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Adolf Hitler was a German politician who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germanyfrom 1933 to 1945, and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945. As dictator, he initiated World War II in Europe with the invasion of Poland in September 1939, and was central to the Holocaust.
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Family of origin
Childhood and youth
The genesis of anti-Semitism during the youth years
World War I
Germany in defeat
The Republic of the Councils
The National Socialist Party
The program of the National Socialist Party
The Thule Gesellschaft
The model offered by Italian fascism and by Mussolini
The race to power
The National Socialist regime
World War II: the victories
World War II: the defeat
Adolf Hitler was a German nationalist politician, Reich Chancellor from 1933 and dictator, with the title Führer of Germany from 1934 to 1945.
Head of the German Social Workers' National Socialist Party, as well as the main connoisseur of National Socialism, Hitler conquered power by riding the wounded pride of the German people after the defeat in the First World War and the grave economic crisis that afflicted the Weimar Republic.
Using his oratory skills and dissatisfaction with the middle classes, he presented a political manifestation of nationalism, anti-communism and anti-Semitism and after alternate events,
Arrived at the Chancellery in January 1933.
In 1934, after the death of President Paul von Hindenburg, the title of Führer and Chancellor of the Reich was lawfully attributed, stating in his hands the powers of the state and establishing a dictatorial regime.
Thanks to a powerful and effective program of economic restructuring and military rearmament, Hitler pursued an extremely aggressive foreign policy, mainly aimed at expanding the Lebensraum (living space) of Germany at the expense of the peoples of Eastern Europe. In a series of challenges to the international community, he came to invade Poland on September 1, 1939, causing the outbreak of World War II.
Since then, Hitler personally conducted war operations, exercising a decisive influence on strategic choices and operational leadership.
Thanks to its decisions and its determination, the early years of the conflict were characterized by impressive victories, which allowed the Third Reich to dominate most of Europe and seemed to demonstrate the invincibility of the Wehrmacht. However, since 1942, with the formation of the powerful coalition of the Anglo-American-Soviet Allies, Germany had to pass on the defensive and undergo the increasingly effective attacks of its enemies.
Abandoned by the allies, worn out by continued defeats and increasingly precarious physical and psychic conditions, Hitler refused to surrender his weapons and continued stubbornly.
He remained locked up with his faithful troops in a Berlin now encircled by the Red Army, and committed suicide in his bunker on April 30, 1945, along with his companion Eva Braun, who married the day before.
Responsible for the deaths of millions of people, Hitler was a proponent of a nationalist and racist ideology, and a policy of discrimination and extermination that struck various ethnic, political and social groups. Slav populations, Roman ethnicities, Jehovah's Witnesses, homosexuals, political opponents , Members of Freemasonry, prisoners of war, physical and mental disabilities, and especially Jews. Since 1933, segregated from the social and economic life of the country, Jews and other minorities have been subject since 1941 to an internment and extermination plan known as the final solution, to which we have been referring since the postwar period The term of Shoah of the Holocaust. The word genocide was coined by Jewish Raphael Lemkin in a 1944 opera on Nazi extermination policies.
Hitler always tried to hide the events of his ascendants by omitting or distorting the truth, telling at that time only the episodes that could be useful to propaganda for his image.
So his family tree remained, for a long time, partially wrapped in mystery.
Already at that time, Heinrich Himmler commissioned his inquiries to ascertain the presence of any Jewish ancestry.
The name "Hitler", also in the form of "Hiedler", "Hüttler" or "Huettler", would come from Hütte "hut", or by hüten "guard, shepherd"; Alternatively it may not have a Germanic origin, but a Slavic, probably Czech, with the surname "Hidlar" and "Hidlarček".
The surname of Hitler's paternal grandmother, "Schicklgruber", was supposed to be of Jewish origin, although historians have denied that claim.
Nevertheless, in Eastern Europe, especially in Poland, in Ukraine and in Lithuania, there were actually Jewish families who had their surname "Hiedler" and "Hüttler", although there is no trace of a possible emigration to Austria or, if this has actually happened, of their possible kinship with the grandmother of the future dictator. During the years of the Weimarfuron Republic there were several rumors about his alleged Jewish lineage, many of which were advocated by Josef Greiner, an Austrian writer hostile to Hitler, who however claimed to know his family well.
He later remarked that Hitler's surname was a construct, as Jewish surnames in the Germanic world were typically (and they are).
The surname "Hitler" comes from the noun "Hut", or "hat", but also "guard "And in fact Hitler's father worked as a customs guard. On October 14, 1933, an article appeared on the London Daily Mirror newspaper, accompanied by an explicit photograph showing the image of a funeral tombstone in a Jewish cemetery in Bucharest, Romania, bearing the epitaph of a certain Adolf Hitler, probably a Grandfather of the future dictator.
Hitler's, Hiedler's, Huttler's, and other variants are not so rare in Hitler's native region, Upper Austria; Neither are the surnames of the relatives of the dictator, both the Pötzl and Schicklgruber, so much so that Himmler's investigations did not approve to certain conclusions.
In any case, it was concluded that "Hitler" was a "fake", comodo Alois, the father of the future dictator, born in 1837, was the illegitimate son of Maria Schicklgruber and unknown father.
He had his maternal grandfather up to thirty-nine years and succeeded, perhaps through a parish priest and a notorious companion, to convince the church of Döllersheim and Mistelbach (Upper Austria) to be given the surname of the late husband of his mother, such as Johann Georg Hiedler, Died twenty years earlier, but nevertheless refused to recognize her paternity. In fact, he had a brother, Johann Nepomuk.
The latter had the surname "Hiedler", while in other documents it seems that the surname was "Hüttler". Johann Nepomuk took care of Alois baby and many historians hypothesized that he was the real biological father of the boy. The fact that Alois himself became the heir to her legacies.
Ultimately, to silence all these arrangements, the pastor has probably deliberately overthrown Alois's surname, which since 1877 officially became "Hitler." Adult Alois Hitler then entered as a customs officer at the border of Upper Austria.
In her life she had three wives: Anna Glassl, older and more wealthy than her, married in 1873, when she had not yet changed her surname in "Hitler", divorced in 1880 due to her many extramarital affairs.
Glassl died in 1883 at the age of sixty, and Alois was able to retire with his second wife, Franziska Matzelberger, from whom he had two sons: a male Alois and a female, Angela, from whom descended Angelika Raubal, his nephew who was so dear to the future dictator. With the birth of the second-born son, his second wife died in 1884. Alois married his third and last wife, Klara Pölzl, in 1885. Adolf Hitler later confided to his closest associates that - precisely because of this fraternal paternal behavior - mixed with a crude character and incapable of affection - attempted to impose on itself the narrowest monogamy and irreproachable moral behavior (at least in public) even to all who belonged to his entourage.
Hitler's mother, Klara Pölzl, was born in 1860, originally from the village of Spital-Weitra. She served as a maid and a housekeeper. Being his mother a "Hiedler" is therefore likely that Alois and Klara were related, so that the pastor of Braunau am Inn rejected the marriage request for reasons of consanguinity at first.
So it seems that the two had to ask the intercession of Pope Pius IX to marry.
Of the six sons of the couple Adolf was the fourth and the only male to have reached healthy adulthood; In fact, the older brothers were all die diphtheria, the first two to two years, Gustav (1885-1887) and Ida (1886-1888), while the third, Otto (1887-1887) shortly after birth; his younger brother, Edmund, survived until six years (1894-1900). The last-born, Paula (1896-1960), had a modest degree of mental retardation. In 1906 Klara suffered a mastectomy because of the onset of a breast cancer, but died the following year.
Adolf Hitler was born at 6.30 pm on Easter Saturday, April 20, 1889 in Braunau am Inn, in the "Gasthof Zum Pommern" (in Italian: "Locanda del Pomerano", a three-storey building in Biedermeier style of 1826 which housed the customs still exist, although in September 2016 the Austrian government would have expropriated and decided on what to do, being the protected building as a historic building, transforming it into a museum or more likely to rattle it to the ground in order to discourage the gathering of nostalgic neo-Nazis) in the township ("Vorstadt") number 219, not far from where Napoleon Bonaparte had established his headquarters in 1805 during the war campaign culminating with his victory at Austerlitz. The demolition of the building had already been planned by the dying Nazi regime in order not to fall into the hands of the Red Army moving from the east, but was rescued by the US Army that first reached Hitler's native town on May 2, 1945 .
In front of Hitler's birthplace is now a tombstone commemorating the victims of Nazism. It reads literally: "For Frieden, Freiheit und Demokratie, nie wieder Faschismus.
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