the synthe-sis of their knowledge in their works. Ibn Sina (Avi-cenna) is one of the most important examples. Both those scholars, and the persons who read the schol-ars’ works and who were in the enlightening position (namely Wise Old Men) were obeyed. An example is the Seljuk Sultan who has cried for waiting too long to talk to Mevlana (Rumi) in Konya in the XIIIth century. Who can regret the saying of Ataturk “Our true mentor in life is sci-ence.”. But today, in the 21st century, howmany “Mentor professors” do we have? Who learned the other sciences of their ages except their own fields as much as to be called a Philos-opher? Who explained the synthesis they obtained in their works as to give a message to the ordinary people? We need to ask.

In this book, we tried to accumulate the knowledge to reach to a modern, universal, easy un-derstandable synthesis, for universality and finding the secrets of universe, as a guidance to the human beings, devoted to the purpose of a better world and humanism. Thus, it was tried to draw conclusions from important studies of 21st century like: Islam Mysticism of XIII.Century in other words ‘Kesvette Vahdet’(Unity in Plurality); the thesis of Einstein: “Four forces in atom have become as one force in Big-bang” which he tried to solve for 30 years, but that he couldn’t manage to do; and “Quantum Mass Gravity and Combined Field Theories”. In Part 4-NEW THEORY OF EVERYTHINGwent beyond its purpose, and a fund of knowledge was introduced for illuminating the yet unkown subjects.

Now let us give the meanings of some scientific descriptions:

SCIENCE:Its purpose is finding the laws of universe. Those laws are searched in two ways.

1- THEORY:Knowledge in intangible, in other words in the field of thought.

2- APPLICATION(Practice): Knowledge in tangible, in other words in the field of material and motion.

If theory exists, then ‘Application’ exists, too. If theory doesn’t exist, then ‘Application’ doesn’t exist, either. They cannot be separated.

Material, Kinetics, Time;all of them are different states of Energyand they are inte-gral.

IRREGULAR KNOWLEDGE AND CONSIDERATION:It is the non-connected knowledge.

SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE AND CONSIDERATION:It is the semi-connected knowledge.

PHILOSOPHICAL KNOWLEDGE AND CONSIDERATION:In a sound expression, “UNI-VERSAL KNOWLEDGE”or “COSMOLOGY”is the full connected knowledge. In other words, knowledge is a lacking and incomplete process which keeps going towards the accurateness. At least for today…

PREFACE

Ancient Divine Light by Tamer KUTDOĞA

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PHILOSOPHER: He is a person who connects the knowledge of ages with-in the mental principles and who establishes a system. But today how many universities in the world have Cosmolo-gy lecture? I don’t know. It is up to the philosophers. But they are in the fight of “Are minds, minds; are ideas, ideas?” But philosophy should be made by adding modern knowledge to the old ideas and knowl-edge.

As far as we know, the most perfect creature Allah has created, “Human beings”, have to know first the Universe and next himself as a whole, in order to remove the problems on the world, to build a happy social order suitable to both the perfectness and symphony of the Uni-verse, and his own perfect-ness. All evil and negations are caused by lack of knowledge or misinformation. Who can find fault with the mistaken, unless the Universal facts are told to the human beings?

They have gathered the blinds together, they have brought an elephant, every blind person has touched on another part of the elephant, they have asked what it was, and none of them could understand that it was an elephant. In today’s world, human beings use initiative only according to the ear or tail of the elephant. If we cannot understand what the Universe which we live inside and which we are a part of it, is; and what the human beings are; the chaotic situa-tion will go on in the World. Cosmology Science should have explained the whole Universe for the human beingsto be able to use initiative, in the correct way. Only then, we can expect the authorities to build a happy social order based on JUSTICE(Balance, rhythm, harmony, regularity, order, equation, symmetry) and KNOWLEDGE(Cosmology, Universal knowledge) in our beautiful world, ideal for the perfectness of Universe and human beings. Otherwise, no one can blame the ones who make the world unlivable, with wrong initiatives. We are accustomed to the struggles throughout the history. But the weapons of mass destruc-tion which would destruct the continuously developing world and humanity, show that those struggles will not be able to go on.

Today, the answer of question: “True? For whom? For what?”which will remove the chaos in the world, can be given after understanding the “UNIVERSAL GEOMETRY” (Crystalographic Geometry)which is the homogeneous summary since Mathematics the alphabet of all sciences, appeals to the eye. The study in this book shows that the geometric figure which anyone could easily understand, is the “Regular tetrahedron”(B in Part Three, E-III in Part Four) which is the first piece of Plato’s Regular Pentahedron which is the basis of Universal Geometry and also Master Plan of the Universe.When the triangle be-tween the head and hands of Mawlawi dervish is connected with the feet “TRIAN-GULAR PYRAMID”in other words “Geometry of Mawlawi Dervish”comes out.

In the first part of the book some modern knowledge about UNIVERSE, and in the se-cond part some modern knowledge about HUMAN BEINGSare given. In the third part, as per the modern knowledge in the previous parts, it is concluded that the synthesis of uni-verse and human beings is the “TRIANGULAR PYRAMID” which represents the human beings (means micro cosmos) and which is also the geometry of Mawlawi Dervish.In case such a simple summary of Universe which everybody can under-stand, is generally approved by the academic authorities, the World can be the key to Heaven.

In the fourth part of the book, a “New Theory of Everything” development essay which doesn’t appear in the Modern Literature was introduced on the basis of additional tables at the end of the book, after three Everything Theories which Physicists have presented before. When the contents of the book are taken into consideration, although this theory is not a Physics Theory, but an unprofessional theory, it should be indicated that it is an “Everything’s The-ory of Everything”essay. Although this theory and annex tables which are being published for the first time in this book, are perceived as a fantasy by the scientific community who un-derestimate the geometry since it is not completely proved with high mathematics equations;

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not only our Universe, but the previous and future Universes are also being explained with this theory. This is also a first time assumption. But, the “Our Universe between Two Big-Bangs”tables given in ANNEX-Ia, b, c, dput the Calculus Arc and Equationwhich is the unreached peak of High Mathemat-ics up to day, by making it able to calculate the basic functions of Universes. Although today it seems to be rather unprofessional, I believe that the “Calculus Equation of Universes”will retrieve the geome-tries presented in this book from being a fantasy, and it will have the last word in the future.

Either the modern knowledge in this book, or the assumptions which are not built as a theory yet, it should not be taken only as intended for a development in the Science. Modern knowledge is already present. But here, if the virtual geometries and assumptions which are pre-sented by combining the mod-ern knowledge, are proved, built as a theory to explain everything in our Universe and besides, previous and future Universes; it can be a magic tool to get rid of all of the problems in our current World.

Even though the things written in the book appeal to everybody, since they also appeal to the sci-entists in order to prove the assumptions in part 4, readers may omit the details which they have difficulty to understand. The important things are concluded simple geometries and the results. Accuracy of the results will be evaluated by the reactions from academic environ-ment after the book is published. The knowledge in this book will be a repertory for the people who will study at the same purpose in the future; many inapprehensible subjects up to-day will be understandable. Chronologically, in the second part, “Evolution of Knowledge”, origi-nal works (which I couldn’t reach) of scientists who have performed goal-oriented studies in the history of human beings up to-day, may shed light on the future studies. Translating and pre-senting all of those works one by one can make the human beings find the “Univer-sal Fact”and reach to the purpose of turning of Mawlawi Dervish into Allah mystically, by means of knowledge,accordingly. Greetings to the scientists who will assist to the human beings for reaching to that grade.

Tamer Kutdoğa

Ancient Divine Light by Tamer KUTDOĞA

14

13,7 Billion years ago

Universe started to be formed by means of Big-bang (big collision)

13,2 Billion years ago

Enlightened (it was dark before)

7 Billion years ago

Universe is as gas clusters made of the first atom: hydrogen (Nebula)

4,5 Billion years ago

Formation of Sun and Planets

3 Billion years ago

The first living plant was formed from a single celled algae coal.

565 Million years ago

The first moving marine animal

300 Million years ago

The first plants

225-75 Million years ago

Dinosaurs

260-180 Million years ago

Europe and America separate from each other

100 Million years ago

The first insects

55-30 Million years ago

“Mayohipis” (cleft foot): Ancestors of ancestors

7 Million years ago

“Rif cavity” from the central South of Africa to Syria and Hatay. Tan-gan-yika lake (4 thousand meters deep) was formed.

B.C. 3 – 200

Mountains started to appear

B.C. 1 million –600000

The oldest ice age (Nile River Valley is covered with lake)

B.C. 600000 – 540000

I. Ice age (Nile River Valley dried up)

B.C. 540000 - 480000

480 thusand hot age (the first wild horse)

B.C. 480000 – 430000

II. Ice age

B.C. 400000- 240000

II. Middle Ice age

B.C. 240000- 180000

III. Ice age

B.C. 180000 – 120000

Hot age

B.C. 60000- 10000

Last middle ice age. Northern hemisphere is covered with ice from Hima-laya Mountains to the Alps, to Istanbul and Central America. Only Central Asia has the livable climate since it is far from the effects of oceans. There is a lake in the Central Asia, which is wider than Cas-pian Sea.

B.C. 10000

Ice melts in the northern hemisphere. World seas are rising 80 meters. Today (A.D. 2003) the oxygen rate in the atmosphere is 21%.

As indicated above, when the universe was started to be formed by means of Bing-Bang 13,7 billion years ago(1010years ago), the temperature was 5 billion C°. It was enlightened 13.2 billion years ago.The other particles were started to develop from the Photonparticles constituting the light. 300-700 thousand years after Big-Bang, thefirst atom: Hydro-genappeared. Today, still 80% of the Universe is formed by Hydrogen. After 5-10 Billion years, when Hydrogen which the Sun burns inside comes to an end, its diameter will be 100 times enlarged, it will be a “Red Giant”, its bright-ness will increase 1000 times, the near plan-ets (Mercury and Venus) will melt because of its heat and the oceans on Earth will be evaporated. Later, the Sun will finish its fuel completely, its outer cover will disappear and it will be a “White Dwarf”. Today, one-tenth of stars (Suns) in our galaxy Milky Way are in this condition. Their specific weights are a tea spoon, one tone, in low brightness and blue-white in color. Later density will go on increasing. Electronsand Protonswill combine to constitute Neutronsand Anti-Neutrinos.Neutrinos will run away to the stars and become distant. The remaining neutrons will go on densifying and the Sun will become a “Neutron Star”. Still, 200 of 100-200 billion stars in Milky Way are Neutron Stars. They will also go on densifying and

PART ONE

“UNIVERSE”

A) ASTRAL UNIVERSE:

I) HISTORICAL EVOLUTION OF OUR UNIVERSE:

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shrinking. When they reach to three times the mass of the Sun, they will become “Black Holes”and then they will start to vacuum everything inside. The ones being vacu-umed by a Black Hole will either disappear, or they will become “White Hole”, and a new Universe will start to be formed in the space by means of “Big-Bang”.

II) SOLAR SYSTEM:

Planets rotate around the Sun on a plane orbit. This orbit is ellipse shaped. Sun is on one of the focal points of this ellipse.

Three different motions of Sun:

1. Sun completes the left to right motion around itself in 24 days.

2. It completes its motion around the Milky Way together with its planets, making a spiral arc motion from right to left in 230 million years.

DIAMETER (KM)

DISTANCE FROM THE SUN (MILLION KM)

ROTATION AROUND THE SUN

ROTATION AROUND ITSELF

SUN

1.391.000

24 DAYS

MERCURY

5.140

57

88 DAYS

88 DAYS

VENUS

12.190

108

225 DAYS

225 DAYS

EARTH

12.756

149

365 DAYS

24 HOURS

MARS

6.860

227

687 DAYS

245 HOURS

ASTEROIDS

JUPITER

192.700

778

12 YEARS

9 HR 53 MIN

SATURN

120.800

1427

29,5 YEARS

10 HR 14 MIN

URANUS

49.700

2871

84 YEARS

10 HR 42 MIN

NEPTUNE

53.000

4499

165 YEARS

15 HR 48 MIN

PLUTO

6.600

5910

250 YEARS

?

MOTION OF SUN AND

PLANETS IN THE

MILKY-WAY

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3. Its common motion with the other surrounding stars.

Temperature in the center of Sun is 14 million C°. In case the heat was 5 billion C°, Neu-trino and Anti-Neutrinoswould run away to the space and the remaining Neutrons would have chain explo-sions. While the solar system travels in the Milky Wmoon, it enters in a dark cloud once in every 10 million years. The world comes to an Ice age when the solar system enters in this dark cloud. While the solar system rotates in spiral motions in the opposite direc-tion of Milky Way, from right to left, its speed is 216 km/seconds. Solar system is one in 160 billion of Milky Way.

a) Moon:Being 384 thousand km far from the Earth, it rotates around the Earth from left to right. 50 million years later,Moon will move away from Earth and the location of continents will change on the Earth.

b) Venus: Temperature of its surface is 480 C°. It is the only planet which rotates in the opposite direction of Earth, around the Sun. All of the others rotate from right to left like the Earth.

c) Comets: Being 1517meters far from us,they are the cloud banks rotating around the Solar System. It shows that the Sun rotates not only together with its planets, but also to-gether with its comets around the Milky Way.

When the comets get closer to the Sun, they have tails behind them. When they go far awmoon, they seem like round planets again. There are 42 comets rotating around the Sun in periods between three years and thousands of years.

d) Earth:It rotates around the Sun on an ellipse orbit which is 300 million km long. It rotates around itself from right to left with a speed of 465 m/sec.It rotates around the Sun with a speed of29760m/sec.After approximately between 50 thousand and 1 million years,poles of the Earth will be switched. The nearest star is 4017m far awayfrom the Earth and its lights reach to us in 4.5 years. Lunar eclipse and solar eclipse take place once in 18 years and 11 days in the Earth.

OUR GALAXY-MILKY WAY:

VEGA STAR

SOLAR SYSTEM IS MOVING TOWARDS THE VEGA STAR SPIRALING.

THE RATIO OF SOLAR SYSTEM TO THE MILKY WAY:

1 SOLAR SYSTEM

160 BILLION MILKY WAY

SEASONS

NORTH HEMISPHERE

SOUTH HEMISPHERE

SPRING

MARCH 23rd

DECEMBER 22nd

SUMMER

JUNE 22nd

MARCH 21st

FALL

SEPTEMBER 23rd

JUNE 22nd

WINTER

DECEMBER 22nd

SEPTEMBER 23rd

STARTING DATES OF SEASONS IN THE WORLD:

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III) OUR GALAXY MILKY WAY:Its diameter is 110.000 light years, (1 light years= 9450 billion km) and thickness is 20.000 light years. There are nearly 200 billion stars similar to the Sun in the Milky Way. Milky Way completes its rotation around itself from left to right in 250 million years.

IV) OTHER GALAXIES:The closest one, “Andromeda”is spiral shaped and 750 thou-sand light years far from the Earth. The farthest is far away more than 1 billion light years. It means that today we see the galaxies as they are 1 billion years ago. 6 billion years later,our galaxy Milky Way will collide with the closest galaxy Andromeda and they will inter-penetrate. But their stars will not collide, their surroundings will be overheated. Galaxies are in groups which have their own gravity areas. Our galaxy Milky Way is also in such a galaxy group. Among them, we know that there are 500 galaxies in the “Virgo”group. It can be determined in 3D by special telescopes that billions of galaxy clusters and su-per galaxy clusters in the uni-verse are interconnected with Filaments like the nerves in the human body. Filaments are beams formed by Photons which are the elementary PARTICLES OF our universe which enlarges because of the electromagnetic force. Also, the galaxies have their Satellite Galaxies.Every single galaxy in the Universe moves away from each other with a speed of 61.000 km/sec. It means that, the Universe is enlarging by getting faster.The closer the orbs to the center of gravity, the faster they are.

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V) QUASARS:They radiate energy in the space more than 100 big galaxies do. In fact, they are space objects which are only two-three times bigger that the Sun. Quasars are as-sumed as the farthest visible objects of the Universe. After Big-Bang, Quasars appeared. Some of them were a hundred trillion times brighter than the Sun. Later all of them disappeared. But since the rays are still on their ways, they are today still visible. Today, some of the visible 350 Quasarsare 10 billion light years far away from us. “Blue Star Quasar”is 4 billion light years away from the Earth. Since the big energy as much as Quasars produce cannot be a nuclear reaction, it is supposed that they are constituted from the big images as a result of “Material-Anti-Material collision”. (In this Part Four; the previous universe’s being an Anti-Material Universe and our Material Universe’s starting with a Bing-Bangshows the accuracy of our thesis) According to the theoreticians, Quasarswere Black holes in the middle of galaxies. Kinetic Energy which they emit after they soak everything around, they exceed the speed of light, they become pure energy and burst;can today still be seen as light (again we can see the accuracy of the thesis which we explained in the Part Four that: The Universe which has been gathered at the end of the Universe before the Bing-Bang to become a Black hole was gathered with the Potential Energy and then burst and ex-panded by means of Kinetic Energy). The last Quasar in the Universe died about 1 billion years ago.

VI) BLACK HOLES:When the mass of black holes become smaller, they become warmer. When they become warmer, their radiation increases and they lose mass. They become warmer and they radiate further. At last, when they come to saturation, they explode terribly. A Black hole as big as the Sun explodes 13.7 billion x 1060years after it first starts to radiate. But a black hole whose mass is as big as a small mountain would explode in a time period as long as the age of Universe (13.7 billion). The exploded black holes radiateGamma Rays (G).

(Here, again let’s go to the “New Theory of Everything” in the Part Four. All of the scien-tists agree that Big-Bang didn’t start in one location, but everywhere in the Universe at the same time. It means that at the last phase of the previous Anti-Material Universe,the entire Universe became a Black hole. This black hole pulled all of the Anti-Materials at the same time and demolished them. No mass was left and also no mass gravity power was left. With the big Kinetic Energy of Anti Material-Material approach, first the Quasars which are formed by Subatomic Particles appeared and then Galaxy and Starswhich are formed by the first atoms appeared. I think it’s worth investigating if the BBS (Big-Bang Star) in the annexes at the end of the book constitutes the geometry of the core of Quasars and our Universe.

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ADDITIONAL EVOLUTION AND DRAWINGS ON ASTRAL UNIVERSE

FIG.2 A BLACK HOLE

FIG.5 ZODIACS AROUND THE WORLD

FIG.5 COMPARISON OF THE DIMENSIONS OF EARTH, MOON AND GIZA (BIG) PYRAMID

FIG.1 UNIVERSE, MILKY WAY, GALAXY

AND SOLAR SYSTEM TOGETHER

FIG.4 STAR CLUSTERS AT NIGHT (CONSTELLATION)

FIG 6. QUADRANT FIG.7 ASTROLABE

(INSTRUMENTS FOR OBSERVING THE SKY)

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B) ATOMIC UNIVERSE:

I) SUBATOMIC particles:

In the year 1932, “Cyclotron”was the only device to spin and accelerate the triple PARTICLES OF atom (See ANNEX-IIiat the end of the book) to a very high speed and throw on the target, using the Electric and Magnetic fields. After the Second World War, Accelerators like “Betatron”, later “Syn-chrotron” and “Cosmotron” were developed. Thanks to such devices which can accelerate the elementary PARTICLES OF atom up to nearly the speed of light and collide one with the other, new particles as a result of those collisions were examined and knowledge about Atom was improved.

For example, two quark particles (named as “Meson”) appeared because of the collision of Pro-ton with another Proton. Since those were unstable, they were breaking up after 1/1 million seconds and they were transforming to Electron (Ɵ)and Photons (γ). Some of dozens of types of those ephemeral Mesons are shown in the “Dual PARTICLES OF Atom” table in ANNEX-IIh.When a Proton was col-lided with another Proton faster and more severely, ephemeral triple particles named as Baryon(AN-NEX-IIi) which were heavier than proton and Neutron, appeared by means of resulting bigger energy. In a short time, they transformed to Protons and Photons. Mesonsand Baryonsare together called as Hadron,and Strong Nucleus Force manages the interaction between them.

Most of the particles indicated in the table of Elementary PARTICLES OF Atom (ANNEX-IIe, h, i) have been introduced by means of particle collision tests in the accelerators. Also today, Particleand Anti Particlepairs can be produced in the laboratories using energy.

With the planet rotation around the Sun in the Universe and electron rotation around the nucleus of atom, Astral Universeis reflected over the Atomic Universe. As, while the planets rotate around themselves, they also rotate around the Sun at the same time; electrons’ rotating around themselves while rotating around nucleus is defined as “SPIN” word in the table of elementary particles (See ANNEX-IIe, f, g, h, i). As can be seen in the Subatomic Particles tables, not only the Electron,rotations of other all Particlesand Anti-Particles around themselves have their own properties magnetically and angularly, according to the rules of Quantum Mechanics.

As indicated in the above drawing of Proton and Anti-Proton diagrams,the rotation of material particles around themselves is from right to left; the rotation of Anti-Material Parti-cles is from left to right. Rest mass, spins and average life of a Particle and an Anti-Particle are the same; their electrical, Nucleus charges and Magnetic Momentsare the same in value, but their polarities are opposite. In case Material and Anti-Material Atoms collide; both disappear in 1/ 10 million seconds.Energy comes out or Mesons (dual particles) are formed and Proton and Anti -Proton are formed from Mesons. Today known, approved particles shown at the end of the book in ANNEX-IIe “Single PARTICLES OF Atom” table are blue and with the definition of “Reel” were appeared from Graviton.The others are the ‘yet’ unknowns which I foresee to be found in the future. This foresight comes from the assumption of that the first 10 Neutrinos are composed of 10 elementary particles (7 Bosons + 3 Leptons)and later 20 Quarks should have been formed by 20 particles. Now, let’s give some information about the elementary particles one by one:

21

1) GRAVITON and ANTI GRAVITON:They are the PARTICLES OF the “Mass Grav-ity Force”which is one of 4 forces of atom.

2) PHOTON (γ):They are the PARTICLES OF the “Electromagnetic Force”which is one of 4 forces of atom. Electromagnetic interaction is provided by the Photon (γ) exchange between the positive electric charged Protons and negative electric charged Elec-trons (Ɵ). Being light particles, Pho-tons reach from the Sun to the Earth in 8 minutes (in light speed).

3) NEUTRINOS:While energy comes out by means of the connection of Hydrogen nuclei in the center of Sun (Fusion), a big amount of “Neutrino”spreads. The difference of Neutrinos from Photons is that Neutrinos have more penetration power than the electromag-netic radiation. Similar to the Photons, Neutrinos also reach from Sun to the Earth in 8 minutes. It passes through the Earth and goes out from the other side. They travel in the space freely. 100 billion Neutrinos pass from every cm2 on Earth in one second. Neutrinos are the PARTICLES OF the “Weak Nucleus Force”which is one of 4 forces of atom and they interact by means of this force. They have immunity against “Strong Nucleus Force”. It has been proved by experiments that Neutrino whose charge and mass are zero, is composed of two components; and that the second of those interacts with one Proton to form one Neutron and one Positron. One of those two components is Neutrino,the other is Anti-Neutrino.

4) MUONS:They are the particles whose mass is between the mass of Electron (Ɵ)and mass of Nucleon(207 Ɵ). They can be positive and negative. When they disintegrate, Muons are also called as Heavy Electrons.

5) ELECTRONS (Ɵ):While they push each other, an “Energy Quantum”ex-change hap-pens between them. Since the quantum of electromagnetic force is Photon,(Light is also called as Elec-tromagnetic Radiation), the “Electromagnetic Force”between charged particles means a basic “Photon exchange”.

6) QUARKS (Q):They are the PARTICLES OF Strong Nucleus Force and they are being directed by this force. Strong Nucleus Force is being carried by the particles named as “Gluon” (g).In other words, Gluons connect the Quarks together. The power between Quarks doesn’t decrease with the distance between them, on the contrary, in-creases.Every Quark has their Red, Blueand Greencolors (this is not a color as we know). Also there are Quarks with Anti-Red(Purple), Anti-Blue(Yel-low), Anti-Green(Orange) colors. Gluons related with the color of Quarks can be found in ANNEX-IIe,under the Ta-ble of Single PARTICLES OF Atom. The charges of Quarks are equal to 1/3 or 2/3 of the charges of Proton or Electron.

As the Materials are composed of Elements, the elementary particles in the Atom are supposed to appear from Quarks.It is believed that the Strong nucleus forcekeeping Pro-ton and Neutrons together is originated by the Gluons which are exchanged between Quarks which compose Proton and Neutrons. This is similar to the exchange of Mesons between the Hadrons or the condition of neutral Atoms in the Molecules. In the Universe, permanent and continuous interaction between materials is provided by means of such a particle exchange. The interaction of electric charged particles is by means of Gluonexchange. Three Quarks of Baryonsare always in different colors. Hadrons(Baryon and Mesons) are colorless. Also there are no color charges of Leptons, Photons and W+, W-, Z0bosons.That’s why they are not interacting with Strong Nucleus Force.

+

+

+

+

+

_

_

+

e

e

e

Ancient Divine Light by Tamer KUTDOĞA

22

7) MESONS: They are the particles with two Quarks which are given in ANNEX-IIh. One or more Meson cloud surrounds the Proton and Neutrons in the nucleus of atom. The energy exchange in the nucleus of atom is by means of “Mesons”which are the exchange PARTICLES OF Strong Nucleus Force.The Mesons around Proton and Neutrons are neutral. But + and – Mesons are being exchanged between them. For example Neutron gives up negative Meson and becomes a Proton. Picking up the negative Meson, Protonbecomes a Neutron. In case Pi-Mesonis left alone, (ANNEX-IIh) a Muonbecomes a Neutrino par-ticle in 1/40 million seconds. If a Positroncollides with an Electron (Ɵ),it becomes Pi-Meson (ud).Pi-Meson is used for the exchange of Strong Nucleus Force.In the Nucleus, a Meson travelling from one Nucleon to the other, causes the energy of the Nucleon it has left to decrease and the energy of Nucleon which picked it up to increase. The effective distances of Nucleus force and Mesons are the same. (10-15m) (ANNEX-IIh)

Examples of disintegration of some particles and transform to other parti-cles:

The particles which are shown at the end of the book in ANNEX-IIe“Single PARTICLES OF Atom” table were appeared from Gravitonand Photonparticles which have been present in the Big-Bangcollision which is the beginning of the Universe. In the tables; Bosons which are the

8) BARYONS:They are the triple particles as given inANNEX-IIi.

Pi-Mesons:

HYDROGEN

ATOM

23

Bosonswhich are the single particles after the today known Graviton are in the first place; next are the Fermions(Leptons and Quarks) which are again single particles. Mesonsappear from the mutual com-binations of Quark and Anti Quark;and Baryons and Nucleonsappear from the triple combinations. As is known, next Atom elements appear from Nucleon combinations, Moleculesappear from the com-binations of atoms of various Elements, Compoundsin the Universe appear from the combination of molecules and Creaturesappear from the combination of Compounds.

Those virtual geometries are given in Part Four, Last Words of New Theory of Everything, under “C) The Reasons of Why the Code of Universal Fact is the “Triangular Pyramid”

Which is the Geometry of Mawlawi Dervish”.

III) RADIATIONS: It is possible to have a look at the tables in ANNEX-Ie, f, h, iabout this sub-ject. Below are some PARTICLES OF atom, various radiations and the area they are originated, shown on a “Helium Atom”model with two Protons, two Neutrons and two Electrons.

II) VIRTUAL GEOMETRIES FORMED

BY SUBATOMIC particles

10-7 MR

10-5-6 MR

10-5-7 MR

10-6

10-9 MR

10-10 MR

10-14 MR

10-15 MR

10-18 MR

Ancient Divine Light by Tamer KUTDOĞA

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The PARTICLES OF weak nucleus W+, W-, Z°and Neutrinoforces which are effective only in the nu-cleus provide the interaction in the nucleus.

If there are + and – electric charges on a static object, then a “Electric field”appears around this object. If there are + and – electric charges on a dynamic object, then a “Magnetic field”appears around this object. The effect of a Magnetic field is only on the travelling elec-tric charges.

Above are two radiation belts (Van Allen belts) appearing around the Earth because of the inter-action of cosmic rays (Particles) from the space with the Magnetic field of the Earth. They prevent the high energetic and harmful cosmic rays from reaching to the Earth.

1) ELECTRO/MAGNETIC WAVES:

A change in the Magnetic fieldon any points in the space, immediately causes a change in the Electric fieldon the same point. In case the changes in the electric and magnetic fields happen periodi-cally on a point, it causes “Electromagnetic Wave”propagation in the space. This wave can be seen in the following drawing. Electric field (E) and Magnetic fields(M)af-fect the other both as pushing and pulling.

Among the Electromagnetic Radio Waves;“Micro Waves” are between 1mm and 10cm, “Tele-vision Waves”are between 10cm and 10m, “Short waves”are between 10m and 100m, and “Medium Waves”are between 100 m and 1000 m. Those waves are used to transmit the radio broadcast to very distant locations on Earth by reflecting from theIono-sphere layer of Atmosphere. The radio waves whose wavelength is between 1 km and 100 km are “Long Wave”broadcasts.

BELOW IS THE ELECTRIC CUR-RENT GENERATED AROUND A MAGNET BAR. IF + AND – CHARGES ARE REPLACED PERIODICALLY, ALTERNATIVE CURRENT IS PRODUCED

DIRECTION OF ELECTRONS

CONDUCTOR WITH ELECTRIC CURRENT FLOWING THROUGH IT

+ DIRECTION OF FLOW

WAVES

MESON CLOUDS AROUND

PROTON AND NEUTRONS

HELIUM ATOM

GRAVITON

25

2) PHOTON and GRAVITON:

PHOTON: (γ)The electrons rotating on specific orbits don’t propagate radiation energy. As in the Helium atom in the previous page, Radiationhappens only as a photon propagation to the outside equal to the energy difference between two levels during the elec-trons rotating on the high energetic upper orbit pass to the lower energetic lower orbit.

PHOTON:

Besides, every object above the absolute zero (absolute zero= 273C°) gives up Radiation(Radi-ation, Electromagnetic wave). Energy in the atom comes out as Photon particles. Among the radio waves which are of the longest wavelength of Electro-Magnetic Waves (The wavelength of radio waves is approximate 100 km), rays like Radio Waves, Television Waves, Radar Waves, Micro Waves, In-frared light, Y-Ray Waves, light visible by the human beings(Wavelength between 4000 A° and 7500 A°), Ultraviolet light, X-Ray and Gamma Ray, (Wavelengths>0.1 A°) are photons whose energy levels are different (ANNEX-If).

PHOTONS;As can be seen above, they are formed by the Electromagnetic wave packages (Light quantums). While the energies of those wave packages increase, their fre-quencies(number of vibrations in one second) also increase. Wavelengths get shorter and rather show “Particle” properties. The more their energy decrease, the more their frequency decrease, their wavelengths lengthens and they rather show “Wave”properties. While the “Light”seems like travelling on a straight line, on the micro level, this line is in Quantum (dis-continuous) structure, in packages or pieces. Every quanta includes energy as much as E= h x nwhere n=Frequency of light, h=Quanta constant= 6.62x1027ERG/seconds (ERG/sec= energy unit).

GRAVITON: They are the PARTICLES OF the “Mass Gravity Force”which is one of 4 forc-es of atom. Gravitation areas affect each other only on the gravitationdirection. In the micro objects, this gravitation is in trace quantity; in the macro objects the bigger the mass, the stronger the gravitation force.

Ancient Divine Light by Tamer KUTDOĞA

26

3) BLACK BODY:The rays entering from the hole on the wall of an object whose inner walls are painted in black (as shown above), are absorbed completely by the walls as a result of reflections on the inner walls of the object and they cannot go out. Black body is the strongest radiation source at the same time. The more the heat of Black body increases, the shorter the wavelength of the light it radiates, and the higher its energy. The energy of radiation energy is maximum for 4700 A° wavelengthand 6000-6500 K° temperature.Black body radiates or absorbs in all possible frequencies. All of the light particles (Photons) in the Black body have the same speed (speed of light). But as can be seen above in the Black Body, those light particles have different energy, frequency and wavelengths. They don’t collide with one another. Black body absorbs energy as much as it radiates.The number of photons in the object doesn’t remain constant. Every time new photons can be formed, as well as some of them disappears. In other words, they are absorbed.

4) VISIBLE LIGHT: It is the radiation in the form of light. “Visible Light”which is the visible part of Electromagnetic Waves,is a combination of seven colors. Below are the wavelengths of colors of the light:

The combination of those colors seems us like a normal light.

5) ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT:Those are the outermost orbits of atom, the source of light. In case an electron is given up, the remaining electrons connect to the nucleus stronger. To break off another electron from the atom, if we didn’t give enough energy to break off the electron from the atom, electron gives up radiation as Ultraviolet Raywhile it goes back to the upper orbit. In case it returns to the lower orbit which the previous electron has emptied, electron gives up radiation as Visible Light.

6) INFRARED RAYS:They appear from the vibrations between atoms and mole-cules. It is the radiation coming from Sun. We sense it as heat. Infrared light is obtained by ceramic plates made of special soil and which are heated by conducting electricity from the re-sistances inside them. Heat is energy similar to sound. Heat appears from all motions of atoms and molecules.

7) RADIOACTIVITY (Radioactive Disintegration):There are 118 elements in the ta-ble of elements starting from Hydrogenatom which includes one Proton and one Elec-tron (ANNEX-II-Ia);Taking Hydrogen as 1, as the Proton numbers increase (Z=Proton number)(Atomic number)

BLACK OBJECT:

BLACK OBJECT:

ENTERING LIGHT

COLOR

WAVELENGTHS

PURPLE

4000-4500 A°

BLUE

4500-5000 A°

GREEN

5000-5700 A°

YELLOW

5700-5900 A°

ORANGE

5900-6100 A°

RED

6100-7500 A°

VISIBLE LIGHT

27

different elements are obtained. Proton number of Hydrogen (in other words its atomic number) is 1; it is 2 for Helium and 3 for Lithium.

8) GAMMA RAYS: Their wavelengths are >0,1A0(Angstrom) or shorter. When a radioactive nucleus Alpha Particlespreads and disintegrates, the appeared “Maiden Nucleus”becomes activated and spreads “Gamma Photons”while it comes to the lower energy level or basic form. This condition is similar to the promulgation of a “Light Photon”or an “X-ray Photon”from the electron orbits, while returning of an activated atom to the basic form. The most important difference is that the energy level steps in the nucleus are much bigger than the electron level steps and the energies and frequencies of Gamma Photonscaused by the nucleus are very high and wavelengths are very short, accordingly.

ɤGAMMA

RADIOACTIVE ATOM

(θ)

β

-

BETA

(2 2 )

α

+

ALPHA

LEAD

θ

(2 2 )

(ENERGY)

a (2 , 2 )

Rn (RADON)

a (2 , 2 )

Pb (LEAD)

FOR EXAMPLE:

Ra (RADIUM)

RADIUM TRANSFORMS TO RADON IF 1 ALPHA PARTICLE IS RADIATED

}

}

POLONIUM TRANSFORMS TO LEAD IF 1 ALPHA PARTICLE IS RADIATED

Po(POLONIUM)

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Although the electron level steps are approximately 1eV(Electro Volt), the energy level steps are approximately 0.1MeV(Micro Electro Volt) in the Nucleus.In other words, it is 100 thousand times bigger.

Beta rays: They are the electrons whose energy level is approximately 10MeV.

Alpha rays:They are the Helium nuclei (2 Protons, 2 Neutrons) whose energy level is approx-imately 20MeV (Micro Electro Volt).

Gamma rays are Photons whose energy level is minimum 1.02 MeV (Micro Electro Volt).

When a high energy “Gamma Photon” enters into the radius of a heavy nucleus, it disin-tegrates by giving up 1 electron and 1 positron. When a Positron combines with an Electron, both of them disappear and 2 Gamma ray Photons appear. “Alpha Particles”which are spread by the Radioactive Elements have approximately the same speed and energy. This condition reminds us the possibility that the particles are collected in the nu-cleus on specific levels, as the electrons do around the nucleus. In oth-er words, the possibility of that the particles can be rotating on some of the orbits one around another. Of course there is a dense collection in the nucleus. It can be compared with the center of the galaxies. The most stable ones in all nuclei are the ones whose Proton number is equal to the Electron number(N=Z)and the atom nuclei with the lowest energy.

9) X-RAYS: They are composed of Photons. When high energetic electrons collide in a high speed with a metal surface, they transfer all or some of their energy to the electrons of the metal they have collided. Picking up the energy, electrons of the metal leap out. The energy which is lost during the electron on the upper orbit returns to the emptied lower orbit comes out as X-Ray. X-rays are electro-magnetic waves which have a small wavelength, very high frequency and high energy. [Wavelengths are between 0.1 and 100 A0(Angstrom)] They can penetrate from extra thick and liquid mediums since they are neutral, since they have a very short wavelength and high energy.

10) RADIO WAVES and MICROWAVES(Annex-If): Radio Wavesare the Electro-magnetic Waves which have the longest wavelength (between 1 mm and 100 km). Among the radio waves; Short Waveshave a wavelength between 100m and 10m, Medium Waveshave a wavelength between 100m and 1000m, Long Waveshave a wavelength be-tween 1 km and 100 km.

Microwaveshave a wavelength between 1mm and 1m. They are used for Radar and Ra-dio com-munication. Radio waves are used to transmit radio broadcast to very long distances around the world by reflecting the waves from the ionosphere layer of the atmosphere. Those waves are not always as a result of an energy yield between atom and molecules. Those are formed as a result of an electric cur-rent passing on a conductor whose strength and direction change relative to time; and thus, as a result of changing of the electric and magnetic fields peri-odically. At the same time, being influenced with a peri-odical force; the molecules in the solid, liquid and gas environments, tend to diverge because of the field alterations and condition of the environment. Those are formed by the motions of charged PARTICLES OF atom. Also some of the electrons leap out because of very fast rotation of Neutron Stars. But they return back with the gravity. The energy they lose spreads to the space as Microwaves. In case the frequency of waves sent from a Microwave transmitter is equal to the vibration or rotation fre-quency of the molecules constituting the environment, absorption reaches to its maximum value.

11) TELEVISION WAVES:They appear by transforming the energy of electron motions in the transmitter systems into waves. Television Waves have a wavelength between 10cm and 10m.

12) COSMIC RADIATIONS (UNIVERSE RADIATIONS):“Sub-atom Particles”in other words “Cosmic Rays”coming from the space in very high speed and energy

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