A Select Collection of Valuable and Curious Arts and Interesting Experiments - Various - ebook
Opis

Learn classic valuable and curious arts including Water-proof gilding and silvering, The art of burnish gilding, Ornamental bronze gilding, enamel picture glasses with gold, wash iron or steel with gold, wash brass or copper with silver, give wood a gold, silver, or copper lustre, print gold letters on morocco, dye silk a brilliant gold colour, silver looking glasses, write on paper with gold or silver, make good shining black ink, and lots more!

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Table of Contents

1. Water-proof gilding and silvering

2. The art of burnish gilding

3. Ornamental bronze gilding

4. To enamel picture glasses with gold

5. To wash iron or steel with gold

6. To wash brass or copper with silver

7. To give wood a gold, silver, or copper lustre

8. To print gold letters on morocco

9. To dye silk a brilliant gold colour

10. To dye silk a brilliant silver colour.

11. To silver looking glasses

12. To write on paper with gold or silver

13. To make good shining black ink

14. Blue ink

15. Red ink

16. Yellow ink

17. Green ink

18. Purple ink

19. To write in various colours with the same pen, ink and paper

20. Sympathetic inks for secret correspondence—Process 1

21. Process 2

22. Process 3

23. Process 4

24. Process 5

25. Process 6

26. Process 7

27. Luminous ink that will shine in the dark

28. To make a writing appear and disappear at pleasure

29. To make a writing vanish and another appear in its place

30. To restore old writing that is nearly defaced

31. To paint a picture that will appear and disappear occasionally

32. Landscape painting on walls of rooms

33. To paint in figures for carpets or borders

34. To paint in imitation of mahogany and maple

35. The art of painting on glass

36. Best method of polishing steel

37. To make letters or flowers of blue, on polished steel

38. To preserve the brightness of polished steel

39. To give steel a temper to cut marble

40. To wash iron or steel with copper

41. To give iron the whiteness of silver

42. To wash iron with tin

43. To give tin the whiteness and brilliancy of silver

44. To give tin a changeable crystalline appearance

45. To make a gold coloured varnish for tin

46. To make shellac varnish for japanning

47. To make the best copal varnish

48. To make a spirit varnish for pictures and fancy boxes

49. To make elastic varnish for umbrellas, or hat cases

50. To varnish maps and pictures

51. To make brunswick blacking for picture glasses

52. To make a print appear on a gold ground

53. Best method of tracing or copying a picture

54. The construction and use of a copying machine

55. To produce the exact likeness of any object, instantly on paper

56. Copper-plate engraving

57. Etching on copper plates

58. Engraving and scraping in mezzotinto

59. Etching in aqua-tinta

60. Copper-plate printing

61. Etching letters or flowers on glass

62. To print figures with a smooth stone

63. To cut glass with a piece of iron

64. Best cement for joining glass

65. Best cement for joining china or crockery

66. To make a strong water proof glue

67. The art of moulding figures in relief

68. To cast images in plaster

69. To produce embossed letters, or figures on marble

70. To soften stone

71. To change wood apparently, to stone

72. To render wood, cloth or paper fire-proof

73. To produce fire readily—Process 1

74. Process 2

75. Process 3

76. To make super-combustible matches

77. To make gun powder

78. To make the common fulminating powders

79. To make the mercurial fulminating powder

80. To kindle a fire under water

81. To light a candle by application of ice

82. To form letters or flowers of real flame

83. To produce flame of various colours

84. To make sky-rockets and fire wheels

85. To produce detonating balloons

86. To prepare a phial that will give light in the dark

87. To make a person’s face appear luminous in the dark

88. To freeze water in warm weather

89. To change the colours of animals

90. To give leather a beautiful metallic lustre

91. An easy method of extracting the essence of roses

92. To prepare various kinds of essences

93. To prepare soda water

94. To produce metallic trees—Process 1

95. Process 2

96. To tin copper by boiling

97. A metal that will melt in hot water

98. Illustration of calico printing

99. To prepare an imitation of gold bronze

100. To procure the exhilarating gas

101. Construction of a galvanic pile or battery

102. Construction of the oxy-hydrogen blow-pipe

103. To make a dry phosphorescent powder

104. Curious experiment of precipitation

105. To make a beautiful soft glass for jewelry

106. Composition of various kinds of glass

107. Composition of various alloys

108. To produce various kinds of gas

109. Various chemical tests

110. To produce a picture instantly, in a variety of colours

111. A cheap imitation of silver bronze

112. To make crayons of various colours

113. To make hard sealing wax, of various colours

114. The art of manufacturing paper hangings

115. To make elastic blacking for leather

116. Sundry Experiments

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. Water-proof gilding and silvering

2. The art of burnish gilding

3. Ornamental bronze gilding

4. To enamel picture glasses with gold

5. To wash iron or steel with gold

6. To wash brass or copper with silver

7. To give wood a gold, silver, or copper lustre

8. To print gold letters on morocco

9. To dye silk a brilliant gold colour

10. To dye silk a brilliant silver colour.

11. To silver looking glasses

12. To write on paper with gold or silver

13. To make good shining black ink

14. Blue ink

15. Red ink

16. Yellow ink

17. Green ink

18. Purple ink

19. To write in various colours with the same pen, ink and paper

20. Sympathetic inks for secret correspondence—Process 1

21. Process 2

22. Process 3

23. Process 4

24. Process 5

25. Process 6

26. Process 7

27. Luminous ink that will shine in the dark

28. To make a writing appear and disappear at pleasure

29. To make a writing vanish and another appear in its place

30. To restore old writing that is nearly defaced

31. To paint a picture that will appear and disappear occasionally

32. Landscape painting on walls of rooms

33. To paint in figures for carpets or borders

34. To paint in imitation of mahogany and maple

35. The art of painting on glass

36. Best method of polishing steel

37. To make letters or flowers of blue, on polished steel

38. To preserve the brightness of polished steel

39. To give steel a temper to cut marble

40. To wash iron or steel with copper

41. To give iron the whiteness of silver

42. To wash iron with tin

43. To give tin the whiteness and brilliancy of silver

44. To give tin a changeable crystalline appearance

45. To make a gold coloured varnish for tin

46. To make shellac varnish for japanning

47. To make the best copal varnish

48. To make a spirit varnish for pictures and fancy boxes

49. To make elastic varnish for umbrellas, or hat cases

50. To varnish maps and pictures

51. To make brunswick blacking for picture glasses

52. To make a print appear on a gold ground

53. Best method of tracing or copying a picture

54. The construction and use of a copying machine

55. To produce the exact likeness of any object, instantly on paper

56. Copper-plate engraving

57. Etching on copper plates

58. Engraving and scraping in mezzotinto

59. Etching in aqua-tinta

60. Copper-plate printing

61. Etching letters or flowers on glass

62. To print figures with a smooth stone

63. To cut glass with a piece of iron

64. Best cement for joining glass

65. Best cement for joining china or crockery

66. To make a strong water proof glue

67. The art of moulding figures in relief

68. To cast images in plaster

69. To produce embossed letters, or figures on marble

70. To soften stone

71. To change wood apparently, to stone

72. To render wood, cloth or paper fire-proof

73. To produce fire readily—Process 1

74. Process 2

75. Process 3

76. To make super-combustible matches

77. To make gun powder

78. To make the common fulminating powders

79. To make the mercurial fulminating powder

80. To kindle a fire under water

81. To light a candle by application of ice

82. To form letters or flowers of real flame

83. To produce flame of various colours

84. To make sky-rockets and fire wheels

85. To produce detonating balloons

86. To prepare a phial that will give light in the dark

87. To make a person’s face appear luminous in the dark

88. To freeze water in warm weather

89. To change the colours of animals

90. To give leather a beautiful metallic lustre

91. An easy method of extracting the essence of roses

92. To prepare various kinds of essences

93. To prepare soda water

94. To produce metallic trees—Process 1

95. Process 2

96. To tin copper by boiling

97. A metal that will melt in hot water

98. Illustration of calico printing

99. To prepare an imitation of gold bronze

100. To procure the exhilarating gas

101. Construction of a galvanic pile or battery

102. Construction of the oxy-hydrogen blow-pipe

103. To make a dry phosphorescent powder

104. Curious experiment of precipitation

105. To make a beautiful soft glass for jewelry

106. Composition of various kinds of glass

107. Composition of various alloys

108. To produce various kinds of gas

109. Various chemical tests

110. To produce a picture instantly, in a variety of colours

111. A cheap imitation of silver bronze

112. To make crayons of various colours

113. To make hard sealing wax, of various colours

114. The art of manufacturing paper hangings

115. To make elastic blacking for leather

116. Sundry Experiments

1. WATER-PROOF GILDING AND SILVERING

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THIS KIND OF GILDING, USUALLY termed oil gilding, being the cheapest and most durable, is in general use for gilding or silvering letters on signs, labels, &c. and may be performed as follows:—Grind one ounce of white lead and two ounces of litharge, very fine, in a gill of old linseed oil, and if convenient, add nearly one-fourth of a gill of old copal varnish, and half an ounce of stone yellow; but neither of these last, are very essential ingredients. Expose this composition to the rays of the sun for a week or more in a broad open vessel, observing, however, to keep it free from dust. Then pour off the finest part, and dilute it with as much spirits of turpentine as will make it work freely with a brush or camel-hair pencil. (Oil that will answer exceedingly well for this purpose, may sometimes be collected from the top of oil paints that have been long standing, and may be used directly, without being exposed to the sun as directed above.) Whatever letters or figures you would gild, must be first drawn or painted with this sizing, the ground having been previously painted and varnished; and when the sizing is so dry as to be hard, but yet remains slightly adhesive, or sticky, lay on gold or silver leaves smoothly over the whole, pressing them down gently with a soft ball of cotton. The most convenient manner of performing this, is to lay the leaves of gold or silver, first on a piece of deer-skin or glove-leather, and cut them into pieces of a convenient size, by drawing a smooth (not sharp) edged knife over them. Then take a small block of wood, of a triangular form, about half an inch thick, and two inches in diameter, and bind a strip of fine flannel round the edges;—breathe on this, and press it gently on a piece of the leaf, which by this may be taken from the leather, and carried to any part of the sizing where it will best fit, and to which it will readily adhere: thus the sizing may be readily covered with the leaf, very little of which will be wasted. Afterward the whole may be brushed over lightly with cotton, or a soft brush, and the superfluous gold or silver will be brushed off, leaving the letters or figures entire. When the work has thus remained two or three days, it may be rubbed with a piece of silk, which will increase its metallic lustre. Note.—It is very essential that the varnish of the ground should be thoroughly dry, that it may not be adhesive in the least degree, otherwise the leaf will stick where it should not, and materially injure the work. When plain gilding is required for vanes, balls, &c. the leaves of gold or silver may be applied to the work directly from the book, without cutting or dividing them.

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2. THE ART OF BURNISH GILDING

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MAKE A SIZING BY BOILING the skins of beaver and musk rats, (which may be readily procured at a hat manufactory,) in water, till it is of sufficient strength that by cooling it will become a stiff jelly; strain the liquor while warm, and give your work one coat of it with a brush; when this is dry, add a little fine whiting to the sizing, and give the work one coat of this. Then add as much whiting as will work freely under the brush, and lay on five or six coats of this, allowing each a sufficient time to dry. Smooth the work by wetting it, and rubbing it with a piece of pumice stone, which should be previously cut and fitted to the moulding or other work that is to be gilt; afterward, when the work is dry, rub it with some fine sand paper. Then take some burnish-gold-size (which is composed of pipe-clay, plumbago, beef tallow and castile soap, but may be easily procured ready made,) and dilute it with water till it is of the consistence of very soft putty, and afterward with the above mentioned sizing till it will flow freely from a brush, and give the work three successive coats of this; when the last is dry, dip a camel-hair pencil in a mixture of equal quantities of rum and water, and with it wet a small part of the work, and immediately, while it is flowing, lay on a leaf of gold, brushing it down with a very soft, flat camel-hair brush, with which also, the leaf is usually conveyed from the book to the sizing; proceed thus till the whole is gilt, and let it dry. When the work is sufficiently dry to take a fair polish by burnishing, (which can be only ascertained by applying the burnisher to different parts of the work occasionally while it is drying,) rub over the whole carefully with a flint burnisher, or with the tooth of a wolf or dog, being fixed in a convenient handle, till the whole acquires a brilliant polish, except such parts as are required to remain in a rough-gilt state, which parts are usually flatted by a coat of thin sizing. Such are the principal rules of the art of burnish gilding; but as this business requires some variation of management, according to the state of the weather and other circumstances, it may not be expected that any person should become very expert in the art, without the advantage of some experience and practice.

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3. ORNAMENTAL BRONZE GILDING

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THIS IS PERFORMED BY MEANS