[This chapter is based on
Luke 1:5-23, 57-80; 3:1-18; Matt.3:1-12; Mark 1:1-8.]
From among the faithful in Israel, who had long waited for the
coming of the Messiah, the forerunner of Christ arose. The aged
priest Zacharias and his wife Elisabeth were "both righteous before
God;" and in their quiet and holy lives the light of faith shone
out like a star amid the darkness of those evil days. To this godly
pair was given the promise of a son, who should "go before the face
of the Lord to prepare His ways."
Zacharias dwelt in "the hill country of Judea," but he had gone
up to Jerusalem to minister for one week in the temple, a service
required twice a year from the priests of each course. "And it came
to pass, that while he executed the priest's office before God in
the order of his course, according to the custom of the priest's
office, his lot was to burn incense when he went into the temple of
He was standing before the golden altar in the holy place of the
sanctuary. The cloud of incense with the prayers of Israel was
ascending before God. Suddenly he became conscious of a divine
presence. An angel of the Lord was "standing on the right side of
the altar." The position of the angel was an indication of favor,
but Zacharias took no note of this. For many years he had prayed
for the coming of the Redeemer; now heaven had sent its messenger
to announce that these prayers were about to be answered; but the
mercy of God seemed too great for him to credit. He was filled with
fear and self-condemnation.
But he was greeted with the joyful assurance: "Fear not,
Zacharias: for thy prayer is heard; and thy wife Elisabeth shall
bear thee a son, and thou shalt call his name John. And thou shalt
have joy and gladness; and many shall rejoice at his birth. For he
shall be great in the sight of the Lord, and shall drink neither
wine nor strong drink; and he shall be filled with the Holy Ghost…
. And many of the children of Israel shall he turn to the Lord
their God. And he shall go before Him in the spirit and power of
Elias, to turn the hearts of the fathers to the children, and the
disobedient to the wisdom of the just; to make ready a people
prepared for the Lord. And Zacharias said unto the angel, Whereby
shall I know this? for I am an old man, and my wife well stricken
Zacharias well knew how to Abraham in his old age a child was
given because he believed Him faithful who had promised. But for a
moment the aged priest turns his thought to the weakness of
humanity. He forgets that what God has promised, He is able to
perform. What a contrast between this unbelief and the sweet,
childlike faith of Mary, the maiden of Nazareth, whose answer to
the angel's wonderful announcement was, "Behold the handmaid of the
Lord; be it unto me according to thy word"! Luke 1:38.
The birth of a son to Zacharias, like the birth of the child of
Abraham, and that of Mary, was to teach a great spiritual truth, a
truth that we are slow to learn and ready to forget. In ourselves
we are incapable of doing any good thing; but that which we cannot
do will be wrought by the power of God in every submissive and
believing soul. It was through faith that the child of promise was
given. It is through faith that spiritual life is begotten, and we
are enabled to do the works of righteousness.
To the question of Zacharias, the angel said, "I am Gabriel,
that stand in the presence of God; and am sent to speak unto thee,
and to show thee these glad tidings." Five hundred years before,
Gabriel had made known to Daniel the prophetic period which was to
extend to the coming of Christ. The knowledge that the end of this
period was near had moved Zacharias to pray for the Messiah's
advent. Now the very messenger through whom the prophecy was given
had come to announce its fulfillment.
The words of the angel, "I am Gabriel, that stand in the
presence of God," show that he holds a position of high honor in
the heavenly courts. When he came with a message to Daniel, he
said, "There is none that holdeth with me in these things, but
Michael [Christ] your Prince." Dan. 10:21. Of Gabriel the Saviour
speaks in the Revelation, saying that "He sent and signified it by
His angel unto His servant John." Rev. 1:1. And to John the angel
declared, "I am a fellow servant with thee and with thy brethren
the prophets." Rev. 22:9, R. V. Wonderful thought—that the angel
who stands next in honor to the Son of God is the one chosen to
open the purposes of God to sinful men.
Zacharias had expressed doubt of the angel's words. He was not
to speak again until they were fulfilled. "Behold," said the angel,
"thou shalt be dumb, … until the day that these things shall
be performed, because thou believest not my words, which shall be
fulfilled in their season." It was the duty of the priest in this
service to pray for the pardon of public and national sins, and for
the coming of the Messiah; but when Zacharias attempted to do this,
he could not utter a word.
Coming forth to bless the people, "he beckoned unto them, and
remained speechless." They had waited long, and had begun to fear,
lest he had been cut down by the judgment of God. But as he came
forth from the holy place, his face was shining with the glory of
God, "and they perceived that he had seen a vision in the temple."
Zacharias communicated to them what he had seen and heard; and "as
soon as the days of his ministration were accomplished, he departed
to his own house."
Soon after the birth of the promised child, the father's tongue
was loosed, "and he spake, and praised God. And fear came on all
that dwelt round about them: and all these sayings were noised
abroad throughout all the hill country of Judea. And all they that
heard them laid them up in their hearts, saying, What manner of
child shall this be!" All this tended to call attention to the
Messiah's coming, for which John was to prepare the way.
The Holy Spirit rested upon Zacharias, and in these beautiful
words he prophesied of the mission of his son:
"Thou, child, shalt be called the
prophet of the Highest;
For thou shalt go before the face of the Lord to prepare His
To give knowledge of salvation unto His people
By the remission of their sins,
Through the tender mercy of our God,
Whereby the Dayspring from on high hath visited us,
To give light to them that sit in darkness and in the shadow
To guide our feet into the way of peace."
"And the child grew, and waxed strong in spirit, and was in the
deserts till the day of his showing unto Israel." Before the birth
of John, the angel had said, "He shall be great in the sight of the
Lord, and shall drink neither wine nor strong drink; and he shall
be filled with the Holy Ghost." God had called the son of Zacharias
to a great work, the greatest ever committed to men. In order to
accomplish this work, he must have the Lord to work with him. And
the Spirit of God would be with him if he heeded the instruction of
John was to go forth as Jehovah's messenger, to bring to men the
light of God. He must give a new direction to their thoughts. He
must impress them with the holiness of God's requirements, and
their need of His perfect righteousness. Such a messenger must be
holy. He must be a temple for the indwelling Spirit of God. In
order to fulfill his mission, he must have a sound physical
constitution, and mental and spiritual strength. Therefore it would
be necessary for him to control the appetites and passions. He must
be able so to control all his powers that he could stand among men
as unmoved by surrounding circumstances as the rocks and mountains
of the wilderness.
In the time of John the Baptist, greed for riches, and the love
of luxury and display had become widespread. Sensuous pleasures,
feasting and drinking, were causing physical disease and
degeneracy, benumbing the spiritual perceptions, and lessening the
sensibility to sin. John was to stand as a reformer. By his
abstemious life and plain dress he was to rebuke the excesses of
his time. Hence the directions given to the parents of John,—a
lesson of temperance by an angel from the throne of heaven.
In childhood and youth the character is most impressible. The
power of self-control should then be acquired. By the fireside and
at the family board influences are exerted whose results are as
enduring as eternity. More than any natural endowment, the habits
established in early years decide whether a man will be victorious
or vanquished in the battle of life. Youth is the sowing time. It
determines the character of the harvest, for this life and for the
life to come.
As a prophet, John was "to turn the hearts of the fathers to the
children, and the disobedient to the wisdom of the just; to make
ready a people prepared for the Lord." In preparing the way for
Christ's first advent, he was a representative of those who are to
prepare a people for our Lord's second coming. The world is given
to self-indulgence. Errors and fables abound. Satan's snares for
destroying souls are multiplied. All who would perfect holiness in
the fear of God must learn the lessons of temperance and
self-control. The appetites and passions must be held in subjection
to the higher powers of the mind. This self-discipline is essential
to that mental strength and spiritual insight which will enable us
to understand and to practice the sacred truths of God's word. For
this reason temperance finds its place in the work of preparation
for Christ's second coming.
In the natural order of things, the son of Zacharias would have
been educated for the priesthood. But the training of the
rabbinical schools would have unfitted him for his work. God did
not send him to the teachers of theology to learn how to interpret
the Scriptures. He called him to the desert, that he might learn of
nature and nature's God.
It was a lonely region where he found his home, in the midst of
barren hills, wild ravines, and rocky caves. But it was his choice
to forgo the enjoyments and luxuries of life for the stern
discipline of the wilderness. Here his surroundings were favorable
to habits of simplicity and self-denial. Uninterrupted by the
clamor of the world, he could here study the lessons of nature, of
revelation, and of Providence. The words of the angel to Zacharias
had been often repeated to John by his God-fearing parents. From
childhood his mission had been kept before him, and he had accepted
the holy trust. To him the solitude of the desert was a welcome
escape from society in which suspicion, unbelief, and impurity had
become well-nigh all-pervading. He distrusted his own power to
withstand temptation, and shrank from constant contact with sin,
lest he should lose the sense of its exceeding sinfulness.
Dedicated to God as a Nazarite from his birth, he made the vow
his own in a life-long consecration. His dress was that of the
ancient prophets, a garment of camel's hair, confined by a leather
girdle. He ate the "locusts and wild honey" found in the
wilderness, and drank the pure water from the hills.
But the life of John was not spent in idleness, in ascetic
gloom, or in selfish isolation. From time to time he went forth to
mingle with men; and he was ever an interested observer of what was
passing in the world. From his quiet retreat he watched the
unfolding of events. With vision illuminated by the divine Spirit
he studied the characters of men, that he might understand how to
reach their hearts with the message of heaven. The burden of his
mission was upon him. In solitude, by meditation and prayer, he
sought to gird up his soul for the lifework before him.
Although in the wilderness, he was not exempt from temptation.
So far as possible, he closed every avenue by which Satan could
enter, yet he was still assailed by the tempter. But his spiritual
perceptions were clear; he had developed strength and decision of
character, and through the aid of the Holy Spirit he was able to
detect Satan's approaches, and to resist his power.
John found in the wilderness his school and his sanctuary. Like
Moses amid the mountains of Midian, he was shut in by God's
presence, and surrounded by the evidences of His power. It was not
his lot to dwell, as did Israel's great leader, amid the solemn
majesty of the mountain solitudes; but before him were the heights
of Moab, beyond Jordan, speaking of Him who had set fast the
mountains, and girded them with strength. The gloomy and terrible
aspect of nature in his wilderness home vividly pictured the
condition of Israel. The fruitful vineyard of the Lord had become a
desolate waste. But above the desert the heavens bent bright and
beautiful. The clouds that gathered, dark with tempest, were arched
by the rainbow of promise. So above Israel's degradation shone the
promised glory of the Messiah's reign. The clouds of wrath were
spanned by the rainbow of His covenant-mercy.
Alone in the silent night he read God's promise to Abraham of a
seed numberless as the stars. The light of dawn, gilding the
mountains of Moab, told of Him who should be as "the light of the
morning, when the sun riseth, even a morning without clouds." 2
Sam. 23:4. And in the brightness of noontide he saw the splendor of
His manifestation, when "the glory of the Lord shall be revealed,
and all flesh shall see it together." Isa. 40:5.
With awed yet exultant spirit he searched in the prophetic
scrolls the revelations of the Messiah's coming,—the promised seed
that should bruise the serpent's head; Shiloh, "the peace giver,"
who was to appear before a king should cease to reign on David's
throne. Now the time had come. A Roman ruler sat in the palace upon
Mount Zion. By the sure word of the Lord, already the Christ was
Isaiah's rapt portrayals of the Messiah's glory were his study
by day and by night,—the Branch from the root of Jesse; a King to
reign in righteousness, judging "with equity for the meek of the
earth;" "a covert from the tempest; … the shadow of a great
rock in a weary land;" Israel no longer to be termed "Forsaken,"
nor her land "Desolate," but to be called of the Lord, "My
Delight," and her land "Beulah." Isa. 11:4; 32:2; 62:4, margin. The
heart of the lonely exile was filled with the glorious vision.
He looked upon the King in His beauty, and self was forgotten.
He beheld the majesty of holiness, and felt himself to be
inefficient and unworthy. He was ready to go forth as Heaven's
messenger, unawed by the human, because he had looked upon the
Divine. He could stand erect and fearless in the presence of
earthly monarchs, because he had bowed low before the King of
John did not fully understand the nature of the Messiah's
kingdom. He looked for Israel to be delivered from her national
foes; but the coming of a King in righteousness, and the
establishment of Israel as a holy nation, was the great object of
his hope. Thus he believed would be accomplished the prophecy given
at his birth,—
"To remember His holy
That we being delivered out of the hand of our enemies
Might serve Him without fear,
In holiness and righteousness before Him, all the days of our
He saw his people deceived, self-satisfied, and asleep in their
sins. He longed to rouse them to a holier life. The message that
God had given him to bear was designed to startle them from their
lethargy, and cause them to tremble because of their great
wickedness. Before the seed of the gospel could find lodgment, the
soil of the heart must be broken up. Before they would seek healing
from Jesus, they must be awakened to their danger from the wounds
God does not send messengers to flatter the sinner. He delivers
no message of peace to lull the unsanctified into fatal security.
He lays heavy burdens upon the conscience of the wrongdoer, and
pierces the soul with arrows of conviction. The ministering angels
present to him the fearful judgments of God to deepen the sense of
need, and prompt the cry, "What must I do to be saved?" Then the
hand that has humbled in the dust, lifts up the penitent. The voice
that has rebuked sin, and put to shame pride and ambition, inquires
with tenderest sympathy, "What wilt thou that I shall do unto
When the ministry of John began, the nation was in a state of
excitement and discontent verging on revolution. At the removal of
Archelaus, Judea had been brought directly under the control of
Rome. The tyranny and extortion of the Roman governors, and their
determined efforts to introduce the heathen symbols and customs,
kindled revolt, which had been quenched in the blood of thousands
of the bravest of Israel. All this intensified the national hatred
against Rome, and increased the longing to be freed from her
Amid discord and strife, a voice was heard from the wilderness,
a voice startling and stern, yet full of hope: "Repent ye; for the
kingdom of heaven is at hand." With a new, strange power it moved
the people. Prophets had foretold the coming of Christ as an event
far in the future; but here was an announcement that it was at
hand. John's singular appearance carried the minds of his hearers
back to the ancient seers. In his manner and dress he resembled the
prophet Elijah. With the spirit and power of Elijah he denounced
the national corruption, and rebuked the prevailing sins. His words
were plain, pointed, and convincing. Many believed him to be one of
the prophets risen from the dead. The whole nation was stirred.
Multitudes flocked to the wilderness.
John proclaimed the coming of the Messiah, and called the people
to repentance. As a symbol of cleansing from sin, he baptized them
in the waters of the Jordan. Thus by a significant object lesson he
declared that those who claimed to be the chosen people of God were
defiled by sin, and that without purification of heart and life
they could have no part in the Messiah's kingdom.
Princes and rabbis, soldiers, publicans, and peasants came to
hear the prophet. For a time the solemn warning from God alarmed
them. Many were brought to repentance, and received baptism.
Persons of all ranks submitted to the requirement of the Baptist,
in order to participate in the kingdom he announced.
Many of the scribes and Pharisees came confessing their sins,
and asking for baptism. They had exalted themselves as better than
other men, and had led the people to entertain a high opinion of
their piety; now the guilty secrets of their lives were unveiled.
But John was impressed by the Holy Spirit that many of these men
had no real conviction of sin. They were timeservers. As friends of
the prophet, they hoped to find favor with the coming Prince. And
by receiving baptism at the hands of this popular young teacher,
they thought to strengthen their influence with the people.
John met them with the scathing inquiry, "O generation of
vipers, who hath warned you to flee from the wrath to come? Bring
forth therefore fruits meet for repentance; and think not to say
within yourselves, We have Abraham to our father: for I say unto
you, that God is able of these stones to raise up children unto
The Jews had misinterpreted God's promise of eternal favor to
Israel: "Thus saith the Lord, which giveth the sun for a light by
day, and the ordinances of the moon and of the stars for a light by
night, which divideth the sea when the waves thereof roar; The Lord
of hosts is His name: If those ordinances depart from before Me,
saith the Lord, then the seed of Israel also shall cease from being
a nation before Me forever. Thus saith the Lord; If heaven above
can be measured, and the foundations of the earth searched out
beneath, I will also cast off all the seed of Israel for all that
they have done, saith the Lord." Jer. 31:35-37. The Jews regarded
their natural descent from Abraham as giving them a claim to this
promise. But they overlooked the conditions which God had
specified. Before giving the promise, He had said, "I will put My
law in their inward parts, and write it in their hearts; and will
be their God, and they shall be My people… . For I will forgive
their iniquity, and I will remember their sin no more." Jer. 31:33,
To a people in whose hearts His law is written, the favor of God
is assured. They are one with Him. But the Jews had separated
themselves from God. Because of their sins they were suffering
under His judgments. This was the cause of their bondage to a
heathen nation. Their minds were darkened by transgression, and
because in times past the Lord had shown them so great favor, they
excused their sins. They flattered themselves that they were better
than other men, and entitled to His blessings.
These things "are written for our admonition, upon whom the ends
of the world are come." 1 Cor. 10:11. How often we misinterpret
God's blessings, and flatter ourselves that we are favored on
account of some goodness in us! God cannot do for us that which He
longs to do. His gifts are used to increase our self-satisfaction,
and to harden our hearts in unbelief and sin.
John declared to the teachers of Israel that their pride,
selfishness, and cruelty showed them to be a generation of vipers,
a deadly curse to the people, rather than the children of just and
obedient Abraham. In view of the light they had received from God,
they were even worse than the heathen, to whom they felt so much
superior. They had forgotten the rock whence they were hewn, and
the hole of the pit from which they had been digged. God was not
dependent upon them for the fulfilling of His purpose. As He had
called Abraham out from a heathen people, so He could call others
to His service. Their hearts might now appear as lifeless as the
stones of the desert, but His Spirit could quicken them to do His
will, and receive the fulfillment of His promise.
"And now also," said the prophet, "the ax is laid unto the root
of the trees: therefore every tree which bringeth not forth good
fruit is hewn down, and cast into the fire." Not by its name, but
by its fruit, is the value of a tree determined. If the fruit is
worthless, the name cannot save the tree from destruction. John
declared to the Jews that their standing before God was to be
decided by their character and life. Profession was worthless. If
their life and character were not in harmony with God's law, they
were not His people.
Under his heart-searching words, his hearers were convicted.
They came to him with the inquiry, "What shall we do then?" He
answered, "He that hath two coats, let him impart to him that hath
none; and he that hath meat, let him do likewise." And he warned
the publicans against injustice, and the soldiers against
All who became the subjects of Christ's kingdom, he said, would
give evidence of faith and repentance. Kindness, honesty, and
fidelity would be seen in their lives. They would minister to the
needy, and bring their offerings to God. They would shield the
defenseless, and give an example of virtue and compassion. So the
followers of Christ will give evidence of the transforming power of
the Holy Spirit. In the daily life, justice, mercy, and the love of
God will be seen. Otherwise they are like the chaff that is given
to the fire.
"I indeed baptize you in water unto repentance," said John; "but
He that cometh after me is mightier than I, whose shoes I am not
worthy to bear: He shall baptize you with the Holy Ghost and with
fire." Matt. 3:11, R. V., margin. The prophet Isaiah had declared
that the Lord would cleanse His people from their iniquities "by
the spirit of judgment, and by the spirit of burning." The word of
the Lord to Israel was, "I will turn My hand upon thee, and purely
purge away thy dross, and take away all thy tin." Isa. 4:4; 1:25.
To sin, wherever found, "our God is a consuming fire." Heb. 12:29.
In all who submit to His power the Spirit of God will consume sin.
But if men cling to sin, they become identified with it. Then the
glory of God, which destroys sin, must destroy them. Jacob, after
his night of wrestling with the Angel, exclaimed, "I have seen God
face to face, and my life is preserved." Gen. 32: 30.
Jacob had been guilty of a great sin in his conduct toward Esau;
but he had repented. His transgression had been forgiven, and his
sin purged; therefore he could endure the revelation of God's
presence. But wherever men came before God while willfully
cherishing evil, they were destroyed. At the second advent of
Christ the wicked shall be consumed "with the Spirit of His mouth,"
and destroyed "with the brightness of His coming." 2 Thess. 2:8.
The light of the glory of God, which imparts life to the righteous,
will slay the wicked.
In the time of John the Baptist, Christ was about to appear as
the revealer of the character of God. His very presence would make
manifest to men their sin. Only as they were willing to be purged
from sin could they enter into fellowship with Him. Only the pure
in heart could abide in His presence.
Thus the Baptist declared God's message to Israel. Many gave
heed to his instruction. Many sacrificed all in order to obey.
Multitudes followed this new teacher from place to place, and not a
few cherished the hope that he might be the Messiah. But as John
saw the people turning to him, he sought every opportunity of
directing their faith to Him who was to come.